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Farquhar , 



An  ecclesiastical 





'      CONTAINIXa    THE 

i.ibcs  of  ^ttctettt  ^ati^ers  mttr  iPlotian  Bihim^, 







VOL.  V. 


F.    AND    J.    EIVINGTON  ; 





There  are  two  or  three  names  wbicli  might  be 
expected,  but  which  are  not  to  be  found,  in  the 
present  volume  of  the  Ecclesiastical  Biography. 
We  are  so  accustomed  to  regard  Grotius  as  a 
divine,  from  the  celebrity  of  his  theological  writ- 
ings, that  some  persons  are  apt  to  forget  that  he 
was  a  statesman,  not  an  ecclesiastic.  It  w^as  ne- 
cessary to  draw  the  line  somewhere,  and  it  would 
be  difficult,  if  not  impossible  to  make  the  selection,, 
were  not  the  rule  adhered  to,  of  inserting  the  names- 
of  those  only  who  were  connected  with  the  ministry,, 
either  orthodox  or  heretical,  or  who  w^ere  the  found- 
ers of  sects. 

Again,  the  venerated  names  of  Hobart  and  Jebb, 
both  of  them,  and  especially  the  latter,  very  dear  to 
the  author,  do  not  appear,  because  it  has  been 
thought  advisable  to  exclude  the  names  of  those 
Divines  who  flourished  in  the  present  century.     In 

the  earlier  parts  there  has  been  an  occasional  devia- 
tion from  this  course,  but  it  was  accidental  and  had 
reference  to  names  not  much  distinguished.  In 
modern  biographies  there  is  a  minuteness  of  detail 
which  would  render  such  abbreviation  as  the  present 
work  would  require,  extremely  difficult.  It  is  pro- 
posed, therefore,  to  publish  such  lives,  together  with 
those  of  laymen  who  have  been  engaged  in  theologi- 
cal discussions,  in  a  Supplementary  Volume. 

The  reader  is  indebted  for  the  Life  of  Fox  the 
Martyrologist,  to  the  Eev.  S.  K.  Maitland,  F.E.S. 
and  F.S.A.,  Librarian  to  the  late  Archbishop  of 

W.  F.  H. 

Jan.  1849. 



It  is  doubtful  whether  this  distinguished  man  was  a 
native  of  Scotland  or  of  Ireland.  He  was  born  in  the 
early  part  of  the  ninth  century.  Wliether  he  travelled 
into  the  East  is  a  matter  of  dispute,  but  it  is  beyond  all 
doubt  that  he  was  deeply  versed  in  both  the  language 
and  philosophy  of  the  Greek  empire.  With  the  writings 
of  Aristotle  and  Plato  he  was  certainly  acquainted,  and 
on  the  works  of  these  philosophers  he  lectured  in  the 
Schola  Palatii  of  Charles  the  Bald.  Of  his  intimacy  with 
Charles  the  Bald,  we  have  an  instance  given  in  a  repartee 
recorded  by  William  of  Malmesbury.  They  were  sitting 
opposite  to  one  another  at  table,  when,  the  cup  having 
passed  freely  round,  Erigena  said  something  which  of- 
fended the  king's  dignity,  upon  which  his  majesty  ex- 
claimed, Quid  distat  inter  sottuA  et  Scotum  ?  what  is 
there  between  sot  and  Scot.  The  breadth  of  the  table, 
was  the  reply.  While  Erigena  resided  at  the  court  of 
France,  he  composed  a  variety  of  works,  which  procured 
him  admirers,  and  also  many  enemies.     Several  of  the 


clergy,  in  particular,  accused  him  of  a  departure  from 
the  prevalent  theology  of  the  age,  especially  on  the  sub- 
ject of  predestination.  This  treatise  may  be  seen  in  the 
VindicisB  Prsedestinationis  et  Gratise,  2  vols,  4to,  1650. 
It  was  addressed  to  Hincmar,  Archbishop  of  Rheims, 
and  to  Pardulus,  Bishop  of  Laon  ;  it  was  written  against 
Gotteschalcus.  He  understands  that  predestination  to 
happiness  is  the  consequence  of  God's  foreseeing  the 
good  which  men  would  voluntarily  do  ;  the  torments  of 
hell  are  the  being  deprived  of  the  enjoyments  of  heaven, 
there  being  no  such  thing  as  material  fire  there  to  punish; 
and  he  enters  upon  various  speculations  concerning  a 
future  state,  which  have  neither  reason  nor  much  proba- 
bility to  support  them. 

Erigena  had  the  high  honour  of  being  among  the  first 
to  oppose  the  doctrine  of  transubstantiation,  which,  having 
lingered  some  time  as  a  superstition,  had  lately  been 
brought  prominently  forward  by  Paschasius  Radbert. 
This  novelty  he  resisted,  and  the  treatise  he  wrote  against 
Paschasius  Radbert,  instead  of  being  referred  to  in  order 
to  convince  modern  Romanists  that  they  have  no  ground 
in  antiquity  for  this  dogma,  was  burnt  at  Rome  in  1059. 
At  the  request  of  the  emperor  Louis  the  Pious,  who 
could  not  read  Greek,  Erigena  translated  into  Latin  the 
treatises  of  Dionysius  the  Areopagite,  (supposed  to  have 
been  the  first  Christian  teacher,  or  apostle,  in  France,) 
On  the  Celestial  Monarchy ;  On  the  Ecclesiastical  Hier- 
archy; On  Divine  Names;  and  On  Mystic  Theology. 
This  translation  was  received  with  great  eagerness  by 
the  western  churches ;  but  as  it  was  made  without  the 
licence  of  the  Pope,  and  contained  many  things  con- 
trary to  the  received  faith  of  the  Church  of  Rome,  the 
Pope,  Nicholas  L,  w^  highly  displeased,  and  wrote  a 
threatening  letter  to  the  French  king,  commanding  that 
Erigena  should  be  banished  from  the  university  of  Paris, 
and  sent  to  Rome.  Charles,  however,  had  too  great  a 
regard  for  our  author  to  comply  with  the  Pope's  order; 


but  Erigena  thought  it  advisable  to  withdraw  from  Paris, 
and,  according  to  some  writers,  took  refuge  in  England. 
To  this  translation  of  the  treatises  of  the  pretended 
Dionysius,  is  to  be  attributed  the  revival  of  the  knowledge 
of  the  Alexandrian  Platonism  in  the  West,  and  the 
foundation  of  the  mystical  system  of  theology,  which 
afterwards  so  generally  and  mischievously  prevailed.  The 
principal  work  of  Erigena  was  his  treatise  On  the  Divi- 
sion of  Nature,  or  the  Natures  of  Things,  which  was  first 
published  at  Oxford,  in  1681,  by  Dr.  Thomas  Gale, 
under  the  title  of  Joannis  Scoti  Erigena  de  Divisions 
Naturae  Libri  quinque,  diu  desiderati.  This  work  is  an 
object  of  literary  curiosity,  as  furnishing  us  with  an  ex- 
traordinary example  of  metaphysical  subtlety  and  acute- 
ness,  for  the  age  in  which  the  author  lived,  which  he 
acquired  by  studying  the  writings  of  the  Greek  philoso- 
phers. According  to  Cave  and  Tanner,  Erigena  took 
refuge  in  England  in  877,  and  was  employed  by  king 
Alfred  in  the  restoration  of  learning  at  the  university  of 
Oxford.  Tanner  asserts,  that  he  was  appointed  professor 
of  mathematics  and  astronomy  in  that  university  in 
the  year  879.  After  continuing  to  teach  there  for  three 
years,  some  differences  took  place  in  the  university, 
which  occasioned  him  to  quit  his  situation,  and  retire  to 
the  abbey  of  Malmsbury,  in  Wiltshire,  where  he  opened 
a  school.  In  this  place,  according  to  the  accounts  of  the 
generality  of  English  writers,  he  was  murdered  by  his 
scholars,  in  883,  Other  writers  suppose  that  the  Eng- 
lish historians  have  confounded  John  Scotus  Erigena 
with  another  John  Scot,  who  was  an  Englishman,  con- 
temporary with  Alfred,  and  who  taught  at  Oxford.  Mac- 
kenzie, in  the  first  volume  of  his  Scotch  writers,  asserts 
that  he  retired  to  England  in  the  year  864,  and  died 
there  about  the  year  874.  Dr.  Henry,  in  the  second 
volume  of  his  History  of  England,  gives  it  as  the  most 
probable  opinion  that  he  died  in  France.  Tennemann, 
speaking  of  him  as  a  philosopher,   says  of  him,  "  His 


acquaintance  with  Latin  and  Greek,  (to  which  some 
assert  he  added  the  Arabic ;)  his  love  for  the  philosophy 
of  Aristotle  and  of  Plato ;  his  translation,  (exceedingly' 
esteemed  throughout  the  West,)  of  Dionysius  the  Areo- 
pagite  ;  his  liberal  and  enlightened  views  (which  the  dis- 
putes of  the  day  called  upon  him  to  express,)  respecting 
predestination  and  the  eucharist, — all  these  entitle  him 
to  be  considered  a  phenomenon  for  the  times  in  which 
he  lived.  Add  to  this,  that  he  regarded  philosophy  as 
the  science  of  the  principles  of  all  things,  and  as  insepa- 
rable from  religion ;  and  that  he  adopted  a  philosophical 
system,  (a  revived  Neoplatonism,)  of  which  the  founda- 
tion was  the  maxim :  That  God  is  the  essence  of  all 
things ;  that  from  the  plenitude  of  His  nature  they  are 
all  derived,  and  to  Him  ultimately  return  ;  {Primordiales 
causa — natura  naturata).  His  labours,  enlightened  by 
so  much  learning  and  suggested  by  so  much  talent,  might 
have  accomplished  more  if  they  had  not  been  bhghted 
by  the  imputation  of  heresy." 

During  a  long  time  he  had  a  place  in  the  list  of  saints 
of  the  Church  of  Rome ;  but  at  length,  on  account  of  its 
being  discovered  that  he  was  orthodox  with  regard  to  the 
doctrine  of  transubstantiation,  Baronius  struck  his  name 
out  of  the  calendar.  A  catalogue  of  his  works  may  be 
seen  in  Cave.  Bale  has  added  to  the  number,  but  pro- 
bably without  sufficient  reason.  The  following  are  all 
that  have  been  printed : — 1.  De  Divisione  Naturse,  Oxon. 
by  Gale,  1681,  fol.  2.  De  Praedestinatione  Dei,  contra 
Goteschalcum,  edited  by  Gilb.  Maguin  in  his  Vindiciae 
Praedestinationis  et  Gratise,  vol.  i.  p.  103.  3.  Excerpta 
de  Differentiis  et  Societatibus  Grseci  Latinique  Verbi,  in 
Macrobius's  works.  4.  De  Corpore  et  Sanguine  Domini, 
1558,  1560,  1653  ;  Lond.  1686,  8vo.  5.  Ambigua  S. 
Maximi,  seu  Scholia  ejus  in  difficiles  Locos  S.  Gregorii 
Nazienzeni,  Latine  versa,  along  with  the  Divisio  Naturae, 
Oxford,  1681,  fol.  6.  Opera  S.  Dionysii  quatuor  in  La- 
,  tinam  Linguam  conversa,  in  the  edition  of  Dionysius, 
Colon.  1536 — Cave.    Baronius.    Henry.    Tennemann. 



John  Erskine,  baron  of  Dun,  was  born  near  Montrose 
in  1508.  At  an  early  period  he  embraced  the  protestant 
religion,  wliich  he  promoted  with  great  zeal,  and  became 
a  preacher,  after  having  been  a  warrior.  He  was  one  of 
the  ecclesiastical  superintendants  appointed  by  the  Scotch 
parliament,  and  in  that  capacity  assisted  in  compiling 
the  book  of  discipline,  or  model  of  church-government. 
He  died  in  1591.  His  life  is  only  of  interest  from  the 
part  he  bore  in  the  presbyterian  reformation.  The  reader 
is  referred  to  the  life  of  Knox. — Gen.  Diet. 


Anthony  Escobar  y  mendoza,  a  Spanish  Jesuit,  and 
Eomish  casuist,  was  born  at  Valladolid  in  1589.  He  wrote 
several  theological  works,  in  which  he  professes  to  smooth 
the  way  to  salvation.  His  principles  of  morality  have 
been  turned  into  ridicule  by  Pascal.  The  most  known 
of  his  books  are,  1.  Moral  Theology,  Lyons,  1663,  7  vols, 
fol. ;  and  2.  Commentaries  on  the  Holy  Scriptures,  Lyons, 
1667,  9  vols,  ioL—Moreri. 


William  Estius,  or  William  Hessels  van  Est,  was 
born  at  Gorcum  in  1542.  He  studied  at  the  universi- 
ties of  Utrecht  and  Louvain,  and  was  afterwards  pro- 
fessor of  theology  and  chancellor  of  the  university  of 
Douay,  where  he  died  in  1613.  His  works  are,  1.  Mar- 
tyrium  Edmundi  Campiani,  societatis  Jesu,  translated 
from  the  French;  Louvain,  1582,  8vo.  2.  Historia 
martyrum  Gorcomensium  majori  numero  fratrum  mino- 
rum,  Douay,  1603,  8vo.  3.  Orationes  Theologicse, 
Douay,  1614,  8vo.  4.  Commentarii  in  quatuor  libros 


Sententiarum,  Douay,  1615,  4  vols,  fol.  reprinted  at 
Paris,  1638,  3  vols,  fol.  Dupin  says  that  in  this,  his 
work  on  the  Master  of  the  Sentences,  he  follows  exactly 
his  author,  without  deviating  into  foreign  questions, 
and  that  it  is  one  of  the  best  theological  works  the 
Roman  Church  can  boast,  and  recommends  it  to  students 
in  divinit}'.  5.  Annotationes  in  pr^ecipua  difficiliora  S. 
Scripturse  loca,  Antwerp,  1621,  fol.,  a  work  on  which  a 
high  value  appears  to  have  been  placed,  as  it  passed 
through  several  editions.  It  resulted  from  the  conferen- 
ces he  held  in  the  seminary  of  Douay,  but,  according  to 
Dupin,  his  observations  are  rather  practical  than  critical. 
6.  In  omnes  B.  Pauli  et  aliorum  apostolorum  epistolas 
Commentaria,  Douay,  1614,  2  vols,  fol.  Dupin  praises 
this  as  one  of  the  best  works  of  the  kind,  but  it  appears 
that  Estius  was  prevented  by  death  from  proceeding 
farther  than  1  John  v.  and  that  the  rest  of  the  commen- 
tary was  supplied  by  Earth,  de  la  Pierre.  He  wrote  also 
some  Latin  verses  and  an  essay,  "  Contra  avaritiam 
scientiae,"  censuring  the  selfishness  of  learned  men  who 
keep  their  improvements  and  discoveries  to  themselves. 
This  is  inserted  in  a  work  by  Francis  Vianen  of  Brussels, 
entitled  "  Tractatus  triplex  de  ordine  amoris,"  Louvain, 
1685,  8vo. — Dupin.    Moreri. 


EucHERius  was  Archbishop  of  Lyons  in  the  fifth 
century.  He  was  married,  but  on  his  wife's  death,  re- 
tired with  his  sons,  Salonius  and  Veranius,  to  the  monas- 
tery of  the  Isle  of  Lerins,  which  he  left  to  continue  a 
solitaiy  life  in  the  Isle  of  Lero,  now  called  St.  Marguerite. 
He  was  called  from  his  ascetic  life  to  the  see  of  Lyons 
about  434  ;  was  present  at  the  first  council  of  Orange  in 
441  ;  and  died  about  454.  He  wrote  a  book  in  praise  of 
the  desert,  addressed  to  St.  Hilary  ;  a  tract  on  the  Con- 


tempt  of  the  World ;  on  Spiritual  Formularies ;  and  a 
History  of  the  Martyrs  of  the  Thebaic  Legion.  His 
works  were  printed  at  Rome  in  1564,  and  are  contained 
in  the  Bibliotheca  Patrum. — Cave.    Dupin.   Moreri. 


EuDoxius,  the  founder  of  a  sect  of  heretics  in  the 
fourth  century^  was  a  native  of  Arabissus  in  Armenia 
Minor.  We  first  hear  of  him  as  Bishop  of  Germanicia, 
but  in  356  he  obtained  by  artifice  the  Patriarchate  of 
Antioch,  where  he  soon  came  forward  as  a  patron  of  the 
Aetians.  Sozomen  says  that,  "When  Eudoxius  found 
himself  in  possession  of  the  Church  of  Antioch,  he  ven- 
tured to  uphold  the  Aetian  heresy  openly.  He  assembled 
in  Antioch  all  those  who  held  the  same  opinions  as  him- 
self, among  whom  were  Acacius,  Bishop  of  Csesarea 
in  Palestine,  and  Uranius,  Bishop  of  Tyre,  and  rejected 
the  terms  '  of  like  substance'  and  - '  con- substantial,' 
under  the  pretext  that  they  had  been  denounced  by  the 
Western  bishops.  Hosius  had  certainly,  with  the  view 
of  arresting  the  contention  excited  by  Valens,  Ursacius, 
and  Germanius,  consented,  though  by  compulsion,  with 
some  other  bishops  at  Sirmium,  to  refrain  from  the  use  of 
the  terms  'con-substantial'  and  'of  like  substance,'  because 
such  terms  do  not  occur  in  the  Holy  Scriptures,  and  are 
beyond  the  understanding  of  men.  Eudoxius  wrote  to 
the  Bishops  as  if  they  all  upheld  what  Hosius  had  ad- 
mitted, and  congratulated  Yalens,  and  Ursacius,  and 
Germanius,  for  having  been  instrumental  in  the  intro- 
duction of  orthodox  doctrines  into  the  V/est." 

Although  he  was  depo#d  at  the  synod  of  Seleucia,  yet 
he  does  not  appear  to  have  ever  vacated  his  see,  and  "on 
Macedonius  being  ejected  from  the  see  of  Constantinople," 
says  Socrates,  "  Eudoxius,  who  now  despised  that  of 
Antioch,  was  promoted  to  the  vacant  bishopric ;  being 


consecrated  by  the  Acacians,  who  in  tliis  instance  cared 
not  to  consider  that  it  was  inconsistent  with  their  former 
proceedings.  For  they  who  had  deposed  Dracontius  be- 
cause of  his  translation  from  Galatia  to  Pergamos,  were 
clearly  acting  in  contrariety  to  their  own  principles  and 
decisions,  in  ordaining  Eudoxius,  who  then  made  a 
second  remove.  After  this  they  sent  their  own  exposition 
of  the  faith,  in  its  corrected  and  supplementary  form,  to 
Eimini,  ordering  that  all  those  who  refused  to  sign  it 
should  be  exiled,  on  the  authority  of  the  emperors 
edict.  They  also  informed  such  other  prelates  in  the 
East  as  coincided  with  them  in  opinion,  of  what  they  had 
done ;  and  more  especially  Patrophilus,  Bishop  of  Scy- 
thopolis,  who  on  leaving  Seleucia,  had  proceeded  directly 
to  his  own  city.  Eudoxius  having  been  constituted 
Bishop  of  the  imperial  city,  the  great  church  named 
Sophia  was  at  that  time  consecrated,  in  the  tenth  consu- 
late of  Constantius,  and  the  third  of  Julian  Caesar,  on 
the  15th  of  February.  It  was  while  Eudoxius  occupied 
this  see,  that  he  first  uttered  that  sentence  which  is  still 
everywhere  current,  '  The  Father  is  impious,  the  So7i  is 
pious.'  When  the  people  seemed  startled  by  this  expres- 
sion, and  a  disturbance  began  to  be  made,  '  Be  not  trou- 
bled,' said  he,  '  on  account  of  what  I  have  just  said  : 
for  the  Father  is  impious  because  He  worships  no  person: 
but  the  Son  is  pious,  because  He  worships  the  Father.' 
With  this  sort  of  badinage  he  appeased  the  tumult,  and 
great  laughter  was  excited  in  the  church  :  and  this  saying 
of  his  continues  to  be  a  jest,  even  in  the  present  day. 
The  heresiarchs  indeed  frequently  devised  such  subtile 
phrases  as  these,  and  by  them  rent  the  Church  asunder. 
Thus  was  the  synod  at  Constantinople  terminated." 

He  obtained  the  see  of  Consrantinople  in  359,  and  re- 
tained it  till  his  death  in  370.  Of  his  works  no  remains 
are  extant,  except  some  fragments  of  a  treatise,  "  De 
Incarnatione  Dei  Verbi ;  to  which  Cave  has  referred. — 
K)Ocrates.    Sozomen.    Theodoret. 



EuGENius,  Bishop  of  Carthage  at  the  close  of  the  fifth 
century,  was  distinguished  by  his  resistance  of  the  Arians. 
In  the  year  483,  Hunneric  ordered  all  the  Catholic 
Bishops  to  hold  a  conference  with  the  Arians,  at  Carthage, 
w^hich  took  place,  and  terminated  in  the  expulsion  of  the 
CathoUcs,  and  establishment  of  the  Arians,  by  Hunneric. 
After  suffering  other  persecutions,  he  retired  to  Langue- 
doc,  and  died  at  Vienne  in  505.  He  wrote  a  Confession 
of  Faith,  which  he  presented  to  Hunneric,  and  so  suc- 
cessfully refuted  the  Arian  heresy,  as  to  reduce  his  ad- 
versaries to  silence. — Cave.   Biblioth.  Patr. 


EuGENius,  Archbishop  of  Toledo  in  the  seventh  cen- 
tury, and  called  the  Younger,  to  distinguish  him  from 
his  immediate  predecessor  of  the  same  name,  was  at  first 
clerk  of  the  Church  of  Toledo,  and  when  chosen  Arch- 
bishop on  the  death  of  the  elder  Eugenius,  retired  to 
Saragossa  with  a  view  to  spend  his  days  in  the  seclusion 
of  a  monastery.  Being  however  discovered,  he  was 
brought  back  to  Toledo  by  order  of  his  sovereign,  and 
appointed  Archbishop  in  646,  an  ofiice  which  he  filled 
for  nine  j^ears.  He  presided  at  the  councils  held  at 
Toledo  in  653,  655,  and  656.  He  was  the  author  of  a 
treatise  on  the  Trinity,  two  books  of  miscellanies,  and  one 
in  prose  and  verse,  which  were  published  by  father  Sir- 
mond  at  Paris  in  1619,  8vo.  There  is  a  continuation  of 
the  work  of  Dracontius  on  the  Creation,  which  he  edited 
and  amended.     He  died  in  657. — Cave.   Diipin. 


EuNOMius,  an  Arian  of  the  fourth  century,  and  founder 
of  a  sect  who  bore  his  name,  was  born  at  Dacora,  in 


Cappadocia,  whence  he  went  to  Alexandria,  where  he 
became  the  disciple  and  secretary  of  Aetius.      Under 
his  instruction  Eunomius  perfected  himself  in  all  dialec- 
tic subtleties,  and  by  his  recommendation  was  ordained 
deacon  by  Eudoxius,  Bishop  of  Antioch,  whom  he  after- 
wards defended  at  Constantinople  against  the  Semi-Arian 
Basil  of  Ancyra.     About  3G0,  Eunomius  was  consecrated 
Bishop  of  Cyzicum,  by  Eudoxius,  but  was  afterwards  de- 
posed by  him.     Theodoret  says,  that  "  Eunomius  in  his 
writings,  highly  extolled  Aetius,   styled  him  the  man  of 
God,  and  bestowed  many  encomiums  on  him ;  still  he 
did  not  refrain  from  intimacy  with  those  who  had  con- 
demned him  ;  and  he  even  received  ordination  from  them, 
being  raised  by  them  to  the  episcopal  dignity.     The  par- 
tisans of  Eudoxius  and  of  Acacius,  who  had  approved  of 
the  formulary  compiled  at  Nice  in   Thrace,    of  which 
mention  has  already  been  made,  ordained  two  Bishops 
in  the  room  of  Basil  and  Eleusius,  whom  they  had  de- 
posed.    As  I  think  it  would  be  superfluous  to  enter  into 
particulars  respecting  the  other  Bishops,  I  shall  only 
relate  what  concerns  Eunomius.    The  government  of  the 
Church  of  Cyzicum  being  seized  by   Eunomius  while 
Eleusius  was  still  living,  Eudoxius,  who  perceived  the 
attachment   of  the   people   to   sound  doctrine,   and  who 
was  also  aware  that  the  emperor  had  expressed  indigna- 
tion against  those  w4io  said  that  the  only  begotten  Son  of 
God  had  been  created,   counselled  Eunomius  to  conceal 
his  sentiments,  and  not  to  let  them  be  known  to  those 
who  were  earnestly  seeking  an  opportunity  for  framing 
accusations  against  him.     '  At  some  future  period,'  said 
he,  '  we  will  preach  that  which  we  now  conceal,  we  will 
instruct  the  ignorant,   and  will  silence   our  opponents 
either  by  arguments,  by  force,  or  by  vengeance.'     Euno- 
mius, in  accordance  with  this  advice,  concealed  his  im- 
piety by  involving  his  doctrines  in  obscure  phraseology. 
But  those  who  were  well  instructed  in  the  holy  Scriptures 
perceived  the  fraud,   and  felt  it  deeply ;  but  they  con- 


ceived  that  the  manifestation  of  any  opposition  would  be 
more  rash  than  prudent.  Under  the  pretence  of  having 
imbibed  heretical  opinions,  they  went  to  his  house,  and 
besought  him  to  expound  to  them  the  truth  which  he 
maintained,  that  they  might  not  be  driven  hither  and 
thither  by  contrary  doctrines.  He  was  led  to  place  confi- 
dence in  them,  and  disclosed  to  them  the  doctrines  w4iich 
he  had  till  then  concealed.  They  then  told  him  that  it 
would  be  exceedingly  unjust  and  impious  if  he  did  not 
communicate  the  truth  to  all  men.  Eunomius  was  de- 
ceived by  these  and  other  similar  arguments,  and  accord- 
ingly divulged  his  blasphemous  opinions  in  the  public 
assemblies  of  the  Church.  They  then,  transported  with 
zeal,  hastened  to  Constantinople,  and  laid  their  accusa- 
tion against  Eunomius,  in  the  first  place,  before  Eudoxius ; 
but  as  he  would  not  receive  it,  they  repaired  to  the  em- 
peror to  complain  to  him  of  the  injury  committed  by 
Eunomius,  whom  they  accused  of  advancing  doctrines 
more  impious  than  the  blasphemies  of  Arius.  The  em- 
peror was  much  incensed  on  receiving  this  information  ; 
and  he  commanded  Eudoxius  to  send  for  Eunomius,  and 
upon  his  conviction  to  deprive  him  of  the  sacerdotal 
office.  Finding  that  Eudoxius  persisted  in  delay,  not- 
withstanding their  numerous  solicitations,  the  accusers 
again  repaired  to  the  emperor,  and  declared  that  Eudoxius 
had  disobeyed  the  command  imposed  on  him,  and  that 
he  suffered  so  great  a  city  to  be  abandoned  to  the  blas- 
phemies of  Eunomius,  Constantius  then  menaced  Eu- 
doxius with  banishment  unless  he  would  bring  him  for- 
ward to  judgment,  and  inflict  upon  him  the  penalties  of 
the  law,  should  he  be  convicted  of  the  crimes  laid  to  his 
charge.  Eudoxius,  terrified  by  these  menaces,  wrote  to 
Eunomius,  desiring  him  to  flee  from  Cyzicum,  and  to 
impute  all  the  blame  to  himself  for  not  having  followed 
the  advice  which  had  been  given  him.  Eunomius  was 
fearful  for  his  own  safety,  and  therefore  retreated.  He 
accused  Eudoxius  of  treachery  and  injustice  towards  him 


and  towards  iVetius.  From  that  time  he  began  to  form 
a  sect  of  his  own.  xUl  those  who  had  previously  held 
the  same  sentiments  as  himself  went  over  to  him,  and 
inveighed  against  the  treachery  of  Eudoxius.  They  were 
called  Eunomians  after  their  leader,  which  name  they 
have  retained  to  this  day.  Eunomius  being  thus  placed 
at  the  head  of  a  faction,  gave  still  greater  weight  by  his 
impiety  to  the  blasphemy  of  Arius.  The  facts  themselves 
clearly  prove,  that  in  making  himself  the  head,of  a  party 
he  was  solely  impelled  by  ambition  and  the  love  of  glo^)^ 
Thus,  when  Aetius  was  condemned  and  banished,  he 
would  not  accompany  him  into  exile,  although  he  had 
previously  declared  him  to  be  a  man  of  God ;  but  he 
continued  on  terms  of  friendship  with  Eudoxius.  When 
his  impiety  had  been  visited  by  a  just  sentence  of  depo- 
sition, he  would  not  submit  to  the  decision  of  the  council, 
but  continued  to  ordain  bishops  and  presbyters,  although 
he  had  himself  been  divested  of  the  episcopal  office." 

He  died  in  394.  St.  Basil  and  the  two  Gregories  wrote 
against  him,  and  his  followers  were  proscribed  even 
among  the  Arians.  Tillemont  gives  a  long  and  minute 
account  of  this  heresiarch. — Theodoret.    Tillemont. 


EusEBius  Pamphilus,  was  born  in  Palestine  about  the 
year  267.  Of  his  parents  we  know  nothing,  but  upon  his 
own  authority  we  can  state  that  he  was  educated  in  Pales- 
tine, and  that  he  then,  while  yet  a  youth,  saw  Constantine, 
at  that  time  forming  one  of  the  senate  of  Diocletian.  He 
was  admitted  into  orders  by  Agapius,  Bishop  of  C^sarea, 
and  with  Pamphilus,  one  of  the  most  distinguished  pres- 
byters of  that  Church,  he  entered  into  a  friendship. 
Pamphilus,  having  formed  a  library,  attached  it  to  a 
school  which  he  instituted  at  Csesarea,  of  which  Eusebius 
seems  to  have  been  the  first  master.     From  that  time 


Eusebius  lived  on  terms  of  the  closest  intimacy  with 
Pamphilus,  and  from  that  circumstance  he  acquired  the 
surname  of  Pamphilus. 

In  the  Diocletian  persecution  Pamphilus  was  thrown 
into  prison,  where  he  was  affectionately  waited  upon  by 
Eusebius,  and  they  wrote,  together,  five  books  in  defence 
of  Origen,  Eusebius  adding  another  after  the  martyrdom 
of  Pamphilus.  He  was  an  eye  witness  of  several  glorious 
martyrdoms,  and  seems  himself  to  have  remained  at  his 
post,  although  Potamon,  Bishop  of  Heraclea,  insinuated 
on  one  occasion,  that  to  save  his  life  he  did,  during  this 
persecution,  offer  incense  to  idols.  Although  Baronius 
has  repeated  as  a  fact  what  w^as  only  thrown  out  as  a 
suspicion,  Valesius  and  Cave  both  shew  the  great  impro- 
bability of  such  a  circumstance.  It  was  not  likely  that  a 
person  guilty  of  such  an  offence  should  ever  be  elected 
to  the  see  of  Antioch.  Eusebius  was  time-serving,  and, 
like  a  man  of  literature,  willing  to  sacrifice  truth  for 
peace,  yet  he  was  not  a  coward. 

Although  the  precise  date  of  Eusebius 's  consecration 
is  not  known,  he  was  certainly  Bishop  of  Csesarea  in  3'20. 
And  he  soon  became  involved  in  the  Arian  controversy. 
As  there  is  some  difficulty  in  understanding  the  part 
taken  by  Eusebius  in  this  contest,  the  reader  shall  be 
presented  with  the  account  of  the  affair  which  is  given 
in  the  life  of  Eusebius,  prefixed  to  the  valuable  edition 
of  his  Ecclesiastical  History  published  by  Valesius. 

Of  his  share  in  the  Arian  controversy,  Valesius  writes 
thus  : — "  Arius,  a  presbyter  of  the  city  of  Alexandria, 
publicly  advanced  some  new  and  impious  tenets  relative 
to  the  Son  of  God,  and  persisting  in  this,  notwithstanding 
repeated  admonition  by  Alexander  the  Bishop,  he  and 
his  associates  in  this  heresy,  were  at  length  expelled. 
Highly  resenting  this,  Arius  sent  letters  with  a  statement 
of  his  own  faith  to  all  the  bishops  of  the  neighbouring 
cities,  in  which  he  complained,  that  though  he  asserted 
the  same  doctrines  w^hich  the  rest  of  the  Eastern  prelates 

VOL.   v.  B 


maintained,  he  had  been  unjustly  deposed  by  Alexander. 
Many  bishops,  imposed  on  by  these  artifices,  and  power- 
fully  excited   by    Eusebius    of  Nicomedia,  who   openly 
favoured  the  Arian  party,   wrote   letters   in  defence   of 
Arius    to  Alexander,   Bishop  of  Alexandria,   entreating 
him  to  restore  Arius  to  his  former  rank  in  the  Church. 
Our  Eusebius  was  one   of  their  number,  whose  letter 
written    to   Alexander,   is   extant   in   the    acts    of    the 
(Ecumenical  Synod.     The  example  of  Eusebius  of  Cae- 
sarea,  was  soon  followed  by  Theodotius  and  Pauhnus, 
the   one  Bishop   of   Laodicea,  the  other  of   Tyre,    who 
interceded  with  Alexander  for  Arius's  restoration.     Since 
Arius    boasted    on   every  occasion   of   this    letter,    and 
by   the   authority   of   such  eminent    men,    drew  many 
into    the    participation  of   his   heresy,    Alexander  was 
compelled  to  write  to  the  other  Eastern  bishops,  shewing 
the  justice  of  the  expulsion  of  Arius.      Two  letters  of 
Alexander's  are  yet  extant ;  the  one  to  Alexander,  Bishop 
of  Constantinople,  in  which  the   former  complains    of 
three   Syrian  bishops,  who,  agreeing   with   Arius,    had 
more  than  ever  inflamed  that  contest,  which  they  ought 
rather  to  have   suppressed.      These   three,    as   may  be 
learned  from  Arius's  letter  to  Eusebius,  Bishop  of  Nico- 
media,  are  Eusebius,  Theodotius,   and  Paulinus.     The 
other  letter  of  Alexander's,  written  to   all  the  bishops 
throughout  the  world,  Socrates  records  in  his  first  book. 
To  these  letters  of  Alexander's,   almost  all  the  Eastern 
bishops  subscribed,  amongst  whom   the  most  eminent 
were   Philogonius,    Bishop   of    Antioch,    Eustathius    of 
Bersea,  and  Macarius  of  Jerusalem. 

"The  bishops  who  favoured  the  Arian  party,  especially 
Eusebius  of  Nicomedia,  imagining  themselves  to  be 
severely  treated  in  Alexander's  letters,  became  much 
more  vehement  in  their  defence  of  Arius.  For  our 
Eusebius  of  Csesarea,  together  with  Patrophilus,  Pauli- 
nus, and  other  Syrian  bishops,  merely  voted  that  it  should 
be  lawful  for  Arius,  as  a  presbyter,  to  hold  assemblies  in 


his  clmrch  ;  at  the  same  time,  that  he  should  be  subject 
to  Alexander,  and  seek  from  him  reconciliation  and  com- 
munion. The  bishops  disagreeing  thus  amongst  them- 
selves, some  favouring  the  party  of  Alexander,  and  others 
that  of  Arius,  the  contest  became  singularly  aggravated. 
To  remedy  this,  Constantine,  from  all  parts  of  the  Roman 
world,  summoned  to  Nicsea,  a  city  of  Bithynia,  a  general 
synod  of  bishops,  such  as  no  age  before  had  seen.  In 
this  greatest  and  most  celebrated  council,  our  Eusebius 
was  far  from  an  unimportant  person.  For  he  both  had 
the  first  seat  on  the  right  hand,  and  in  the  name  of  the 
whole  synod  addressed  the  emperor  Constantine,  who  sat 
on  a  golden  chair,  between  the  two  rows  of  the  opposite 
parties.  This  is  affirmed  by  Eusebius  himself  in  his 
Life  of  Constantine,  and  by  Sozomen  in  his  Ecclesi- 
astical History.  Afterwards,  when  there  was  a  considera- 
ble contest  amongst  the  bishops,  relative  to  a  creed  or 
form  of  faith,  our  Eusebius  proposed  a  formula,  at  once 
simple  and  orthodox,  which  received  the  general  com- 
mendation both  of  the  bishops  and  of  the  emperor  him- 
self. Something,  notwithstanding,  seeming  to  be  wanting 
in  the  creed,  to  confute  the  impiety  of  the  new  opinion, 
the  fathers  of  the  Nicene  council  determined  that  these 
words,    '  Very  God  of  very  God,  begotten  not  made, 

BEING  OF  one  SUBSTANCE  WITH  THE  FaTHER,'  should  be 

added.  They  also  annexed  anathemas  against  those  who 
should  assert  that  the  Son  of  God  was  made  of  things 
not  existing,  and  that  there  was  a  time  when  He  was  not. 
At  first,  indeed,  our  Eusebius  refused  to  admit  the  term 
'  consubstantial,'  but  when  the  import  of  that  word  was 
explained  to  him  by  the  other  bishops,  he  consented,  and 
as  he  himself  relates  in  his  letter  to  his  diocese  at 
Ciesarea,  subscribed  to  the  creed.  Some  affirm*' fhat  it 
was  the  necessity  of  circumstances,  or  the  fear  of  the 
emperor,  and  not  the  conviction  of  his  own  mind,  that 
induced  Eusebius  to  subscribe  to  the  Nicene  council. 
Of  some,  present  at  the  synod,  this  might  be  believed, 


but  this  we  cannot  think  of  Eusebius,  Bishop  of  Csesarea, 
After  the  Nicene  council,  too,  Eusebius  always  condemned 
those  who  asserted  that  the  Son  of  God  was  made  of 
things  not  existing.  Athanasius  likewise  affirms  the 
same  concerning  him,  who,  though  he  frequently  men- 
tions that  Eusebius  subscribed  to  the  Nicene  council, 
nowhere  intimates  that  he  did  it  insincerely.  Had 
Eusebius  subscribed  to  that  council,  not  according  to  his 
own  mind,  but  fraudulently  and  in  pretence,  why  did  he 
afterwards  send  the  letter  we  have  mentioned  to  his 
diocese  at  Csesarea,  and  therein  ingenuously  profess  that 
he  had  embraced  that  faith  which  had  been  published  in 
the  Nicene  council  ?" 

About  the  year  330  he  was  present  at  the  council  of 
Antioch,  in  which  Eustathius,  Bishop  of  that  city,  was 
deposed  :  but  though  he  consented  to  his  deposition,  and 
was  elected  to  the  see  of  Antioch  in  his  room,  he  abso- 
lutely refused  it ;  and  when  the  bishops  wrote  to  Con- 
stantino to  desire  him  to  oblige  Eusebius  to  consent  to 
the  election,  he  wrote  also  to  the  emperor,  to  request  him 
that  he  would  not  urge  him  to  accept  of  it :  which  Con- 
stantino readily  granted,  and  at  the  same  time  com- 
mended his  moderation.  Eusebius  assisted  at  the  council 
of  Tyre  held  in  335  against  Athanasius ;  and  it  was  then 
that  the  charge  made  byPotamon  against  him,  and  alluded 
to  before,  was  made.  From  the  words  already  quoted 
from  Epiphanius,  it  would  seem  that  at  this  council 
Eusebius  presided.  After  that  council,  all  the  bishops 
who  had  assembled  at  Tyre,  repaired,  by  the  emperor's 
orders,  to  Jerusalem,  to  celebrate  the  consecration  of  the 
great  church,  which  Constantino  in  honour  of  Christ  had 
erected  in  that  place.  There  Eusebius  graced  the 
solemnity,  by  the  several  sermons  that  he  delivered.  And 
when  the  emperor,  by  very  strict  letters,  had  summoned 
the  bishops  to  his  own  court,  that  in  his  presence  they 
might  give  an  account  of  their  fraudulent  and  litigious 
conduct  towards  Athanasius,  Eusebius,  with  five  others, 
went    to    Constantinople,    and    furnished    that    prince 


with  a  statement  of  the  whole  transaction.  Here  also, 
in  the  palace,  he  delivered  his  tricennalian  oration,  which 
the  emperor  heard  with  the  utmost  joy,  not  so  much  on 
account  of  any  praises  to  himself,  as  on  account  of  the 
praises  of  God,  celebrated  by  Eusebius  throughout  the 
whole  of  that  oration.  This  oration  was  the  second 
delivered  by  Eusebius  in  that  palace.  For  he  had  be- 
fore made  an  oration  there,  concerning  the  sepulchre  of 
our  Lord,  which  the  emperor  heard  standing ;  nor  could 
he,  although  repeatedly  entreated  by  Eusebius,  be  per- 
suaded to  sit  in  the  chair  placed  for  him,  alleging  that  it 
was  fit  that  discourses  concerning  God  should  be  heard 
in  that  posture. 

How  dear  and  acceptable  Eusebius  w^as  to  Con- 
stantine,  may  be  known  both  from  the  facts  we  have 
narrated,  as  well  as  from  many  other  circumstances.  For 
he  both  received  many  letters  from  him,  as  may  be  seen 
in  the  books  already  mentioned,  and  was  not  unfre- 
quently  sent  for  to  the  palace,  where  he  was  entertained 
at  table,  and  honoured  with  familiar  conversation. 
Constantino,  moreover,  related  to  Eusebius,  the  vision 
of  the  cross  seen  by  him  when  on  his  expedition 
against  Maxentius ;  and  showed  to  him,  as  Eusebius 
informs  us,  the  labamm  that  he  had  ordered  to  be  made 
to  represent  the  likeness  of  that  cross.  Constantine  also 
committed  to  Eusebius,  since  he  knew  him  to  be  most 
skilful  in  Biblical  knowledge,  the  care  and  superinten- 
dency  of  transcribing  copies  of  the  Scriptures,  which  he 
wanted  for  the  accommodation  of  the  churches  he  had 
built  at  Constantinople.  Lastly,  the  book  concerning 
the  Feast  of  Easter,  dedicated  to  him  by  Eusebius, 
was  a  present  to  Constantine,  so  acceptable,  that  he 
ordered  its  immediate  translation  into  Latin ;  and  by 
letter  entreated  Eusebius,  that  he  would  communicate, 
as  soon  as  possible,  works  of  this  nature,  with  which  he 
was  engaged,  to  those  concerned  in  the  study  of  sacred 


About  the  same  time,  Eusebius  dedicated  a  small  book 
to  the  emperor  Constantine,  in  which  was  comprised  his 
description  of  the  Jerusalem  church,  and  of  the  gifts  that 
had  been  consecrated  there, — which  book,  together  with 
his  tricennalian  oration,  he  placed  at  the  close  of  his 
Life  of  Constantine.  This  book  is  not  now  extant. 
At  the  same  time,  Eusebius  wrote  five  books  against 
Marcellus ;  of  which  the  three  last,  "  De  Ecclesiastica 
Theologia,"  he  dedicated  to  Flaccillus,  Bishop  of  Antioch. 
Flaccillus  entered  on  that  bishopric  a  little  before  the 
synod  of  Tyre,  which  was  convened  in  the  consulate  of 
Constantius  and  Albinus,  a.  d.  335.  It  is  certain  that 
Eusebius,  in  his  First  Book  writes  in  express  words,  tbat 
Marcellus  had  been  deservedly  condemned  by  the  Church. 
Kow  Marcellus  was  first  condemned  in  the  synod  held  at 
Constantinople,  by  those  very  bishops  that  had  conse- 
crated Constantino's  church  at  Jerusalem,  in  the  year  of 
Christ  335,  or,  according  to  Baronius,  336.  Socrates, 
indeed,  acknowledges  only  three  books  written  by  Euse- 
bius against  Marcellus,  namely,  those  entitled,  "  De 
Ecclesiastica  Theologia;"  but  the  whole  work  by  Euse- 
bius, against  Marcellus,  comprised  Five  Books.  The 
last  books  written  by  Eusebius,  seem  to  be  the  four  on 
the  life  of  Constantine ;  for  they  were  written  after  the 
death  of  that  emperor,  whom  Eusebius  did  not  long  sur- 
vive. He  died  about  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  Con- 
stantius Augustus,  a  little  before  the  death  of  Constantine 
the  Younger,  which  happened,  according  to  the  testimony 
of  Socrates'  Second  Book,  when  Acindynus  and  Proculus 
were  consuls,  a.  d.  340. 

Eusebius  is  said  to  have  had  the  faults  and  the  virtues 
of  a  mere  man  of  letters :  strongly  excited  neither  to 
good  nor  to  evil,  and  careless  at  once  of  the  cause  of 
truth  and  of  the  prizes  of  secular  greatness,  in  comparison 
of  the  comforts  and  decencies  of  literary  ease.  He  left 
a  vast  number  of  works,  displaying  great  learning  and 
ability.     Of   those  which  are   preserved,    the   principal 


are  : — 1.  The  Apology  for  Origen.  2.  A  Treatise  against 
Hierocles.  3.  Fifteen  books  of  the  Evangelical  Repara- 
tion, and  twenty  of  the  Demonstration.  4.  A  Chronicle 
from  the  earliest  times  to  the  twentieth  year  of  Constan- 
tino. 5.  His  Ecclesiastical  History,  which  embraces  the 
period  from  the  beginning  of  the  Church  to  the  death  of 
Licinius  the  Elder,  being  324  years.  6.  Five  books  on 
the  Incarnation.  7.  Six,  of  Commentaries  on  Isaiah ;  and 
thirty  against  Porphyry.  8.  A  Topography  of  Palestine 
and  the  Temple.  9.  A  Life  of  Pamphilus.  Of  all  these, 
the  Church  History  and  the  Life  of  Constantino  are 
perhaps  the  most  important. — Valesius.  Life  prefixed  to 
Eusehiuss  Eccles.  Hist. 


EusEBius  of  Nicomedia  is  one  of  the  most  unpopular 
characters  of  ecclesiastical  history,  and  was  the  real  organ- 
izer of  the  Arian  faction  of  the  fourth  century.  The 
reader  is  requested  to  refer  to  the  lives  of  Arius  and  of 
St.  Athanasius,  in  order  to  enter  fully  into  the  contro- 
versy with  which  Eusebius  w^as  connected.  Of  his  early 
history  little  is  known :  he  appears  before  us  first  as 
Bishop  of  Berytus  in  Phenicia,  to  which  he  was  preferred, 
as  it  was  said,  in  a  manner  contrary  to  the  canons,  and 
which  gave  some  reason  for  doubting  whether  he  had 
ever  received  valid  consecration.  At  an  early  period  he 
exhibited  sentiments  not  very  favourable  to  the  divinity 
of  our  Saviour ;  but  he  kept  them  to  himself,  for  fear  of 
their  being  an  hindrance  to  his  ambition,  that  aspired  to 
every  thing,  and  to  which  he  made  impiety  and  religion 
indifferently  subservient,  according  as  they  seemed  most 
useful  to  his  purpose,  and  most  likely  to  produce  the  end 
proposed.  He  had  found  means  to  gain  the  good  opinion 
of  Constantia,  sister  to  Constantino  the  great,  and  wife 
to  Licinius ;   and  this  princess,   won  by  his  ingenuity 


and  agreeable  behaviour,  had  taken  care  of  his  fortune, 
and  introduced  him  at  court,  which  was  what  he  very 
passionately  wished  for;  and  there  soon  offered  a  very 
favourable  opportunity  for  one  who,  when  his  interest 
was  concerned,  had  no  regard  to  conscience.  Constantia 
then  usually  resided  at  Nicomedia,  a  very  pleasant  city 
of  Bithynia,  where  Diocletian  had  built  a  magnifi- 
cent palace,  and  which  Licinius,  who,  at  that  time,  pos- 
sessed the  empire  of  the  East,  had  chosen  for  the  place 
of  his  residence.  Eustolius,  Bishop  of  this  city,  dying 
whilst  the  court  was  there,  Eusebius  luckily  happened 
to  be  then  attending  upon  Constantia,  who  would  always 
have  him  near  her  person ;  and  he  easily  prevailed  with 
her  to  use  her  interest  and  power  to  procure  him  to  be 
elected,  in  the  room  of  the  deceased ;  for  he  thought 
nothing  could  be  more  advantageous  to  his  fortune,  than 
that  dignity,  which  afforded  him  an  opportunity  of  being 
admitted  into  a  greater  intimacy  with  the  emperor.  Con- 
stantia seized  with  joy  so  favourable  an  opportunity  of 
advancing  her  favourite ;  she  laboured  for  him  very 
earnestly,  and  found  it  not  very  difficult  to  succeed ;  for 
nobody  could  then  refuse  her  anything,  who  was  sister  to 
one  of  the  masters  of  the  world,  and  wife  to  the  other. 
Eusebius,  as  we  have  said,  was  at  that  time  Bishop  of 
Berytus ;  Berytus  was  a  small  town  of  Phenicia,  by  no 
means  convenient  for  the  great  designs  his  ambition 
made  him  propose  to  himself.  The  canons  allowed  not 
of  such  sort  of  translations  from  one  bishopric  to  another, 
without  the  authority  of  the  Church,  by  the  approbation 
and  common  consent  of  a  number  of  bishops.  But  Euse- 
bius, without  stopping  at  such  troublesome  scruples  as 
might  have  hindered  the  success  of  his  affairs,  made  no 
difficulty  of  leaving  his  first  Church,  and  insolently  taking 
possession,  by  his  own  private  authority,  of  that  of  Nico- 
media, by  virtue  of  an  election  not  authorized  by  lawful 
powers.  Nay,  he  did  much  more  ;  for  in  order  to  secure 
his  fortune,  he  made  no  scruple  of  sacrificing  his  honour 


and  conscience  to  satisfy  his  ambition,  by  favouring 
secretly  the  party  of  Licinius  against  the  Christians 
themselves,  whom  that  tyrant  persecuted,  and  against 
Constantino  too,  with  whom  Licinius,  some  time  after, 
having  made  war,  therein  lost  both  the  empire  and  his 
life.  x\nd  as  a  crime  that  is  attended  with  success  and 
impunity,  often  acquires  strength  and  boldness  to  proceed 
farther,  upon  account  of  its  imaginary  good  fortune, 
Eusebius,  finding  that  the  favour  of  his  protectress  re- 
moved all  obstacles  to  his  usurpation,  and  prevented  the 
punishment  that  was  due  to  it,  thought  (as  Alexander 
reproaches  him  in  his  circular  letter)  that  he  might  dis- 
pose of  every  thing  at  his  pleasure,  without  being  opposed 
by  any  one  :  in  fine,  by  his  ow^n  cunning,  and  the  favour 
of  Constantia,  he  became  so  considerable  at  court,  and 
even  with  Constantino  after  the  defeat  of  Licinius,  that 
there  was  hardly  anything  he  could  undertake,  which  he 
might  not  hope  to  succeed  in. 

It  being  thus  with  Eusebius  at  court,  Arius, — either 
perceiving  him  to  entertain  already  some  sentiments 
agreeable  to  his  own,  or  hoping  easily  to  prevail  wdth  him 
to  receive  his  notions,  in  opposition  to  the  Patriarch  of 
Alexandria,  for  whom,  it  was  well  known,  he  had  no  affec- 
tion, because  he.  could  not  bear  a  superior,  or  that  Euse- 
bius having  secretly  given  him  notice  to  address  himself 
to  him,  or  whatever  were  the  motives, — wrote  to  him, 
earnestly  begging  his  protection  against  the  persecution 
that  was  raised  against  him,  because  he  defended  the 
perfect  unity  of  God,  whose  substance  was  indivisible, 
and  a  trinity  of  persons,  which,  he  said,  some  were  for 
confounding  in  the  same  essence.  Eusebius  having  so 
proper  an  occasion  of  publishing  his  sentiments,  and  of 
putting  himself  at  the  head  of  a  powerful  party,  which 
would  blindly  pursue  his  interest,  willingly  undertook  to 
protect  Arius.  He  sent  him  word  to  continue  resolute 
in  defence  of  his  opinions,  telling  him  that  he  would 
find  those  who  would  support  him  in  so  just  an  under- 


taking;  and  that  he  would  write  in  his  favour  to  the 
Bishops  of  Palestine,  where  he  had  abundance  of  ac- 
quaintance; especially  with  Eusebius  of  Csesarea,  who 
had  already  begun  a  very  particular  friendship  with  him. 

Eusebius  now  forced  Arius  upon  the  patronage  of  the 
bishops  of  Palestine,  offered  him  an  asylum  in  his  own 
house,  and  wrote  urgently,  though  at  the  present  time 
respectfully,  in  his  favour,  to  Alexander  the  Patriarch  of 

In  the  meantime,  Constantino  having  made  himself 
sole  master  of  the  empire,  after  many  victories  which 
he  obtained  by  the  assistance  of  heaven,  under  the  ban- 
ner of  the  cross,  used  his  utmost  endeavours  at  Nicome- 
dia  to  make  the  Christian  religion  flourish,  by  the  edicts 
and  laws  which  he  published  in  its  favour.  And  he 
was  even  going  personally  to  visit  the  cities  of  the  East, 
and  repair  in  person  the  disorders  which  were  occasioned 
by  the  tyrants  in  their  persecution  of  the  worship  of  the 
true  God,  when  he  heard,  with  concern,  the  sad  news  of 
the  disorders  which  hindered  his  designs,  and  prevented 
the  infidels,  who  were  scandalized  at  the  civil  war  that 
was  amongst  the  Christians,  from  embracing  their  faith. 
Eusebius,  who  was  so  much  concerned  in  this  matter, 
and  who  had  a  great  share  in  the  emperor's  esteem, 
thought  it  best  to  be  beforehand  with  the  patriarch,  and 
throw  all  the  blame  of  these  great  disorders  upon  him. 
To  this  purpose,  he  with  a  great  deal  of  cunning,  insin- 
uated to  him,  "That  Arius  was,  indeed,  to  blame  for 
having,  with  so  much  noise,  maintained  his  opinion, 
which  he  might  better  have  kept  to  himself,  without 
engaging  so  many  considerable  men  in  his  defence  ;  but 
that  Alexander  was  at  the  same  time  infinitely  more 
blame-worthy,  because  he  was  the  first  occasion  of  that 
great  confusion,  by  having  first  proposed  to  his  clergy 
certain  questions,  which  served  rather  to  employ  the  wits 
of  philosophers,  than  to  instruct  Christians ;  and  that  it 
was  better  to  pass  them  by  with  humility,  than  presump- 


tuously  to  endeavour  to  explain  them,  at  the  hazard  of 
our  peace,  and  even  of  our  holy  religion  itself : — That 
what  had  been  debated  between  Arius  and  the  Patriarch, 
was  nothing  but  vain  subtleties,  which  no  ways  concerned 
any  essential  point  of  the  Christian  religion ;  that  they 
agreed  in  the  main ;  and  that  these  sort  of  disputes, 
which  went  beyond  what  was  necessary,  only  caused 
confusion,  and  raised  scruples  in  people's  minds,  who 
were  not  always  capable  of  making  such  difficult  and 
confused  enquiries.  That  therefore,  the  best  expedient 
was  to  enjoin  both  parties  to  silence,  and  oblige  them  to 
become  friends,  and  say  no  more  for  the  future  upon  the 
subject  of  that  dangerous  and  unnecessary  dispute." 

Constantino,  who  had  a  great  value  for  Eusebius,  and 
who  besides  was  very  glad  to  hear  that  the  question  in 
this  dispute  did  not  concern  the  faith,  without  difficulty 
became  of  the  same  opinion  too,  because  we  easily  believe 
what  we  desire ;  and  therefore  he  wrote  a  letter  agreeable 
to  the  wrong  information  which  he  had  received.  This 
letter  was  addressed  alike  to  both  parties,  and  blamed 
both  the  one  and  the  other,  but  the  patriarch  much  more 
than  Arius,  ordering  them  to  be  reconciled,  without  con- 
tending any  farther  upon  this  point,  which  had  caused 
so  much  confusion  in  the  Church. 

The  emperor  soon  perceived  that  he  had  been  misled, 
and  that  the  dispute  referred  to  something  more  vital  in 
our  religion  than  he  had  at  first  supposed.  This  led  to 
the  convention  of  the  council  of  Nice.  (See  Atlianasius, 
Arius,  and  the  preceding  article  of  Eusebius  of  Ccesarea.J 
This  great  council,  convened,  not  by  the  Pope  of  Rome, 
but  by  the  emperor,  was  assembled,  not  to  discuss  a  doc- 
trine, but  that  testimony  might  be  borne  from  all  parts 
of  the  world  as  to  the  truth  received  by  the  Churches 
from  the  holy  apostles.  Eusebius  of  Nicomedia  of  course 
was  there,  and  he  and  his  followers,  seeing  plainly  that 
there  was  no  remedy  left  for  them,  if  in  the  emperor's 
presence  they  did  not  gain  some  advantage  by  disputing, 


used  their  utmost  endeavours  to  carry  it  for  their  opinion, 
or,  at  least,  to  hinder  a  definitive  sentence,  by  the  diffi- 
culties which  they  started.  On  the  other  side,  the  ortho- 
dox, continuing  resolute  in  defence  of  the  truth,  and 
becoming  more  bold  by  the  presence  of  a  prince,  who  had 
so  much  zeal  and  piety  and  such  good  intentions,  op- 
posed, with  more  force  than  ever,  the  false  subtleties  of 
these  heretics,  by  the  great  truths  of  the  Scripture,  and 
the  ancient  belief  of  the  Church,  from  the  Apostles  down 
to  that  time ;  so  that  each  party  being  heated,  nothing 
was  ever  disputed  with  more  violence  than  upon  this 

Constantino,  who  had  a  mind  to  bring  them  to  a  union 
imperceptibly  and  by  fair  means,  heard  both  sides  wdth 
extraordinary  patience ;  commended  one,  restrained  the 
heat  and  violence  of  another ;  caused  those  who  ran  from 
the  point  in  hand,  to  return  to  it;  softened  whatever 
expressions  were  harsh,  and  prevented  the  breaking  in 
upon  order,  speaking  familiarly  in  Greek  to  all,  inviting 
them  to  agree,  and  bringing  over  the  greatest  part  of 
those,  who,  through  a  desire  of  vanquishing,  or  shame  of 
yielding,  continued  still  obstinate  in  their  particular 
opinion.  In  short,  he  forgot  nothing  that  an  excellent 
moderator  could  do,  to  preserve  order  and  keep  them 
within  bounds,  and  put  an  end,  so  happily  as  he  did,  to 
the  dispute  that  was  in  this  council. 

For  as  soon  as,  by  the  emperor's  order,  they  came  to 
vote,  above  three  hundred  bishops  unanimously  declared 
for  the  catholic  verity,  which  they  had  all  along  so  reso- 
lutely defended  in  the  course  of  the  dispute  ;  and  the 
Son  of  God,  to  the  great  joy  of  Constantino,  was  declared 
to  be  consubstantial  with  His  Father,  and  entirely  equal 
to  Him  in  all  His  divine  perfections,  according  to  the  form 
of  faith  drawn  up  by  Hosius,  one  of  the  presidents  of  the 
council ;  and  they  published  the  condemnation  of  the 
detestable  doctrine  of  Arius;  which,  being  reduced  to 
several  propositions,  w^as  anathematized,  together  with  all 
those  who  were  maintainors  of  it. 


Eusebius  of  Nicomedia,  with  sixteen  bishops  of  his 
party,  willing  to  use  their  utmost  endeavours,  opposed 
the  decree,  and  rejected  with  scorn  the  word  coyisuhstan- 
tial :  but  Constantine  forthwith  declared,  that  he  would 
have  what  had  been  determined  inviolably  observed ;  and 
that  if  any  one  refused  to  submit  to  it,  he  would  send 
him  into  banishment,  and  exclude  him  from  the  society 
of  men,  as  a  wicked  and  impious  wretch,  who  rebelled 
against  the  decrees  of  God  Himself.  For  which  reason, 
the  greatest  part  of  them,  who  were  unwilling  to  incur 
the  emperor's  displeasure  and  the  loss  of  their  bishoprics, 
soon  resolved  to  suit  themselves  to  the  times,  and  to  sign 
whatever  they  should  be  required. 

Eusebius  of  Nicomedia,  surprised  at  seeing  himself 
deserted  by  the  greatest  part  of  his  creatures,  began  to 
consult  with  the  few  bishops  that  he  had  left,  how  they 
might  appease  the  storm  that  threatened  them,  without 
being  obliged  to  subscribe  to  the  orthodox  confession  of 
faith ;  and  after  all,  they  agreed  that  there  was  but  one 
remedy,  and  that  was  to  present  another  confession, 
couched  in  teims  less  disagreeable,  which  the  council 
might  receive  for  the  sake  of  peace,  and  they  themselves 
afterwards  interpret  after  their  own  way,  and  in  the 
sense  which  they  kept  concealed,  in  order  to  publish 
it  at  a  fitter  opportunity.  Having  then  composed  such 
confession  of  faith,  they  presented  it  to  the  council, 
as  containing  the  same  doctrine  that  had  been  estab- 
lished, and  differing  in  nothing  but  a  few  expressions, 
which  (said  they)  ought  not  to  hinder  their  uniting 
all  together  in  the  same  opinion.  But  as  soon  as  they 
saw  that  the  term  consuhstantial,  and  the  condemnation 
of  the  doctrine  of  Arius,  who  had  been  anathematized, 
because  he  still  persisted  in  his  heresy,  was  not  in  it; 
then  the  whole  assembly  began  to  cry,  with  one  voica, 
that  that  confession  was  a  mere  cheat  and  delusion, 
which  only  concealed  their  error  under  equivocal  terms, 
VOL.  v.  c 


to  prevent  its  being  justly  condemned ;  and  this  was 
carried  on  with  so  much  heat,  that  they  caused  it  to 
be  torn  immediately  in  the  presence  of  those  bishops 
who  had  presented  it,  and  whom  they  openly  styled 
rebels  against  God,  and  traitors  to  religion.  This  so 
confounded  those  who  came  with  Eusebius,  that  Meno- 
phantus  of  Ephesus,  Patrophilus  of  Scythopolis,  Narcis- 
sus of  Neronias,  and  Maris  of  Chalcedon,  who  were  the 
chief  of  his  friends,  quitted  him,  and  went  at  that  instant 
and  subscribed  the  council's  confession  of  faith ;  so  that 
Eusebius  had  nobody  now  left  with  him  but  Theognis  of 
Nice,  Theonas  of  Marmorica,  and  Secundus  of  Ptolemais. 
Eusebius  however  would  not  yield  yet ;  for  what  will 
not  an  head  of  a  party  do,  especially  in  religion,  to 
maintain  his  ground,  and  preserve  the  authority  he  has 
gained  over  those  of  his  sect  ?  For  this  purpose  he  de- 
vised a  subtlety,  of  which  he  was  the  first  inventor,  and 
which  he  thought  would  be  very  proper  to  defend  him 
from  the  thunder-claps  which  he  expected  on  the  part  of 
the  council,  by  being  deposed ;  and  from  the  emperor, 
by  being  banished.  There  were  two  parts  in  the  form 
drawn  up  by  Hosius ;  one  was  that  confession  of  faith 
which  we  daily  make  in  the  Nicene  Creed,  where  the 
word  consuhstantial  was  made  use  of;  the  other,  the  con- 
demnation of  certain  propositions  taken  from  Arius's 
books  and  discourses.  The  first  contained  only  the  jus- 
tice of  the  cause,  being  a  plain  exposition  of  the  catholic 
faith ;  in  the  second,  both  the  matter  of  fact  and  right 
were  joined  together  in  a  condemnation  of  the  doctrine 
of  Arius,  included  in  those  propositions.  Eusebius,  after 
having  well  considered  the  confession  of  faith,  concluded 
with  himself,  that  the  only  way  to  pei'plex  the  Fathers, 
and  preserve  his  own  party  in  following  the  doctrine  of 
Arius,  was  to  make  a  distinction  between  the  matter  of 
fact  and  the  matter  of  right.  He  therefore  represented 
to  the  council,  in  very  respectful  terms,  "  That  he  sub^ 


mitted  to  their  determinations  concerning  tlie  faith,  and 
consented  to  subscribe  to  it,  even  admitting  the  word 
consubstantial,  according  to  the  genuine  signification  of  it, 
and  consequently  that  he  held  no  erroneous  opinion ; 
but  that  as  for  the  condemnation  of  Arius,  he  could  not 
subscribe  to  it ;  not  that  he  had  a  mind  to  reject  the 
points  of  faith  which  they  had  decided,  but  because  he 
did  not  think  that  he,  whom  they  accused,  was  in  the 
error  that  they  laid  to  his  charge  :  that,  on  the  contrary, 
he  was  entirely  persuaded,  by  the  letters  which  he  re- 
ceived from  him,  and  by  the  conferences  which  he  had 
had  with  him,  that  he  was  a  man  whose  sentiments  were 
entirely  different  from  those  for  which  he  was  con- 
demned." It  is  hard  to  conceive  a  greater  piece  of  impu- 
dence, supported  by  less  good  sense  and  judgment,  than 
that  of  this  bishop  upon  this  occasion  :  for  they  had  by 
them  the  writings  of  Arius,  which  had  been  just  read 
and  examined  in  the  council.  He  had  been  often  heard 
to  explain  his  meaning  in  the  dispute  ;  and  yet  his  pro- 
tector durst  assert,  in  opposition  to  the  whole  assembly 
of  fathers,  that  they  did  not  rightly  take  nor  understand 
the  sense  of  his  words,  and  that  it  was  a  matter  of  fact 
which  was  not  to  be  questioned.  So  tme  is  it,  that  after 
passion  has  once  seduced  the  mind,  it  is  actuated  after- 
wards only  by  the  will,  which  is  blind,  and  hinders  us 
at  length  from  seeing  anything  as  it  is,  and  makes  us 
imagine  we  see  that  which  is  not.  But  the  council  was 
so  enraged  at  this  way  of  proceeding,  that  perceiving  him 
to  continue  still  inflexible  in  this  obstinate  resolution 
which  he  had  taken,  not  to  subscribe  to  the  condemnation 
of  Arius,  under  pretence  that  it  concerned  a  matter  of 
fact,  which  he  might  judge  of  by  his  ears  and  eyes,  they 
condemned  those  four  bishops  as  heretics,  and  deprived 
them  of  their  sees.  They  even  chose  two  others  to  put 
in  the  place  of  Eusebius  and  Theognis,  namely,  Amphion 
for    Nicomedia,    and    Chrestus    for   Nice ;    being   well 


assured,  that  Constantine  would  not  fail  to  support  their 

Constantine,  by  a  strong  stretch  of  the  Regale,  com- 
manded Eusebius  and  the  other  bishops  who  refused  to 
subscribe  to  the  condemnation  of  Arius,  after  they  had 
been  condemned  and  deprived  by  the  council,  to  be 
carried  into  banishment.  This  just  severity  of  Constan- 
tine, and  his  unshaken  constancy,  even  against  him, 
who,  by  the  favour  of  the  empress  Constantia,  was 
thought  to  have  great  interest  at  court,  brought  these 
rebels  to  themselves,  abated  their  pride,  and  made  them, 
in  appearance  at  least,  to  do  whatever  they  were  required. 
For,  in  the  first  place,  Arius,  and  his  two  chief  disciples 
Euzoius  and  Achillas,  pretended  to  return  to  the  faith, 
and  to  be  perfectly  undeceived,  begging  pardon  of  the 
council,  and  humbly  intreating  the  fathers  to  admit  them 
into  their  presence,  protesting  that  they  were  very  ready 
to  satisfy  them,  and  to  submit  to  them  in  every  thing, 
without  exception.  The  council,  imitating  the  goodness  of 
Him  Whom  they  represented,  and  Who  desireth  not  the 
death  of  a  sinner,  but  rather  that  he  should  be  converted 
and  live,  received  their  request  graciously,  and  caused 
them  to  be  called  into  the  assembly,  where,  after  having 
given  satisfaction  in  every  thing  that  was  asked  them, 
and  publicly  abjured  their  heresy,  they  were  re-established 
in  the  exercise  of  their  ministerial  office,  upon  condition 
nevertheless,  not  to  return  any  more  to  Alexandria,  where 
they  had  been  the  occasion  of  so  much  disorder.  The 
two  African  bishops,  Theonas  of  Marmorica,  and  Secundus 
of  Ptolemais,  who  blindly  followed  Arius,  and  were  the 
first  that  were  seduced  by  him.  followed  his  example, 
and  received  the  like  favour. 

This  last  stroke  quite  confounded  Eusebius  :  he  found 
himself  reduced  to  the  last  extremity,  being  left  almost 
alone,  and  forsaken  by  every  body,  except  only  one 
bishop,  who  was  Theognis  of  Nice,  who  always  followed 


his  fortune.  He  knew  very  well  that  Constantine's  order 
was  going  to  be  put  in  execution  against  him ;  and  since 
he  could  not  bring  himself  to  a  resolution  of  quitting  the 
court,  which  he  was  passionately  fond  of,  nor  of  losing  so 
good  a  bishopric,  which  he  had  purchased  by  more  than 
one  crime ;  he  at  length  chose  rather  to  debase  and 
humble  himself  for  the  present,  in  order  to  preserve  him- 
self in  his  post,  where  he  might  easily  find  an  opportu- 
nity of  rising  again.  For  this  purpose,  he  employed 
the  most  powerful  friends  he  had  at  court  to  intercede 
for  him  with  the  emperor ;  and  at  the  same  time  he, 
with  Theognis  of  Nice,  presented  a  petition  to  the  coun- 
cil, expressed  in  the  most  humble  and  respectful  terms. 
They  therein  represented,  that  indeed  they  had  before 
been  unwilling  to  subscribe  to  Arius's  condemnation,  be- 
cause they  had  thought  that  he  was  not  in  reality  a  man 
of  such  sentiments  as  were  attributed  to  him ;  but  that 
now  they  were  resolved  to  submit  their  opinion  to  the 
holy  council,  in  that  matter,  and  do  whatever  they 
appointed  :  that,  however,  they  did  not  do  this  out  of  any 
fear  of  banishment,  to  which  they  were  condemned,  but 
only  that  they  might  not  be  accounted  heretics,  by  per- 
sisting in  their  refusal :  that  since  Arius  himself,  who 
was  the  cause  of  the  mischief,  and  more  criminal  than 
any,  had  been  received  into  favour ;  it  was  not  just  that 
they  who  had  only  erred  through  following  him,  should 
become  more  guilty  by  their  silence,  or  be  refused  the 
same  favour  when  they  desired  it :  that  they  most  hum- 
bly intreated  the  fathers  to  use  their  good  offices  for  them 
with  the  emperor ;  and  in  the  mean  time,  to  enjoin  them 
whatever  they,  in  their  wisdom,  should  think  requisite. 
All  the  fathers,  who  ardently  desired  to  have  all  the 
members  of  the  council  re-united  together,  with  open 
arms  received  these  bishops  who  returned  last  to  their 
duty,  and  seemed  to  be  affected  with  a  sincere  repent- 
ance, which  they  expressed  by  their  humiliation.  What 
c  -2 


was  most  extraordinary  at  this  juncture,  was,  that  at  the 
same  time  that  the  fathers  went  to  intercede  for  the 
bishops  with  the  emperor,  that  prince,  prevailed  upon  bj 
the  humble  intreaties  of  Eusebius's  friends,  was  also 
about  to  desire  the  council  to  be  merciful  to  them,  and 
restore  them  again  if  they  submitted :  so  that  both  the 
one  and  the  other,  finding  in  themselves  the  same 
favourable  disposition  towards  them,  they  were  restored 
by  the  council,  and  the  emperor  reversed  the  sentence 
which  he  had  given  against  them. 

The  heat  of  Arianism  seemed  now  to  be  utterly  ex- 
tinguished, as  well  by  the  unanimous  consent  with 
which  it  was  condemned  by  the  bishops  assembled  in 
the  council  of  Nice,  as  by  the  solemn  abjuration  which 
Arius  himself  and  his  followers  had  made  of  their  doc- 
trine :  but  it  soon  appeared  that  the  fire  only  lay  con- 
cealed, that  it  might  afterwards  do  the  more  mischief. 
Let  us  now  see  by  what  artifices  and  secret  contrivances 
they  were  able,  not  only  to  keep  on  foot,  but  to  make 
more  powerful,  a  party  that  was  looked  upon  as  entirely 
ruined,  and  which  durst  not  declare  themselves. 

Eusebius  of  Nicomedia,  who  knew  that  the  greatest 
part  of  his  friends,  especially  Arius,  had,  as  well  as 
himself,  only  signed  the  Nicene  confession  out  of  com- 
plaisance or  fear,  having  assembled  them  together,  found 
no  difficulty  to  bring  them  to  their  former  disposition, 
and  make  them  resolve  never  to  quit  their  enterprize. 
All  that  remained,  was  to  consider  by  what  means  they 
should  accomplish  it ;  so  that  after  having  well  considered 
the  matter,  they  resolved  upon  these  four  things : — 1. 
That  it  was  necessary  to  dissemble  with  Constantine, 
whose  unshaken  steadiness  in  the  faith  they  were  not 
unacquainted  with ;  and  that  in  expectation  of  a  more 
favourable  opportunity,  they  should  always  declare  that 
they  stuck  to  the  decisions  of  the  council.  2.  That  they 
should  make  it  their  business  to  strengthen  their  party, 


by  gaining  under-hand  as  many  as  the}'  could,  especially 
at  court.  3.  That  they  should  endeavour  to  niin  those 
who  opposed  their  designs  ;  but  especially  Athanasius, 
who  defended  Alexander  the  patriarch,  their  enemy,  and 
who  was  the  most  powerful  adversary  that  had  opposed 
them  in  the  council.  4.  That  they  should  set  all  their 
engines  at  work  to  re-establish  Arius  in  Alexandria,  that 
he  might  recover  the  credit  and  interest  which  he  had 
there  before  his  condemnation,  which  by  that  very  means 
would  appear  to  be  unjust. 

These  things  being  thus  determined,  every  one  began 
to  apply  himself  to  the  particular  part  which  he  was  to 
act ;  but  above  all,  Eusebius,  who  was,  as  it  were,  the 
soul  of  the  party.  As  he  was  a  great  courtier,  and  upon 
all  occasions  supported  by  the  favour  of  the  empress 
Constantia,  he  easily  recovered  the  emperor's  esteem  ; 
who,  besides,  was  very  well  satisfied  with  his  having  sub- 
mitted to  the  council,  thinking  he  had  done  it  heartily 
and  sincerely.  He  afterwards  found  it  no  diiEhcult  mat- 
ter to  gain  several  at  court,  whom  he  drew  over  to  him 
by  all  manner  of  artifices,  they  expecting  to  reap  great 
advantages  from  his  favour :  so  that  having  gotten  a 
great  number  of  dependants,  in  whom  he  could  confide, 
he  thought  himself  in  a  condition  to  put  his  design  of 
ruining  Athanasius  in  execution,  and  re-establishing 
Arius  at  the  first  opportunity,  which  then  offered  as 
favourable  as  could  be  desired. 

But  Eusebius  overshot  the  mark,  for  having  leagued 
with  the  Meletians,  and  with  them  brought  false  accusa- 
tions against  St.  Athanasius,  now  patriarch  of  Alexandria, 
he  disgusted  Constantine,  who  put  into  execution  the 
dormant  decree  of  the  council  of  Nice  against  him,  and 
sent  him  into  exile.  While  these  things  happened  at 
Nicomedia,  where  Constantine  still  continued,  he  caused 
his  city.  New  Rome,  to  be  magnificently  built  at  Byzan- 
tium, which  name  he  changed  to  that  of  Constantinople. 


It  was  finished  in  two  years,  and  he  removed  thither  the 
seat  of  his  empire.  He  solemnly  dedicated  it  to  God,  in 
memory  of  the  blessed  Virgin  Mary,  mother  of  our  Lord : 
and  it  being  the  twentieth  year  of  his  reign,  and  the  fifth 
since  Constantino's  being  created  Caesar,  when,  according 
to  custom,  great  rejoicings  were  to  be  made,  he  took  the 
opportunity  of  making  the  dedication  of  that  city  the 
most  magnificent  that  could  possibly  be.  It  was  at  this 
time  that  Constantia,  who  was  impatient  both  at  the  dis- 
grace and  absence  of  Eusebius  of  Nicomedia,  procured 
him  to  be  recalled  from  banishment.  She  even  got  her 
nephew  Constantius,  whose  good  opinion  Eusebius  had 
found  such  means  to  gain,  that  he  possessed  it  entirely 
afterwards,  to  join  with  her  to  this  purpose  ;  and  they 
both  together  made  such  intercession  with  Constantine, 
that  the  emperor,  who  could  not  easily  have  refused  his 
sister  and  his  son  anything  they  asked  during  that  fes- 
tival, and  w^ho,  besides,  still  esteemed  Eusebius,  whom 
he  had  formerly  had  an  affection  for ;  was  very  willing 
to  be  at  last  persuaded  that  those  two  bishops,  whom  he 
had  banished,  always  kept  to  the  Nicene  faith,  and  were 
not  answerable  for  what  the  Egyptians  had  deposed 
against  their  patriarch  :  and  therefore  he  caused  them  to 
be  recalled,  and  let  them  return  again  to  their  churches. 
Eusebius,  instead  of  amending  by  his  banishment,  be- 
came thereby  still  more  incensed  against  St.  Athanasius, 
and  was  more  resolute  than  ever  to  ruin  him  ;  but  kept 
himself  a  little  upon  his  guard,  in  order  to  take  such 
precautions  as  might  secure  him  from  the  emperor's  dis- 
pleasure :  to  which  purpose  he  was  very  careful  to  make 
every  body  believe  that  he  was  closely  attached  to  the 
determinations  of  the  council  of  Nice  ;  for  he  was  then 
persuaded  that  the  emperor  would  never  suffer  any  at- 
tempt to  be  made  against  it;  and  that  it  was  by  that,  most 
assuredly,  he  would  always  judge  whether  people  were  or- 
thodox in  their  opinions.    Moreover,  though  he  earnestly 


desired  to  have  Arius  return,  that  he  might  settle  him  again 
in  Alexandria,  according  to  his  first  design,  yet  he  took 
a  great  deal  of  care  not  to  mention  it  at  that  time,  for 
fear  of  making  himself  suspected.  However,  he  again 
began  to  enter  into  measures  with  the  Meletians,  for 
loading  St.  Athanasius  with  new  calumnies ;  but  he  took 
them  somewhat  more  cautiously  and  secretly  than  before, 
staying  purposely  at  Nicomedia,  and  absenting  himself 
from  the  court,  which  was  at  Constantinople,  that  he 
might  be  thought  to  mind  nothing  but  the  government 
of  his  Church. 

To  the  influence  of  Eusebius,  however,  are  to  be  traced 
all  the  persecutions  which  that  eminent  saint  of   the 
Church,  the  illustrious  Athanasius  had  to  undergo.    And 
when    Constantius   succeeded  to  the  empire,   Eusebius 
pulled  off  his  disguise,  and  began  to  act  in  concert  with 
the  courtiers,  who  entirely  won  Constantius  to  the  Arian 
side,   for  the   complete   establishment    of    his    faction. 
When  the  see  of  Constantinople  was  vacant,  the  Catho- 
lics elected  Paul,  a  virtuous  and  very  learned  man,  to  be 
their  bishop,  but  Constantius  set  aside  the  election,  and 
caused  Eusebius  to  be  again  translated.     Eusebius,  now 
Bishop  of   Constantinople,   became   more   violent  than 
ever,  and  one  of  his  first  actions  was  to  persecute  Eusta- 
thius,  Bishop  of  Antioch.    (See  his  Life.)     His  persecu- 
tion  of  Athanasius    continued,    and   his   triumph   was 
complete  in  the  council  of  Antioch  in  341.     This  council 
was  held  on  occasion  of  the  dedication  of  the  "  Golden" 
Church  at  Antioch.     The  emperor  Constantino  commen- 
ced this  work  in  a  style  of  magnificence  worthy  of  his 
piety,   and  Constantius  had  just  completed  it ;  and  as 
Eusebius  of  Nicomedia  lost  no  opportunity  of  advancing 
his   schemes,  he  so  managed  matters,  that  under  the 
pretext  of  dedicating  the  new  church,  he  assembled  a 
council,  of  which  the  real  object  was  to  condemn  belief 
in  the  consubstantiality  of  the  Son.   Ninety-seven  bishops, 


of  whom  forty,  at  least,  were  acknowledged  Arians,  were 
present.  They  came  chiefly  from  the  following  provinces  : 
Syria,  Phenicia,  Palestine,  Arabia,  Mesopotamia,  Cilicia, 
Isauria,  Cappadocia,  Bithynia,  and  Thrace.  The  prin- 
cipal men  amongst  them  were,  Eusebius,  who  had  usurp- 
ed the  see  of  Constantinople,  Th^odorus  of  Heraclea, 
Narcissus  of  Neroniadis,  Macedonius  of  Mopsuestia,  Masis 
of  Macedonia,  Acacius  of  Cesarea,  Eudoxius,  afterwards 
of  Constantinople,  George  of  Laodicea,  and  Theophronius 
of  Tyana,  in  Cappadocia.  Maximus,  Bishop  of  Jerusalem, 
refused  to  attend,  not  forgetting  how  he  had  been,  upon 
a  former  occasion,  (in  the  synod  of  Tyre,)  surprised  into 
subscribing  to  the  condemnation  of  Athanasius. 

No  bishop  from  the  west  was  present  at  the  council. 
The  emperor  Constantius,  however,  who  saw  only  with 
the  eyes  of  the  Arians,  attended  in  person.  The  sole 
object  of  the  Eusebians  was  to  crush  Athanasius,  and 
accordingly  they  brought  fonvard  again  the  accusations 
which  had  been  urged  against  him  in  the  council  of  Tyre, 
and  had  been  repeatedly  refuted.  Moreover,  they  alleged 
against  him,  on  the  f)i'esent  occasion,  certain  murders 
which  had  been  committed,  and  which  they  pretended 
were  caused  by  his  return  to  Alexandria.  In  the  end  he 
was  condemned  without  a  hearing ;  and  they  proceeded 
to  draw  up  three  creeds  or  formularies. 

The  object  of  these  formularies  was  to  give  a  triumph 
to  the  party  of  Eusebius,  by  an  insinuation  that  the  dis- 
pute between  him  and  those  who  held  the  Homo-ousian 
was  a  mere  dispute  about  words. 

Eusebius  did  not  long  survive  his  triumph,  for  in  the 
following  year  he  died. — Maimhourg.  Tillemont.  Socrates. 


EusTATHius  was  born  at  Lida,  in  Pamphylia,  was 
Bishop  of  Berea,  and  afterwards  of  Antioch.     He  was 


strongly  opposed  to  Arius,  and  distinguished  himself  by 
his  zeal  at  the  council  of  Nice.  He  is  referred  to  in  the 
preceding  article  :  Eusebius  of  Nicomedia  having  usurped 
the  see  of  Constantinople,  resolved  to  rid  himself  of  Eus- 
tathius,  as  the  most  jDowerful  of  all  those  who  opposed 
the  establishment  of  his  heresy.  To  bring  this  design 
about,  he  suborned  people  to  tell  Constantius,  that  be 
was  an  enemy  to  him,  and  had  spoken  insolently  and 
abusively  of  the  memory  of  the  empress  his  mother. 
This  accusation  relating  to  a  very  tender  point,  the  em- 
peror, who  was  extremely  exasperated  against  him,  with- 
out difficulty  resolved  his  destruction,  and  abandoned 
him  to  Eusebius,  who  undertook  to  ruin  him  under  some 
other  pretence,  and  procure  him  to  be  condemned  for 
other  crimes,  without  mentioning  this,  or  so  much  as 
there  being  any  appearance  of  it.  For  this  purpose  he 
feigned  a  journey  to  Jerusalem  to  visit  the  holy  places, 
from  whence  he  returned  back  to  Antioch,  to  give  orders 
about  what  was  necessary  for  celebrating  the  dedication 
of  the  great  temple,  which  Constantino  had  begun  to 
build  there,  and  Constantius  had  finished.  He  set  out 
from  Constantinople  with  Theognis  of  Nice,  the  most 
faithful  of  all  his  friends  ;  and  as  they  passed  by  Antioch, 
they  w^ere  received  there  with  all  manner  of  respect  and 
civility  by  Eustathius,  to  whom  they  likewise  gave  all 
possible  instances  of  a  sincere  friendship,  the  better  to 
conceal  the  treacherous  designs  which  they  were  contriv- 
ing against  him.  As  soon  as  Eusebius  arrived  at  Jeru- 
salem, all  the  bishops  of  his  faction,  who  were  then  in 
the  neighbouring  provinces,  came  to  him  ;  his  old  friend 
Pacrophilus  of  Scythopolis,  Actius  of  Lydda,  Theodore 
of  Laodicea,  several  others  of  Syria  and  Palestine ;  and 
above  all,  Eusebius  of  Caesarea.  He  imparted  to  them 
the  real  cause  of  his  journey,  and  the  design  which  he 
had  undertaken,  in  concert  with  the  emperor,  of  driving 
Eustathius  from  his  see  without  violence,  for  fear  of  rais- 


ing  a  commotion,  because  he  was  mightily  beloved,  shew- 
ing them  the  means  that  were  necessary  to  bring  it  about. 
He  found  them  all  ready  to  do  whatever  he  desired,  and 
especially  Eusebius  of  Csesarea,  who  besides  the  common 
interest  of  his  party,  imagined  he  had  a  more  particular 
reason  not  to  love  Eustathius,  as  being  his  rival  in  learn- 
ing and  eloquence,  as  well  as  in  dignity,  having  had  the 
l^reference  of  him  when  chosen  into  the  bishopric  of 
Antioch,  at  the  death  of  Paulinus. 

After  having  well  considered  what  was  to  be  done, 
Eusebius  took  again  the  road  to  Antioch,  accompanied 
by  all  those  bishops,  who  pretended  to  come  thither, 
only  to  attend  the  new  Bishop  of  the  imperial  city,  out 
of  respect.  Eustathius,  who  had  no  suspicion  of  what 
they  were  plotting  against  him,  and  being  one  of  a  great 
spirit,  did  his  utmost  to  give  a  good  reception  to  such 
good  company;  for  he  had  ah'eady  with  him  other  bishops, 
who  came  a  great  way  off,  on  account  of  the  dedication 
which  was  about  to  be  performed.  But  one  day,  as  they 
were  all  assembled  in  the  form  of  a  synod,  to  consider 
upon  some  ecclesiastical  aiTair,  the  holy  patriarch  was 
very  much  suprised  at  the  sight  of  a  woman  holding  a 
child  in  her  arms,  who  came  in  to  them,  and  throwing 
down  the  child  at  their  feet,  told  them,  with  lamentable 
cries,  that  Eustathius,  after  having  seduced  her,  had 
left  her  with  that  child,  of  which  he  was  the  father,  and 
which  he  most  cruelly  refused  to  maintain.  At  this, 
Eusebius,  who  had  suborned  this  woman,  and  all  the 
bishops  of  his  party,  said,  that  as  this  was  a  crime  so 
shameful  and  scandalous  to  the  Church,  he  was  under  a 
necessity  of  justifying  himself.  The  good  bishop  thought 
that  would  be  no  difficult  matter,  because,  being  well 
assured  of  his  own  innocence,  he  was  no  less  confident 
of  this  impudent  woman's  not  being  able  to  support  her 
accusation  by  any  sort  of  proof.  He  demanded,  there- 
fore, that  she  might  be  obliged  to  produce  some  evidence 


of  the  crime  she  accused  him  of:  she,  who  had  her 
instructions,  answered  him,  that  indeed  she  had  none, 
because  he  had  been  cunning  enough  to  take  such  pre- 
cautions, that  nobody  could  ever  depose  against  him ; 
but  that  she  was  ready  to  swear,  as  accordingly  she  did, 
that  Eustathius  was  the  father  of  the  child,  meaning  by 
that  a  certain  artificer  by  whom  she  really  had  it,  as  she 
afterwards  confessed  before  several  bishops,  to  whom, 
finding  herself  sick  and  at  the  last  extremity,  she  con- 
fessed this  horrible  piece  of  villany  invented  by  Eusebius. 
All  laws,  both  human  and  divine,  in  such  cases,  forbid 
any  :person,  and  especially  a  priest,  to  be  condemned 
without  some  farther  proof  than  this  ;  and  the  rest  of  the 
bishops,  who  were  at  that  assembly,  would  not  have  had 
any  regard  paid  to  such  weak  testimony  in  so  improbable 
a  case 

But  the  Eusebians,  who  desired  nothing  more,  began 
to  cry  out  with  one  consent,  that  the  crime  was  but  too 
well  testified  by  the  accomplice  of  it  herself,  who  averred 
it  to  his  face,  and  confirmed  what  she  alleged  by  an  oath. 
Whereupon  Eusebius  of  CsBsarea,  between  whom  and 
Eustathius  there  had  been  great  differences,  because  in 
one  of  his  books  he  had  accused  him  of  corrupting  the 
doctrine  of  the  council  of  Nice ;  rising  from  his  seat, 
acted  the  part  of  an  accuser,  and  said,  that  although  he 
should  not  be  convicted  of  that  adultery,  as  he  really  was, 
he  ought  nevertheless  to  be  deposed,  because,  that  under 
pretence  of  adhering  to  the  faith  of  the  council,  which 
he  did  not  do,  he  maintained  the  errors  of  Sabellius, 
which  Eusebius  pretended  to  prove  by  false  conclusions, 
which  he  drew  from  his  principles.  And  hereupon,  not- 
withstanding all  that  the  great  bishop  could  urge  to  the 
contrary,  the  Eusebians  pronounced  sentence  of  deposi- 
tion against  him,  and  without  hearing  the  rest  of  the 
bishops,  who  protested  against  this  horrible  injustice, 
they  went  to  meet  the  emperor,  who,  they  knew,  was  not 
far  from  Antioch,  whither  he  was  coming,  and  so  con- 

VOL.   V.  D 


trived  it,  that  at  his  arrival,  that  prince,  who  had  already 
made  himself  the  minister  of  their  passions,  and  was 
greatly  exasperated  against  Eustathius,  banished  him  to 
Trajanopolis  in  Thrace,  where  he  finished,  at  length,  by 
this  sort  of  martyrdom,  a  life  which  he  had  rendered 
worthy  of  admiration,  both  by  the  purity  of  his  doctrine 
and  manners,  and  the  glorious  combats  which  he  had 
undergone,  in  defence  of  the  divinity  of  Jesus  Christ. 
— Maimbourg.     Tillemont. 


EuTYCHEs  was  a  monk  of  the  fifth  century,  and  was 
elected  abbot  or  archimandrite  of  a  convent  near  Con- 
stantinople. He  was  at  first  honourably  distinguished 
by  his  opposition  to  the  Nestorian  heresy,  although  he 
himself  afterwards  acquired  a  bad  fame  by  establishing 
the  heresy  which  goes  by  his  name. 

As  this  portion  of  history  is  not  in  general  well  known, 
and  as  the  controversy  is  one  of  importance,  having 
occasioned  the  convocation  of  the  fourth  general  council, 
that  of  Chalcedon,  we  shall  enter  at  some  length  into  the 
history  of  this  heretic. 

But  we  must  premise  the  extreme  importance  of  re- 
jecting the  heresy  alluded  to.  The  Monophysites,  or 
those  heretics  who  have  Eutyches  for  their  founder,  ac- 
knowledge only  one  nature  in  Christ,  compounded  of  the 
divinity  and  humanity,  yet  without  conversion,  confusion, 
or  mixture.  And  it  is  evident  that  such  a  doctrine 
shakes  the  main  pillars  of  the  Christian's  hope,  for  in 
attributing  to  our  blessed  Saviour  a  sort  of  third  nature, 
compounded  of  the  divine  and  human,  it  threatens  to 
render  His  suffering  for  us  imperfect,  and  incapable  of 
obtaining  salvation  for  men  ;  for  unless  Christ  had  been 
very  and  perfect  man  to  suffer,  and  very  God  to  confer 
an  infinite  value  on  His  sufferings.  His  death  would  have 
been  inadequate  to  the  accom23lishment  of  so  great  a 


Eutyches  was  first  accused  of  heresy  in  a  council 
assembled  at  Constantinople  in  448.  He  refused  to 
attend  the  summons  at  first,  urging  the  plea  of  age  and 
ill  health.  But  at  the  seventh  session  he  was  present ; 
when  Flavian,  Bishop  of  Constantinople,  addressed  him 
saying : — You  have  heard  what  your  accuser  says ;  de- 
clare, therefore,  if  you  confess  the  union  of  two  natures. 
Eutyches  answered,  Y'es ;  of  two  natures  I  do.  Euse- 
bius  said,  Do  you  confess  two  natures  after  the  incarna- 
tion, Lord  Archimandrite,  and  that  Jesus  Christ  is  con- 
substantial  with  us  according  to  the  flesh,  or  not  ? 
Eutyches,  addressing  his  discourse  to  Flavian,  answered, 
I  am  not  come  here  to  dispute,  but  to  declare  to  your 
holiness  my  thoughts;  they  are  written  in  this  paper,  order 
it  to  be  read  :  Flavian  said,  Piead  it  yourself.  Eutyches 
told  him  that  he  could  not.  Why?  said  Flavian, 
this  exposition,  is  it  yours,  or  any  other  person's? 
if  it  is  yours,  read  it  yourself.  It  is  mine,  replied 
Eutyches,  and  conformable  to  that  of  the  holy  fathers. 
Flavian  asked.  What  Fathers  ?  Declare  it  yourself ;  w^liat 
occasion  have  you  for  a  paper?  Eutj^ches  said,  My 
belief  is  this  ;  I  adore  the  Father  with  the  Son,  and  the 
Son  with  the  Father,  and  the  Holy  Ghost  with  the 
Father  and  the  Son.  I  confess  His  taking  upon  Him  the 
flesh  from  the  holy  Virgin,  and  that  He  was  made  per- 
fect man  for  our  salvation.  This  I  confess  too  in  the 
presence  of  the  Father,  and  of  the  Son,  and  of  the  Holy 
Ghost,  and  your  holiness. 

Flavian  asked  him,  Do  you  confess  that  the  same 
Jesus  Christ,  only  Son  of  God,  is  consubstantial  with 
His  Father,  according  to  the  divinity,  and  consubstantial 
with  his  Mother,  according  to  the  Humanity  ?  Eutyches 
replied,  I  have  declared  my  opinion,  why  do  you  ask  me 
any  more  ?  Flavian  said.  Do  you  now  confess  that  He  is 
of  two  natures  ?  Eutyches  replied.  As  I  acknowledge 
Him  for  my  God,  and  Lord  of  heaven  and  earth,  till  this 
time  I  have  not  suflered  myself  to  reason  of  His  nature  ; 


but  that  He  is  consubstantial  with  ns,  till  this  time 
I  have  not  said  it;  I  confess  it.  Flavian  asked  him,  Do 
not  you  say  that  the  same  is  consubstantial  with  the 
Father  according  to  the  divinity,  and  with  us  according 
to  the  humanity  ?  Eutyches  made  answer,  Till  this  day, 
I  have  not  said  that  the  body  of  the  Lord  our  God  is 
consubstantial  with  us  ;  but  I  confess  that  the  holy 
Virgin  is  of  the  same  substance  with  us,  and  that  our 
God  has  taken  His  flesh  from  her. 

Basil,  Bishop  of  Seleucia,  said.  If  His  Mother  is  con- 
substantial with  us.  He  is  likewise ;  for  He  has  been 
called  the  Son  of  Man.  Eutyches  answered.  Since  you 
now  affirm  it,  I  consent  to  every  thing.  Florentius  the 
patrician  said.  The  Mother  being  consubstantial  with  us, 
the  Son  is  certainly  consubstantial  with  us  too.  Euty- 
ches said,  I  have  not  said  so  hitherto ;  for  as  I  maintain 
that  His  body  is  the  body  of  a  God,  do  you  understand 
me  ?  I  do  not  say,  that  the  body  of  God  is  the  body  of 
a  man,  but  a  human  body,  and  that  the  Lord  is  incarnate 
of  the  Virgin.  But  if  I  must  add  that  He  is  consubstan- 
tial with  us,  I  say  that  likewise  ;  I  have  not  declared  it 
before  ;  but  now,  since  your  holiness  has  said  it,  I  agree 
to  it.  Flavian  replied.  It  is  then  by  necessity,  and  not 
according  to  your  opinion,  that  you  confess  the  faith. 
Eutyches  said,  It  is  my  present  opinion ;  till  this  hour 
I  feared  to  say  it ;  and  knowing  that  the  Lord  is  our 
God,  I  did  not  suffer  myself  to  reason  upon  His  nature  ; 
but  since  your  holiness  allows  and  teaches  me,  I  con- 
sent. Flavian  said,  We  innovate  nothing,  we  only 
follow  the  faith  of  our  fathers.  Florentius  the  patrician 
said,  Tell  us  whether  the  Lord  is  of  two  natures  after 
the  incarnation,  or  not?  Eutyches  replied,  I  confess  that 
he  was  of  two  natures  before  the  union,  but  after  the 
union  I  confess  but  one. 

The  council  said,  You  must  make  a  clear  confession, 
and  anathematize  whatever  is  contrary  to  the  doctrine 
which  has  been  just  now  read  to  you.     Eutyches  said,  I 


have  told  you  that  I  have  not  said  it  before  now  ;  since 
I  am  taught  it  by  you,  I  agree  to  it,  and  follow  my 
fathers.  But  it  has  not  appeared  plainly  to  me  in  the 
Scriptures,  and  the  fathers  have  not  all  said  it;  if  I 
pronounce  this  anathema,  woe  be  to  me,  for  I  anathema- 
tize my  fathers.  All  the  council  arose,  and  cried  aloud, 
saying.  Let  him  be  anathematized.  Flavian  said,  Let 
the  council  declare  what  this  man  deseiTes,  who  will 
neither  clearly  confess  the  true  faith,  nor  submit  to  the 
opinion  of  the  council.  Seleucus,  Bishop  of  Amasea, 
said,  Ke  deserves  to  be  deposed,  but  you  may  be  indul- 
gent to  him.  Flavian  answered.  If  he  confesses  his 
fault,  and  anathematizes  his  error,  we  may  pardon  him. 
Florentius  asked  him,  Do  you  say  that  there  are  two 
natures,  and  that  Jesus  Christ  is  consubstantial  with  us  ? 
speak.  Eutyches  replied,  I  have  read  in  St.  Cyril  and 
St.  Athanasius,  that  He  is  of  two  natures  before  the 
union  ;  but  after  the  union  and  incarnation,  they  say  no 
more  two  natures,  but  one.  Florentius  said,  Do  you 
confess  two  natures  after  the  union  ?  speak.  Eutyches 
answered,  if  you  please  to  order  St.  Athanasius  to  be 
read,  you  will  find  no  such  thing  there.  Basil  of  Seleu- 
cia  said.  If  you  do  not  say  two  natures  after  the  union, 
you  admit  a  mixture  and  confusion.  Florentius  said, 
He  that  says  not,  of  tsvo  natures,  and  two  natures,  does 
not  think  right.  The  whole  council  arose,  and  cried 
aloud.  The  faith  is  not  forced :  many  years  to  the  em- 
perors, many  years.  Our  faith  is  always  victorious.  He 
does  not  submit,  why  do  you  exhort  him. 

Flavian  pronounced  sentence  in  these  terms  :  Eutyches, 
formerly  priest  and  Archimandrite,  being  fully  convicted, 
as  well  by  his  past  actions  as  his  present  declarations,  of 
maintaining  the  error  of  Valentinus  and  Apollinarius, 
and  of  following  obstinately  their  blasphemies ;  and  so 
much  the  more  as  he  has  not  regarded  our  advice  and 
instractions,  by  receiving  the  holy  doctrine  :  it  is  for  this 
reason  that,  with  tears  and  groans  for  his  total  loss,  we 


declare,  on  the  part  of  Jesus  Christ,  Whom  he  has  blas- 
phemed, that  he  is  deprived  of  all  sacerdotal  rank,  of  our 
communion,  and  of  the  government  of  his  monastery ; 
informing  all  those  who  shall  discourse,  or  converse  with 
him  for  the  future,  that  they  shall  themselves  be  subject 
to  excommunication.  This  sentence  was  subscribed  by 
thirty-two  bishops  and  twenty-three  abbots,  eighteen  of 
which  were  priests,  one  deacon,  and  four  laymen.  The 
most  eminent  are  Andrew,  Faustus,  (who  seems  to  be  the 
son  of  St.  Dalmatius)  Martin,  Job,  Manuel,  Abraham, 
Marcellus,  abbot  of  the  Acemets.  The  most  considerable 
bishops  were  Flavian  of  Constantinople,  Saturnius  of 
Marcianopolis,  Basil  of  Seleucia,  Seleucus  of  Amasea, 
Ethericus  of  Smyrna,  and  Julian  of  Coos,  deputed  by 
St.  Leo. 

The  controversy  raged  for  a  considerable  time,  until 
Eutyches  at  last,  through  the  influence  of  a  friend  at 
court,  the  eunuch  Chrysaphius,  persuaded  the  emperor 
to  convoke  a  council  at  Ephesus,  which  assembled  in 
August  449.  It  consisted  of  130  bishops,  and  is  called 
in  ecclesiastical  history  the  Latrocinium  of  Ephesus, 
the  convention  of  robbers.  In  this  synod  Eutyches  was 
absolved  from  the  censure  of  the  synod  of  Constantino- 
ple ;  and  Flavian,  who  had  pronounced  sentence  against 
him,  was  deposed  and  treated  with  such  violence,  that  on 
this  account,  together  with  its  other  irregular  proceedings, 
the  synod  received  the  title  just  mentioned.  Flavian 
was  committed  to  prison  and  then  banished,  but  he  died 
in  a  few  days  at  Hypaea  in  Lydia,  of  the  kicks  he  received 
from  Barsumas  and  his  monks  Dioscorus  the  president, 
excommunicated  Leo,  the  Pope  of  Rome. 

A  council  was  held  every  year  at  Rome,  and  the  council 
now  held  there,  of  course  condemned  the  Latrocinium  of 
Ephesus.  Through  the  exertions  of  Leo  the  great,  Bishop 
of  Rome,  among  others,  the  emperor  Marcian,  Theo- 
dosius  being  now  dead,  consented  to  call  a  council  at 
Chalcedon,  which   council  is  the  fourth  of  the  general 


councils.  This  was  done  to  secure  the  final  decision  of 
the  Church  universal,  and  so  to  settle  the  disputes  which 
had  arisen  or  might  arise  in  provincial  councils. 

The  council  assembled  in  the  church  of  St.  Euphemia 
the  martyr,  situated  on  the  outside  of  the  city,  about  two 
hundred  and  fifty  paces  from  the  Bosphorus,  with  a 
magnificent  prospect  before  it,  including  a  view  of  Con^ 
stantinople.  The  Basilica  was  spacious,  supported  by 
magnificent  pillars.  And  it  is  mentioned  that  there  was 
a  gallery  running  round  it  for  the  people  to  pray  in  and 
to  hear  the  office. 

The  council  assembled,  by  command,  not  of  the  Pope  of 
Eome,  but  of  the  emperor  Marcian,  on  the  8th  of  October, 
451.  The  council  was  attended  by  nineteen  chief  officers 
of  the  empire,  and  630  bishops.  The  order  of  their  sit- 
ting was  this :  the  magistrates  were  placed  in  the  mid- 
dle, before  the  balustrade  surrounding  the  altar  ;  on  the 
left  sat  the  legates  of  the  Bishop  of  Rome,  and  of  Auato- 
lius.  Bishop  of  Constantinople,  and  other  bishops  of  the 
Eastern  dioceses,  Antioch,  Caesarea,  Ephesus,  Pontus, 
Asia,  Thrace ;  on  the  right  were  Dioscorus  of  Alexandria, 
with  the  bishops  of  Jerusalem  and  Corinth,  the  legates  of 
Anastasius,  Bishop  of  Thessalonica,  and  the  rest  of  the 
bishops  of  the  dioceses  of  Eg}^t  and  Illyricum.  The 
gospel  was  placed  in  the  midst  of  the  assembly.  It  may 
be  remarked  here,  that  from  what  occurred  in  the  eleventh 
and  twelfth  sessions,  the  majority  of  the  Asiatic  bishops 
were  married  men. 

This  synod  published  a  confession  or  definition  of 
faith,  in  which  the  doctrine  and  creed  of  the  three  pre- 
ceding councils  of  Nice,  Constantinople,  and  Ephesus 
were  confirmed,  and  the  epistles  of  St.  Cyril  of  Alexan- 
dria, and  that  of  Leo,  the  Bishop  of  Rome,  were  approved. 
The  orthodox  doctrine  of  the  existence  of  two  perfect  and 
distinct  natures,  the  divine  and  human,  in  the  unity  of 
the  Person  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  was  clearly  defined. 

Eutyches  was  in  this  council  anathematized  as  well  as 


Dioscorus,  Bishop  of  Alexandria.  They  maintained,  as 
will  be  remembered,  that  there  was  only  one  nature  in  our 
Lord  Jesus  Christ  after  the  incarnation,  or  the  union  of 
the  divinity  and  the  humanity.  The  decree  of  the  Latro- 
cinium  was  annulled,  and  though  a  few  bishops  of  Egypt 
and  Palestine,  of  the  party  of  Dioscoms,  opposed  the 
orthodox  doctrine  and  founded  the  Monophysite  sect, 
the  infinite  majority  of  the  Catholic  Church  throughout 
the  world  received  the  doctrine  of  the  (Ecumenical 
synod.  The  doctrine  taught  by  this  synod  is  as  follows  : 
"  We  confess  and  with  one  accord  teach,  one  and  the 
same  Son,  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ ;  perfect  in  divinity, 
perfect  in  humanity ;  truly  God,  truly  man ;  consisting 
of  a  reasonable  soul  and  body ;  consubstantial  with  the 
Father  according  to  the  Godhead,  and  consubstantial 
with  us  according  to  the  manhood ;  in  all  things  like  to 
us  without  sin ;  Who  was  begotten  of  the  Father,  before 
all  ages,  according  to  the  Godhead  ;  and  in  the  last  days, 
the  same  born  according  to  the  manhood,  of  Mary  the 
Virgin,  Mother  of  God,  for  us  and  our  salvation,  Who  is 
to  be  acknowledged  one  and  the  same  Christ,  the  Son, 
the  Lord,  the  only  begotten,  in  two  natures,  without 
mixture,  change,  division,  or  separation ;  the  difference 
of  natures  not  being  removed  by  their  union,  but  rather 
the  propriety  of  each  nature  being  preserved  and  con- 
curring in  one  aspect  and  person.  So  that  He  is  not 
separate  or  divided  into  two  persons,  but  is  one  and  the 
same  only  Son,  God  the  Word,  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ." 

After  the  reading  of  the  definition,  all  the  bishops  cried 
out,  this  is  the  faith  of  the  fathers  ;  let  the  metropolitans 
subscribe  in  the  presence  of  the  magistrates ;  what  has 
been  defined  admits  of  no  delay ;  this  is  the  faith  of  the 
apostles,  we  all  follow  it.  The  magistrates  said,  what 
the  Fathers  have  decreed,  and  with  which  every  body  is 
satisfied,  shall  be  related  to  the  emperor. 

At  the  sixth  session  the  emperor  Marcian  came  in 
person  to  the  council.     He  made  a  speech,  which  he 


delivered  in  Latin,  being  the  language  of  the  empire, 
and  which  was  intei-preted  in  Greek.  He  therein  shewed 
the  intention  he  had  in  convening  the  council,  to  pre- 
serve the  purity  of  the  faith,  w^hich  had  been  sometime 
changed  by  the  avarice  and  passion  of  particular  persons  ; 
(meaning,  without  doubt,  Chrysaphius.)  He  said,  that 
no  other  belief  concerning  the  mysteiy  of  the  incarnation 
should  be  entertained,  than  what  had  been  taught  by  the 
fathers  of  Nice,  and  Leo,  in  his  letter  to  Flavian. 
He  declares  that  after  the  example  of  Constantino,  his 
desire  of  assisting  at  the  council,  was  only  to  establish 
the  faith,  not  to  shew  his  power,  and  exhorts  the  fathers 
sincerely  to  explain  the  faith,  agreeable  to  what  they  had 
received  by  tradition.  All  the  bishops  cried  out.  Long 
life  to  the  emperor,  long  life  to  the  empress  ;  long  life  to 
the  catholic  princes.  The  archdeacon  Aetius  afterwards 
said,  that  he  had  in  his  hands  the  definition  of  faith 
made  by  the  council,  and  read  it  by  the  emperor's  order. 
It  was  that  of  the  preceding  day,  which  was  subscribed 
by  all  the  bishops,  to  the  number  of  356,  beginning  with 
the  legates.  Diogenes,  metropolitan  of  Cyzicus,  sub- 
scribed for  himself  and  six  of  his  suffragan  bishops,  who 
were  absent :  as  also  did  Theodore  of  Tarsus,  and  twelve 
other  metropolitans. 

The  emperor  asked  if  all  the  council  agreed  to  this 
confession  of  faith.  All  the  bishops  cried  out.  We  all 
agree  to  this  :  we  have  all  voluntarily  subscribed :  we  are 
all  orthodox.  To  this  they  added  several  other  acclama- 
tions of  praises  and  wishes  for  the  emperor  and  empress  ; 
calling  him  the  new  Constantine,  and  her  the  new 

The  emperor  said :  The  catholic  faith  having  been 
declared,  we  think  it  just  and  expedient  to  take  away  all 
pretence  of  division  for  the  future.  Whosoever,  therefore, 
shall  raise  a  disturbance  in  public,  (speaking  of  the  faith) 
if  he  is  a  private  person  he  shall  be  expelled  the  imperial 
city ;  if  an  officer,  discharged  ;  if  he  be  a  clerk,  he  shall 


be  deposed,  and  subject  to  other  punisbments.  All  tbe 
bishops  cried  aloud,  Long  live  the  emperor,  long  live  the 
pious  prince  :  you  have  reformed  the  churches,  you  have 
established  the  faith  :  long  live  the  empress.  God  pre- 
serve your  empire;  you  have  driven  out  the  heretics. 
Anathema  to  Nestorius,  Eutyches,  and  Dioscorus. 

The  emperor  said  :  There  are  some  articles  which  we 
have  in  respect  to  you  reserved,  thinking  it  more  proper 
to  have  them  canonically  ordained  in  the  council,  rather 
than  commanded  by  our  laws.  The  secretary  Beronician 
read  them  by  the  emperor's  order.  There  were  three  of 
them,  the  first  of  which  was  expressed  in  these  terms  : 
We  pay  honour,  as  they  deserve,  to  all  those  who  sin- 
cerely embrace  a  monastic  life ;  but  because  some  persons 
under  that  pretence  disturb  the  Church  and  State,  it  is 
ordained,  that  nobody  shall  build  a  monastery,  without 
the  consent  of  the  bishop  of  the  city,  and  the  proprietor 
of  the  land ;  and  that  the  monks,  as  well  in  the  city  as 
the  country,  be  subject  to  the  bishop,  and  live  in  quiet ; 
applying  themselves  only  to  fasting  and  prayer,  without 
engaging  in  ecclesiastical  or  secular  affairs,  unless  they 
are  in  case  of  necessity  employed  by  their  bishop :  neither 
shall  they  receive  slaves  into  their  monasteries,  without 
consent  of  their  masters. 

The  second  article  imports  :  That  because  some  clerks 
and  monks,  out  of  avarice,  are  engaged  in  secular  affairs, 
the  council  has  ordained,  that  no  clerk  shall  farm  any 
land,  or  enter  upon  the  office  of  steward,  unless  em- 
ployed by  his  bishop  in  the  care  of  the  church  lands.  If 
contrary  to  this  prohibition,  any  one  shall  dare  to  become 
farmer  himself,  or  by  any  other,  he  shall  be  subject  to  an 
ecclesiastical  punishment ;  and  if  he  obstinately  persists, 
he  shall  be  deprived  of  his  dignity.  The  third  imports, 
that  the  clerks  who  are  in  the  service  of  one  church,  shall 
not  be  appointed  to  the  church  of  another  city  ;  but  that 
they  ougbt  to  be  contented  with  that  to  which  they  were 
first  appointed  ;  except  those  who,  being  driven  out  of 


their  own  countiy,  have,  through  necessity,  entered  into 
the  service  of  another  Church.  If  any  one,  contrary  to 
this  decree,  receive  a  clerk  who  belongs  to  another  bishop, 
both  the  bishop  receiving  him,  and  the  clerk  so  received, 
shall  be  excommunicated,  till  such  time  as  the  clerk 
returns  to  his  church.  These  three  articles  having  been 
read,  the  emperor  gave  them  to  the  Bishop  Anatolius,  and 
after  some  acclamations,  he  said  : — 

In  honour  of  St.  Euphemia  and  your  holiness,  we 
order  that  the  city  of  Chalcedon,  in  which  the  holy  coun- 
cil has  been  assembled,  have  the  privileges  of  a  metro- 
polis ;  but  in  name  only,  without  prejudice  to  the  dignity 
of  the  metropolis  of  Nicomedia.  The  council,  by  their 
acclamations,  gave  approbations  of  it,  adding  at  the  end ; 
we  beseech  you  to  dismiss  us.  The  emperor  replied,  I 
know  you  are  fatigued  with  so  long  a  stay;  however, 
have  patience  for  three  or  four  days,  and  prosecute  the 
affairs  you  think  proper,  in  presence  of  the  magistrates, 
being  assured  of  having  all  necessary  assistance ;  and 
let  nobody  depart  till  the  whole  be  finished.  Thus  ended 
the  sixth  session. 

The  last  words  of  the  bishops,  who  desired  to  be  dis- 
missed, shew  that  they  thought  the  council  was  ended, 
because  they  were  convened  for  the  definition  of  faith, 
which  they  had  authorized  by  their  subscriptions.  They 
had  likewise  approved  the  three  canons  which  were  pro- 
posed by  the  emperor :  they  therefore  thought  they  had 
nothing  more  to  do  for  the  general  interest  of  the  Church. 
It  likewise  appears  by  the  emperor's  answer,  that  he  did 
not  retain  them  at  Chalcedon,  but  for  particular  affairs. 
It  is  for  this  reason,  that  the  ancients  made  a  great  dis- 
tinction between  the  first  six  sessions  and  the  following, 
wherein  the  faith  was  no  longer  considered. 

What  became  of  Eutyches  after  the  council  of  Chal- 
cedon is  uncertain. — Evagrius  Scholasticus.  Definitio 
Fidei,  apiid  Bouth  opuscula.  Fleury.  Palmers  Treatise 
on  the  Church. 



Basil  Faber,  an  eminent  Lutheran  divine,  was  born 
in  1520,  at  Sorau,  in  Lower  Lusatia.  He  studied  at  Wit- 
temberg,  and  successively  became  a  teacher  in  the  schools 
at  Nordhausen,  Tennstadt,  and  Quedlinburg,  and  rector 
of  the  Augustinian  college  of  Erfurt.  He  translated 
into  German  the  notes  of  Luther  on  Genesis,  and  the 
Chronicle  of  Krantzius.  He  published  also  observations 
on  Cicero,  and  other  learned  works,  and  was  concerned 
in  the  Magdeburgh  Centuries  ;  but  his  best  known  work 
is  his  Thesaurus  Eruditionis  Scholasticae,  first  published 
in  1571.  After  his  death  it  was  augmented  and  im- 
proved by  Buchner,  Thomasius,  Christopher  Cellarius, 
and  the  elder  and  younger  Graevius.  The  edition  pub- 
lished at  the  Hague,  1735,  in  two  vols,  fol.  is  excelled  by 
that  by  John  Henry  Leich,  Frankfort,  1749,  two  vols,  fol. 
Faber  died  in  1576. — Gen.  Diet. 


John  Faber,  called  Malleus  Hereticorum,  "  the 
Hammer  of  Heretics,"  was  born  in  Suabia  in  1479.  He 
became  Archbishop  of  Vienna,  and  died  in  1542.  His 
works  were  printed  in  three  vols,  fol.  at  Cologne  in 
1537-41.  On  his  advancement  to  the  episcopacy,  Eras- 
mus said,  "  Though  Luther  is  poor  himself,  he  makes 
his  enemies  rich."  In  a  dispute  with  the  Zuinglians, 
this  zealous  Romanist  is  reported  to  have  exclaimed, 
when  hard  pressed  by  his  opponents'  continued  appeal 
to  the  Gospel,  "  that  the  world  might  very  well  live  in 
peace  without  the  Gospel." — Moreri.     Dupin. 


Francis  Fabricius  was  born  at  Amsterdam  in  1663. 
He  studied  the  Oriental  languages  at  Ley  den,  where  he 

FAGIUS.  4» 

was  chosen  to  the  pastoral  ofifice,  and  the  divinity  pro- 
fessorship ;  to  which  was  afterwards  added  that  of  elo- 
quence. He  died  in  1738.  His  works  are, — 1.  Christus 
unicum  ac  perpetuum  Fundamentum  Ecclesiae,  Leyden, 
1717,  4to.  2.  De  Sacerdotio  Christi  juxta  Ordinem 
Melchizedeci,  ib.  1720,  4to.  3.  Christologia  Noachica  et 
Abrahamica,  ib.  1727,  4to.  4.  De  Fide  Christiana  Pa- 
triarcharum  et  Prophetarum,  ib.  4to.  5.  Orator  Sacer, 
ib.  ]  733,  4to.  This  contains  the  substance  of  his  lectures 
on  preaching. — Moreri. 


Andrew  Fabricius,  a  Romish  divine,  was  bom  in  1520, 
at  Hodege,  in  the  district  of  Liege.  He  studied  philoso- 
phy and  divinity  at  Ingolstadt,  and  taught  those  sciences 
at  Louvain.  Cardinal  Otho  Truchses,  Bishop  of  Augs- 
burgh,  engaged  him  in  his  service,  and  sent  him  to 
Rome,  where  he  remained  as  his  agent  for  about  six 
years  under  the  pontificate  of  Pius  IV.  On  his  return 
he  was  promoted  to  be  councillor  to  the  Duke  of  Bavaria, 
and  was  advanced  to  the  provostship  of  Ottingen,  in 
Suabia,  where  he  died  in  1581.  His  principal  work  was 
Harmonia  Confessionis  Augustinianae,  Cologne,  1573  and 
1587,  fol.  He  wrote  also  a  Catechismus  Romanus  ex 
Decreto  Concilii  Tiidentini,  with  notes  and  illustrations, 
1570  and  1574,  8vo ;  and  three  Latin  tragedies, — 
1.  Jeroboam  Rebellens,  Ingolstadt,  1565.  2.  Religio 
Patiens,  Cologne,  1566.     3.  Samson,  ib.,  1569. — Moreri. 


Paul  Fagius,  or  Phagius,  was  born  at  Rheinzabern  in 
Germany,  in  the  year  1504.  His  German  name  was 
Buchlein.     His  father  was  a  schoolmaster,    and  by  him 

VOL.    V.  E 

50  FAGIUS. 

he  was  educated  until  he  was  sent  to  Heidelberg  at  eleven 
years  of  age.  From  Heidelberg  he  was  removed  to  Stras- 
burg  at  the  age  of  fifteen.  Under  the  instruction  of 
Elias  Levita,  a  learned  Jew,  he  became  a  good  Hebrew 
scholar.  In  1527  he  married  and  kept  a  school  at  Isne, 
and  afterwards  became  a  protestant  preacher  distinguished 
for  his  zeal.  He  proved  the  earnestness  and  the  sincerity 
of  his  faith,  by  remaining  at  his  post  at  Isne  during  the 
plague  in  1541.  He  attended  the  sick  and  dying,  and 
remonstrated  with  his  protestant  brethren,  who  fled  from 
the  city  without  making  provision  for  the  poor.  He  was 
soon  after  called  by  the  senate  at  Strasburg  to  succeed 
Wolfgang  Capito  in  the  preachership  there,  but  he  did 
not  stay  there  long,  being  appointed  to  a  professorship 
at  Heidelberg. 

On  the  publication  of  the  celebrated  Interim  by  the 
emperor,  Fagius  thought  it  unsafe  to  remain  in  Germany, 
and  therefore,  in  1 548,  he  accepted  the  invitation  of  Dr. 
Cranmer,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  came  to 
England.  He  was  nominated  by  the  Archbishop  to  the 
professorship  of  Hebrew  in  the  university  of  Cambridge. 
Before  he  went  to  Cambridge,  he  resided  with  the  arch- 
bishop at  Lambeth,  where  he  was  associated  with  Bucer. 
His  labours  while  there,  in  addition  to  the  preparation 
necessary  for  his  professional  ofiice,  are  thus  described 
by  Strype  :  *'  As  it  has  been  a  great  while  the  arch- 
bishop's desire  that  the  Holy  Bible  should  come  abroad 
in  the  greatest  exactness,  and  true  agreement  with  the 
original  text:  so  he  laid  this  work  upon  these  two  learned 
men,  viz.  Fagius  and  Bucer.  First,  that  they  should  give 
a  clear,  plain,  and  succinct  interpretation  of  the  Scripture, 
according  to  the  propriety  of  the  language .  And,  secondly, 
illustrate  difficult  and  obscure  places,  and  reconcile  those 
that  seemed  repugnant  to  one  another.  And  it  was  his 
will  and  his  advice,  that  to  this  end  and  purpose  their 
public  readings  should  tend.  This  pious  and  good  work, 
by  the  archbishop  assigned  to  them,  they  most   gladly 

FAGIUS.  51 

and  readily  undertook.  For  their  more  regular  carrying 
on  this  business,  they  allotted  to  each  other,  by  consent, 
their  distinct  tasks.  Fagius,  because  his  talent  lay  in 
the  Hebrew  learning,  was  to  undertake  the  Old  Testa- 
ment ;  and  Bucer  the  New.  The  leisure  they  now 
enjoyed  with  the  Archbishop,  they  spent  in  preparing 
their  respective  lectures.  Fagius  entered  upon  the  evan- 
gelical Prophet  Esaias,  and  Bucer  upon  the  Gospel  of 
the  Evangelist  John:  and  some  chapters  in  each  book 
were  dispatched  by  them.  But  it  was  not  long,  but  both 
of  them  fell  sick :  which  gave  a  very  unhappy  stop  to 
their  studies." 

Notwithstanding  his  illness,  Fagius,  who  was  a  con- 
scientious man,  was  determined  to  go  to  Cambridge. 
We  can  easily  imagine  the  consternation  which  his  arrival 
in  the  university  would  exite.  Bbt  whatever  may  have 
been  their  fears,  they  were  soon  dissipated  by  the  death 
of  Fagius.  He  died  Nov.  12th,  1550.  The  archbishop 
provided  for  his  widow.  His  body,  with  that  of  Bucer, 
was  dug  up  in  the  reign  of  Mary  and  burnt;  a  disgrace- 
ful act  of  the  Romish  party,  whose  conduct  throughout 
that  reign  was  atrocious. 

Fagius  wrote  numerous  works,  both  in  German  and 
Latin.  Among  them  we  find,  Metaphrasis  et  Enarratio 
perpetua  Epistolae  D.  Pauli  ad  Romanes,  Strasburg, 
1536,  fol.  Pirskoavol;  seu  Sententiae  veterum  sapientum 
Hebraeorum,  quas  Apophthegmata  Patrum  nominant, 
Isne,  1541,  4to.  Expositio  literalis  in  IV.  priora  Capita 
Geneseos,  cui  accessit  Textus  Hebra'ici  et  Paraphraseos 
Chalda'icse  collatio,  ibid.  4to ;  reprinted  in  the  Critici 
Sacri.  Precationes  Hebraicae,  ex  libello  Hebraico  ex- 
cerptae  cui  Nomen,  Liber  Fidei,  ibid.  1542,  8vo.  Tobias 
Hebraicus  in  Latinam  translatus,  ibid.  1542,  4to.  Ben 
Syrae  Sententiae  Morales,  cum  succincto  Commentario, 
ibid.  1542,  4to.  Isagoge  in  Linguam  Hebraicam,  Con- 
stance, 1543,  4to.  Breves  Annotationes  in  Targum,  seu 
Paraphrasis  Chaldaica  Onkeli  in  Pentateucham,   Isne 

52  FAREL. 

1546,  fol.,  reprinted  in  the  Critici  Sacri.  Opusculum 
Hebraicum  Thisbites  inscriptum  ab  Elia  Levita  elabora- 
tum,  Latinitate  donatum,  ibid.  1541,  4to.  Translationum 
praecipuamm  Veteris  Testamenti  inter  se  variantium 
collatio,  reprinted  in  the  Critici  Sacri.  Fagius's  Com- 
mentaries on  the  Targum  are  held  in  high  estimation. 
— Melchior  Adam.     Strype.     Soames. 


William  Farel,  who  is  described  by  D'Aubigny  as 
"  the  most  impetuous"  of  the  foreign  and  early  reformers, 
and  of  whom  Erasmus  says,  that  he  never  saw  a  man 
"  more  false,  more  virulent,  or  more  seditious,"  was 
the  son  of  a  gentleman  of  Dauphine,  and  was  born  at 
Gap  in  the  year  1489.  He  studied  at  Paris  with  much 
success.  Here  he  recommended  himself  to  the  notice  of 
James  le  Fevre,  of  Staples,  who  was  one  of  its  greatest 
ornaments,  by  whose  interest  he  obtained  the  appoint- 
ment of  tutor  in  the  college  of  cardinal  le  Moine.  In 
1621  he  was  invited  by  William  Bri9onet,  Bishop  of 
Meaux,  who  was  inclined  to  the  principles  of  the  refor- 
mation, to  preach  in  that  city,  where  he  boldly  propa- 
gated the  new  opinions.  In  1523,  however,  a  persecu- 
tion was  commenced  at  Meaux  by  the  Franciscans,  which 
obliged  Farel  to  provide  for  his  safety  by  retiring  to 
Strasburg,  where  he  was  received  by  Bucer  and  Capito, 
as  he  was  afterwards  by  Zuinglius  at  Zurich,  by  Haller  at 
Berne,  and  by  (Ecolampadius  at  Basle,  where,  in  1524, 
he  publicly  defended  theses  in  opposition  to  the  doctrines 
and  usages  of  the  Papists ;  but  he  was  soon  afterwards 
obliged  to  quit  that  city.  He  next  undertook  the  reforma- 
tion of  Montbeliard,  under  the  protection  of  the  Duke  of 
Wirtemberg,  the  lord  of  that  place.  He  pursued  the 
design  with  an  intemperate  warmth,  and  an  imprudence 
of  conduct  that  cannot  be  defended.     Once,  upon  a  pro- 

FAREL.  53 

cession  day,  he  wrested  from  the  hands  of  a  priest  the 
image  of  St.  Anthony,  and  threw  it  from  the  bridge  into 
the  river,  which  so  exasperated  the  mob,  that  it  was  a 
wonder  he  was  not  torn  to  pieces.  Such,  indeed,  was  his 
violence,  that  OEcolampadius  remonstrated  with  him : 
"  Men  may  be  led,"  said  he,  in  his  correspondence  with 
him,  "  but  will  not  be  driven  by  force.  Give  me  leave 
as  a  friend,  and  as  a  brother  to  a  brother,  to  say,  you  do 
not  seem  in  eveiy  respect  to  remember  your  duty.  You 
were  sent  to  preach,  and  not  to  rail.  I  excuse,  nay  I 
commend  your  zeal,  so  that  it  be  not  without  meekness. 
Endeavour,  my  brother,  that  this  advice  may  have  its 
desired  effect,  and  I  have  reason  to  rejoice  that  T  gave 
it.  Pour  on  wine  and  oil  in  due  season,  and  demean 
yourself  as  an  evangelist,  and  not  as  a  tyrannical  legis- 

In  1528  Farel  proved  successful  in  propagating  the 
principles  of  the  Reformation  at  Aigle,  and  in  the 
bailiwic  of  Morat.  Here,  according  to  D'Aubigny,  his 
national  energy  was  by  external  circumstances  for  some 
time  quelled :  "  Believing  that  he  was  following  the 
example  of  the  Apostles,  he  sought,"  says  D'Aubigny, 
"  in  the  words  of  (Ecolampadius,  '  by  pious  frauds  to 
circumvent  the  old  serpent  that  was  hissing  around  him.' " 
It  is  sometimes  said  that  pious  frauds  are  confined  to 
the  Romish  communion.  In  the  following  year  he  went 
to  Neufchatel,  where  he  combated  the  Roman  Catholic 
party  with  such  earnestness  and  efficacy,  that  in  Novem- 
ber 1530,  the  reformed  religion  was  established  in  that 
city.  Some  time  after  this  he  was  sent  deputy  to  the 
synod  of  the  Vaudois,  in  the  valley  of  Angrogne.  Thence 
he  went  to  Geneva,  where  he  openly  disputed  against  the 
tenets  of  popery  ;  but  he  was  obliged  to  retire  from  that 
city  in  consequence  of  the  violent  opposition  that  was 
excited  against  him  by  the  grand-vicar,  and  the  other 
ecclesiastics.  But  when,  in  1534,  the  inhabitants  ex- 
pressed a  disposition  to  renounce  the  Romish  religion, 

54  FAREL. 

he  was  recalled,  and  proved  the  principal  instrument  of 
effecting  its  suppression.  In  1538  he  was  banished  from 
Geneva,  together  with  Calvin,  for  refusing  to  submit  to 
some  ecclesiastical  regulations  decreed  by  the  synod  of 
Berne.  He  now  retired  to  Basle,  and  afterwards  to  Neuf- 
chatel,  where  he  exercised  his  ministerial  functions  till 
1542.  In  the  same  year  he  went  to  Metz,  where  he 
gained  numerous  proselytes,  but  was  obliged  by  the 
popish  party  to  take  refuge  in  the  abbey  of  Gorze,  where 
the  Count  of  Furstenberg  took  him  and  his  companions 
under  his  protection.  Their  enemies,  however,  besieged 
them  in  their  asylum,  and  obliged  them  to  surrender  upon 
a  capitulation.  Farel,  however,  contrived  to  escape,  and 
returned  to  his  former  flock  at  Neufchatel,  to  whose 
service,  excepting  while  he  paid  short  visits  to  other 
churches,  he  devoted  his  future  labours.  In  1553  he 
was  forced  to  appear  at  Geneva,  in  consequence  of  a 
prosecution  that  had  been  commenced  against  him  for  a 
capital  offence,  of  which  he  had  been  unjustly  accused. 
It  was  while  Farel  was  at  Geneva  on  this  business,  that 
he  brought  indelible  disgrace  on  his  own  character,  by 
assisting  at  the  execution  of  Servetus.  (See  the  life  of 
Calvin.)  In  1558  he  took  to  himself  a  wife,  by  whom 
he  had  a  son,  who  did  not  long  survive  him. 

His  marriage  at  so  late  a  period  of  his  life,  astonished 
his  contemporaries.  Some,  according  to  Ancillon,  sup- 
posing that  miraculous  inspirations  were  sometimes 
vouchsafed  to  reformers,  asserted  that  he  was  urged  to 
marry  by  some  secret  inspiration;  others  affirm  that 
he  did  so  to  prove  to  the  Romanists  that  celibacy  is 
neither  meritorious  nor  satisfactory ;  but  why  it  should  be 
so  important  for  Farel  to  marry,  that  there  should  be 
a  miraculous  interference  necessary  to  persuade  him  to 
the  course,  is  not  apparent,  and  if  he  was  influenced  by 
principle,  it  is  curious  that  he  should  not  have  acted 
upon  it  till  his  70th  year.  But  the  difficulty  vanishes 
when  we  learn  that  he  was  married  before,  a  fact  of  which 

FAREL.  65 

Ancillon  was  ignorant,  but  which  is  asserted  by  Florimond 
de  Remond ;  he  married  late  in  life,  as  he  had  done  in 
his  youth,  to  please  himself,  although  perhaps  he  was 
also  influenced  by  the  principle  before  alluded  to,  for  he 
was  very  urgent  with  monks  and  nuns  to  break  their 
vows.  It  is  but  seldom  that  we  can  quote  satisfactorily 
from  Bayle,  but  the  following  remarks  are  just. 

"It  must  be  considered,  that  the  celibacy  of  priests  had 
been  for  many  ages  an  unexhausted  source  of  scandalous 
impurities  which  dishonoured  the  Christian  name.  It 
was  therefore  necessary  to  put  the  axe  to  the  root  of  the 
tree,  and  to  drain  that  source  by  the  abolition  of  vows. 
It  was  necessary  manfully  to  censure  that  pernicious 
tenet,  that  a  whoring  priest  committed  a  less  sin  than  a 
priest  that  married.  That  tenet  is  a  necessary  conse- 
quence of  the  laws  of  celibacy :  for,  according  to  the  prin- 
ciples of  the  Fiomanists,  a  clerk  who  marries  after  the 
vows  of  continence,  engages  himself  by  oath  to  violate  all 
his  life-time  an  inviolable  law ;  and  therefore  he  is  more 
guilty  than  if  he  should  fall  sometimes  into  the  sin  of 
fornication.  This  transient  fall  does  not  hinder  him 
from  acknowledging  his  fault,  and  repenting  it,  or  from 
returning  to  the  observation  of  his  vow ;  but  if  he  marries, 
he  runs  himself  into  the  necessity  of  violating  it  without 
remorse,  and  without  repentance.  It  was  therefore  neces- 
sary vigorously  to  preach  up  the  honesty  and  dignity  of 
marriage,  and  against  the  audaciousness  of  those  who 
disparaged  it  so  far  as  to  prefer  fornication  to  it.  Besides, 
it  was  to  be  feared,  that  if  the  priests  and  monks  who 
renounced  Popery  should  abstain  from  marriage,  the 
same  impurities  might  soon  creep  into  the  reformed 
Church,  which  had  exposed  the  Romish  clergy  to  the 
detestation  and  contempt  of  honest  men.  In  order  there- 
fore, to  prevent  that  disorder,  it  was  necessary  to  encour- 
age those  gentlemen  to  marr}%  in  case  they  wanted  en- 
couragement ;  and  so  the  most  eminent  men  were  obliged 
to  shew  them  the  way.     We  must  do  the  great  men  of 

56  FAREL. 

the  primitive  Church  the  justice  to  own,  that  they  were 
led  by  fair  motives  to  recommend  celibacy ;  for  nothing 
is  more  proper  to  make  the  gospel  spread  and  fructify, 
than  the  belief,  that  those  who  preach  it  have  mortified 
their  flesh,  and  debar  themselves  even  of  those  pleasures 
which  worldly  men  may  enjoy  without  sin.  They  con- 
ceived that  marriage  was  attended  with  a  thousand 
earthly  and  sensual  cares,  which  made  too  great  a  diver- 
sion from  the  priestly  exercises;  and,  in  short,  being 
dazzled  by  the  fair  outsides  of  celibacy,  they  went  so  far, 
at  last,  as  to  turn  it  into  a  law.  But  it  may  be  said, 
that  the  promoters  of  such  a  law  had  not  sufficiently 
studied  human  nature  ;  for  if  they  had  been  thoroughly 
acquainted  with  it,  they  would  never  have  imposed  so 
heavy  a  yoke  on  the  necks  of  the  ministers  of  the  altar. 
Every  one  of  them  ought  to  have  said  to  the  other.  We 
go  no  deeper  than  the  bark;  the  shining  superficies  casts 
us  into  illusion : 

Maxima  pars  vatum,  pater  et  juvenes  patre  digni, 
Decipimur  specie  recti. 

If  they  had  foreseen  the  consequences  of  that  law,  they 
would,  in  all  probability,  have  looked  upon  their  fine 
notions  as  a  snare  of  the  devil." 

In  1564  Farel  went  again  to  Geneva,  to  take  his  leave 
of  Calvin,  who  was  dangerously  ill ;  and  in  the  following 
year  took  a  journey  to  Metz,  at  the  invitation  of  his  old 
flock.  A  few  months  after  his  return  from  this  journe}'-, 
he  died  at  Neufchatel,  in  1565,  in  the  seventy-sixth  year 
of  his  age.  The  writings  which  he  left  behind  him  were 
very  few,  consisting  of  some  Theses,  published  at  Basle, 
in  the  Latin  and  German  languages  ;  Disputatio  Bernse 
Habita,  1528;  Substance  and  brief  Declaration  necessary 
for  all  Christians,  1552  ;  a  Treatise  of  the  Blessed  Sacra- 
ment of  the  Lord,  and  of  His  Testament,  1553;  and  a 
book  levelled  against  libertines,  entitled  the  Sword  of 
the  Spirit,   1550. — Bayle.    Ancillon.    Clarke's  Medulla. 



Anthony  Faeingdon  was  born  at  Sunning  in  the 
county  of  Berks,  in  the  year  1596.  He  was  admitted 
scholar  of  Trinity  college  in  Oxford,  in  1612,  and  was 
elected  fellow  in  1617.  Three  years  after  he  took  his 
M.A.  degree ;  and  entering  into  holy  orders,  he  became  a 
celebrated  preacher  in  those  parts,  an  eminent  tutor  in 
the  college,  and,  as  Mr.  Wood  says,  an  example  fit  to  be 
followed  by  all.  In  the  year  1634,  being  then  B.D.,  he 
was  called  to  the  vicarage  of  Bray,  near  Maidenhead  in 
Berks,  and  soon  was  made  divinity-reader  in  the  king's 
chapel  at  Windsor.  He  continued  at  the  first  of  these 
places,  though  not  without  some  trouble,  till  after  the 
civil  commotions  broke  out ;  and  then  he  was  ejected  by 
the  presbyterian  dissenters,  for  the  sin  of  conformity  to 
the  Church  of  England,  and  was  reduced  with  his  wife 
and  family  to  such  extremities,  as  to  be  very  near  starving. 
At  length  Sir  John  Robinson,  alderman  of  the  city  of 
London,  and  kinsman  to  Archbishop  Laud,  and  some  of 
the  good  parishioners  of  Milk  street  in  London,  invited 
him  to  be  pastor  of  St.  Mary  Magdalen  there;  which 
invitation  he  gladly  accepted,  and  preached  to  the  great 
liking  of  the  royal  party.  In  the  year  1657,  he  published 
a  folio  volume  of  these  sermons,  and  dedicated  them  to 
his  kind  patron  Robinson,  "  as  a  witness  or  manifesto," 
says  he  to  him,  "  of  my  deep  apprehension  of  your  many 
noble  favours,  and  great  charity  to  me  and  mine,  when 
the  sharpness  of  the  weather,  and  the  roughness  of 
the  times,  had  blown  all  from  us,  and  well  nigh  left  us 

After  his  death,  which  happened  at  his  house  in  Milk- 
street,  in  September,  1658,  his  executors  published  in 
1663,  a  second  folio  volume  of  his  sermons,  containing 
forty,  and  a  third  in  1673,  containing  fifty.  He  also 
left  behind  in  manuscript,  several  memorials  of  the  life 

VOL  V  F 


of  the  famous  John  Hales  of  Eton,  his  most  intimate 
friend  and  fellow- siiffere r :  but  these  memorials  have 
never  come  to  light.  His  sermons  were  admired  and 
recommended  by  the  late  Archbishop  Jebb. — Wood. 
Hareivood's  Alumni  Etonenses. 


Hugh  Farmer,  a  dissenting  teacher,  was  born  near 
Shrewsbury  in  1714.  He  completed  his  academical 
studies  under  Dr.  Doddridge,  at  Northampton,  after  which 
he  became  chaplain  in  the  family  of  Mr.  Coward  at  Wal- 
thamstow  in  Essex,  where  he  also  officiated  to  a  small 
congregation,  almost  to  the  time  of  his  death,  which  hap- 
pened in  1787.  His  works  are — 1.  Enquiry  into 
Christ's  Temptation  in  the  Wilderness,  8vo.  2.  A  Dis- 
sertation on  Miracles,  8vo.  3.  Essay  on  the  Demoniacs 
of  the  New  Testament,  8vo.  This  being  attacked  by 
Dr.  Worthington,  occasioned  a  reply  in  a  series  of  letters, 
which  were  answered  by  the  doctor.  4.  The  general 
prevalence  of  the  Worship  of  Human  Spirits,  in  the 
ancient  heathen  nations,  8vo.  On  this  work,  Mr.  John 
Fell  published  remarks,  which  provoked  Mr.  Farmer  to 
retort  in  a  very  unbecoming  manner. — Biog.  Brit. 


Ellis  Farneworth  was  born  at  Bonteshall  in  Derby- 
shire, where  his  father  was  rector.  He  was  bred  first  at 
Chesterfield  school,  and  afterwards  at  Eton,  whence  he 
was  removed  to  Jesus  college,  Cambridge.  In  176',^  he 
was  presented  to  the  rectoiy  of  Carsington  in  Derbyshire. 
He  died  in  1763.  His  publications  were,  1.  The  Life  of 
Pope  Sixtus  V.  translated  from  the  Italian  of  Gregorio 
Leti,  with  a  preface,  prolegomena,  notes,  and  appendix, 
1754,  folio.     2.  Davila's  History  of  Franco,  1757,  3  vols. 

FEATLEY.  59; 

4to.  3.  A  translation  of  the  works  of  Maclnavel,  illus- 
trated with  annotations,  dissertations,  and  several  new 
plans  on  the  art  of  war,  1761,  2  vols,  4to ;  reprinted  in 
1775,  4  vols,  8vo.  This  work  now  fetches  a  very  high 
price. — Nichols's  Boivyer. 


Faustinus  was  a  priest  of  the  sect  of  the  Luciferians, 
who  flourished  about  the  year  383.  He  wrote  a  treatise 
concerning  the  faith,  against  the  Arians ;  and  a  petition 
addressed  to  the  emperors  Valentinian,  Theodosius,  and 
Arcadius. — Cave. 


Faustus,  an  English  monk  of  the  fifth  centur}%  was 
bom  in  Britain  about  the  year  390.  He  was  created 
abbot  of  a  monastery  in  the  Lerin  islands  in  433,  and 
afterwards  bishop  of  Eeiz,  in  Provence,  in  466.  Taking 
part  in  the  great  controversy  of  his  time,  and  writing 
against  the  views  entertained  by  some  of  the  followers  of 
St.  Augustine  respecting  predestination  and  reprobation, 
he  was  accused,  but  apparently  without  justice,  of  being 
a  Semi-pelagian.  His  works  are  all  inserted  in  the 
eighth  volume  of  the  Bibliotheca  Patrum,  and  the  princi- 
pal of  them  are  analyzed  by  Dupin.  The  date  of  hi-s 
death  is  not  known. — Dupiri. 


Daniel  Featley  was  born  at  Chalton-upon-Otmore 
near  Oxford,  on  the  15th  of  March,  1582,  his  father 
being  cook  to  Dr.  Lawrence  Humphrey,  president  of 
Magdalen  college  school,  and  where  he  greatly  distin- 


giiished  himself,  and  in  1564  was  admitted  scholar  of 
Corpus  Christi  college.  His  father  was  cook  in  this 
college  as  well  as  in  Magdalen.  In  1602  he  became 
fellow  of  his  college.  In  1610  and  the  following  years 
he  acted  as  chaplain  to  Sir  Thomas  Edmonds,  ambas- 
sador from  James  I.  to  the  court  of  France,  where  he 
distinguished  himself  as  a  controversialist  against  the 

Upon  his  return  to  England  in  1613,  he  repaired  to 
his  college,  and  took  the  degree  of  B.D.,  and  was  soon 
after  presented  by  W.  Ezekiel  Ascot,  who  had  been  his 
pupil,  to  the  rectory  of  Northill  in  Cornwall.  He  was 
next  appointed  domestic  chaplain  to  Dr.  Abbot,  Arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury,  who  in  a  short  time  presented  him 
to  the  rectory  of  Lambeth.  In  1617  he  took  his  degree 
of  D.D.  In  1625,  being  then  married,  he  quitted  the 
archbishop's  residence,  and  retired  to  a  house  belonging 
to  his  wife  at  Kennington,  near  Lambeth.  In  June  1623 
was  held  a  conference  at  Sir  Humphrey  Lynde's,  between 
Dr.  Wilson,  dean  of  Carlisle,  and  Dr.  Featley,  with  the 
Jesuits  Fisher  and  Sweet,  and  the  result  of  it  being 
published  in  1624,  by  Archbishop  Abbot's  command, 
under  the  title  of  The  Komish  Fisher  caught  and  held 
in  his  own  Net,  was  dedicated  to  the  archbishop  by  Feat- 
ley.  It  was  during  the  raging  of  the  plague  in  1625,  or 
1626,  when  the  churches  were  deserted,  that  he  wrote  his 
Ancilla  Pietatis,  or  Hand-maid  to  Private  Devotion, 
which  became  very  popular,  and  before  1676  had  passed 
through  eight  editions. 

His  conduct  at  the  breaking  out  of  the  rebellion  was 
weak,  if  not  wicked.  He  was  one  of  the  witnesses 
against  Archbishop  Laud,  accusing  his  grace  of  intro- 
ducing novelties  in  Lambeth.  He  had  resisted  the 
injunctions  of  his  diocesan,  and  refused  to  place  the 
communion  table  altar-wise. 

In  1642  he  was  appointed  by  the  parliament  one  of 
the  assembly  of  divines,J  on  account  of  his  Calvinistie 


principles.  He  is  said  to  have  continued  longer  with 
them  than  any  other  member  of  the  Church.  That  he 
was  not,  however,  acceptable  to  the  ruling  party,  or  that 
he  disappointed  them,  appears  from  his  becoming  in  the 
same  year  a  victim  to  their  revenge.  In  November  the 
soldiers  sacked  his  church  at  Acton,  and  at  Lambeth 
would  have  murdered  him,  had  he  not  made  his  escape. 
These  outrages  were  followed,  September  30,  1643,  by 
his  imprisonment  in  Peter-house  in  Aldersgate-street, 
the  seizure  of  his  library  and  goods,  and  the  sequestra- 
tion of  his  estate.  Charges  were  preferred  against  him 
of  the  most  absurd  and  contradictory  kind,  which  it  was 
to  little  purpose  to  answer.  He  w^as  voted  out  of  his 
living.  Among  his  pretended  offences,  it  was  alleged 
that  he  refused  to  assent  to  every  clause  in  the  Solemn 
League  and  Covenant,  and  that  he  corresponded  with 
Archbishop  Usher,  who  was  with  the  king  at  Oxford. 
During  his  imprisonment  he  wrot©  his  celebrated  treatise, 
entitled  The  Dippers  dipt,  or  the  Anabaptists  ducked 
and  plunged  over  head  and  ears,  at  a  disputation  in 
Southwark.  He  at  that  time  also  published  a  challenge, 
in  which  he  offered  to  maintain,  against  any  opponents, 
in  disputation  or  writing,  the  orthodoxy  of  the  articles 
of  the  Church  of  England,  the  apostolic  constitution  of 
its  hierarchical  government  and  discipline,  and  the 
unrivalled  excellence,  and,  with  some  explanations  and 
revisions,  perfection  of  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer. 
His  health,  however,  began  now  rapidly  to  decline  ;  and 
after  he  had,  by  repeated  supplication  to  parliament, 
obtained  leave  to  be  removed  to  Chelsea  college,  for 
change  of  air,  he  died  there  on  the  17tli  of  April,  1644, 
in  the  sixty- fifth  year  of  his  age,  and  was  buried  in  the 
chancel  of  Lambeth  church.  Wood  has  given  a  long  list 
of  his  controversial  works,  most  of  w^hich  are  now  little 
known.  Among  his  other  writings  may  be  mentioned, 
1.  The  Lives  of  Jewell  (prefixed  to  his  works),  and  of 
Reinolds,  Dr.  Robert  Abbot,  &c.  which  are  in  Fuller's 
F  J2 


Abel  Redivivus.  2.  The  Sum  of  saving  Knowledge, 
London,  1626.  3.  CI  avis  Mystica,  a  Key  opening  divers 
difficult  and  mysterious  Texts  of  Holy  Scripture,  in 
se«venty  Sermons,  ibid.  1636.  fol.  4.  Hexatexiura,  or  six 
Cordials  to  strengthen  the  Heart  of  every  faithful  Chris- 
tian against  the  terrors  of  Death,  ibid.  1637,  fol.  5. 
Several  Funeral  Sermons,  one  preached  at  the  funeral  of 
Sir  Humphrey  Lynd,  ibid.  1640,  fol.  6.  Dr.  Daniel 
Featley  revived,  proving  that  the  Protestant  Church  (and 
not  the  Romish)  is  the  only  Catholic  and  true  Church, 
ibid.  1660,  12mo.  To  this  is  prefixed  an  account  of  his 
life  by  his  nephew,  John  Featley,  from  which  this  article 
is  abridged. 


John  de  Feckenham,  so  called,  because  he  was  bom 
of  poor  parents,  in  a  cottage  near  the  forest  of  Fecken- 
ham in  Worcestershire,  his  right  name  being  Howman, 
was  the  last  abbot  of  Westminster.  As  he  evinced  in  his 
youth  good  parts,  and  a  strong  inclination  to  learning, 
the  priest  of  the  parish  took  him  under  his  care,  in- 
stinicted  him  for  some  years,  and  then  obtained  him 
admittance  into  Evesham  monasteiy.  At  eighteen  years 
of  age,  he  was  sent  by  his  abbot  to  Gloucester-college,  in 
Oxford;  from  whence,  when  he  had  sufficiently  improved 
himself  in  academical  learning,  he  was  recalled  to  his 
abbey;  which  being  dissolved  in  November,  1535,  he 
had  a  yearly  pension  of  about  twenty-three  pounds,  for 
life.  Upon  this,  he  returned  to  Gloucester-college,  where 
he  pursued  his  studies  some  years ;  and  in  1539,  took 
the  degree  of  bachelor  of  divinity,  being  the  chaplain  to 
Bell,  Bishop  of  Worcester.  That  prelate  resigning  his 
see  in  November,  1543,  he  became  chaplain  to  Bonner, 
Bishop  of  London  ;  (see  his  life,)  but  Bonner  being  de- 
prived of  his  bishopric  in  1549,  by  the  Reformers,  Feck- 


enham  was  committed  to  the  tower  of  London,  because, 
as  some  say,  he  refused  to  administer  the  sacraments 
according  to  the  reformed  prayer-book.  Soon  after,  he 
was  taken  from  thence,  to  dispute  on  the  chief  points 
controverted  between  the  Protestants  and  Papists ;  and 
he  disputed  several  times  in  public  before,  and  with  some 
great  personages. 

He  was  afterwards  remanded  to  the  tower,  where  he  con- 
tinued till  queen  Mary's  accession  to  the  crown,  in  1 553  : 
but  was  then  released,  and  made  chaplain  to  the  queen. 
He  became  also  again  chaplain  to  Bonner,  prebendary  of 
St.  Paul's,  then  dean  of  St.  Paul's,  then  rector  of  Finch- 
ley  in  Middlesex,  which  he  held  only  a  few  months,  and 
the  rector  of  Greenford  in  the  said  county.  In  April, 
1554,  he  was  one  of  the  disputants  at  Oxford  against 
Cranmer,  Ridley,  and  Latimer,  before  they  suffered  mar- 
tyrdom ;  but  he  said  very  little  against  them.  During 
queen  Mary's  reign,  he  was  constantly  employed  in  doing 
good  offices  to  the  afflicted  Protestants  from  the  highest 
to  the  lowest.  Francis  Russel,  Earl  of  Bedford,  Ambrose 
and  Robert  Dudley,  afterwards  Earls  of  Warwick  and 
Leicester,  were  benefitted  by  his  kindness  :  as  was  also 
Sir  John  Cheke.  Nay,  he  interceded  with  queen  Mary 
for  lady  Elizabeth's  enlargement  out  of  prison,  and  that 
so  earnestly,  that  the  queen  was  actually  displeased  with 
him  for  some  time.  In  May,  1556,  he  was  complimented 
by  the  university  of  Oxford  with  the  degree  of  D.D.,  out 
of  respect  for  his  learning,  piety,  and  charity.  In  Sep- 
tember following  he  was  made  abbot  of  the  monastic  foun- 
dation of  Westminster,  which  was  then  restored  by  queen 
Mary ;  and  fourteen  Benedictine  monks  were  placed  there 
under  his  government,  with  episcopal  power.  Upon  the 
death  of  Mary,  in  1558,  Elizabeth,  mindful  of  her  obliga- 
tions to  Feckenham,  sent  for  him  before  her  coronation,  to 
consult  and  reward  him ;  and  offered  him  the  archbishopric 
of  Canterbury,  provided  he  would  confonn  to  the  laws  ; 
but  this  he  refused.     He  appeared,  however,  in  her  first 


parliament,  taking  the  lowest  place  on  the  bishops'  bench, 
being  the  last  mitred  abbot  who  sat  in  the  house  of  lords. 
During  his  attendance  there  he  spoke  and  protested 
against  every  thing  tending  towards  the  reformation ;  and 
the  strong  opposition  which  he  made  occasioned  his 
commitment  to  the  tower  in  1660.  After  nearly  three 
years'  confinement  there,  he  was  committed  to  the  custody 
of  Horn,  Bishop  of  Winchester.  Instead  of  burning 
those  who  adhered  to  the  Romish  errors,  queen  Elizabeth, 
finding  it  necessary  to  restrain  them,  was  accustomed  to 
commit  them  to  the  houses  and  custody  of  the  Bishops. 
Both  Horn  and  Eeckenhara  seem  to  have  been  too  dis- 
putatious to  make  their  intercourse  agreeable.  Fecken- 
ham  lived  quite  as  one  of  the  bishop's  family,  and  they 
frequently  disputed.  But  Bishop  Horn  had  reason  to 
complain  that  in  his  absence  Feckenham  endeavoured  to 
pervert  the  members  of  his  household,  and  he  had  occa- 
sionally to  interfere  to  prevent  the  disputes  between  him 
and  others  from  proceeding  to  extremities.  A  discourse 
one  day  arose  between  the  bishop  and  Feckenham,  con- 
cerning venial  and  mortal  sins.  A  cross  that  came  from 
the  Jesuits  gave  the  occasion  of  this  communication.  The 
bishop  proved,  that  no  sin  was  so  venial,  as  it  could  be 
remitted  by  any  ceremony.  And  that  there  was  no  sin 
but  of  itself  was  mortal,  yet  venial,  so  as  to  be  purged 
by  the  merits  of  Christ  only:  and  that  all  sins,  were 
they  never  so  much  mortal,  were  venial  nevertheless,  ex- 
cept the  sin  against  the  Holy  Ghost,  that  was  irremissible. 
For  this  his  saying,  and  other  points  which  he  con- 
demned, Feckenham  fell  into  such  a  rage,  that  he  not 
only  railed  against  Jewel,  bishop  of  Salisbury,  saying 
that  he  was  utterly  unlearned,  and  that  he  should  never 
be  able  to  answer  Mr.  Harding's  book ;  but  also  called 
the  bishop,  almost  in  plain  terms,  heretic;  and  said,  his 
doctrine  which  he  preached,  (though  he  would  never  hear 
it,)  was  erroneous,  filthy,  and  blasphemous.  Whereupon 
the  bishop,   to  stay  him,  said,  these  were  unmannerly 


words  to  be  spoken  at  his  table  ;  and  therefore  would  as 
then  say  no  more  openly  unto  him  there,  but  told  him, 
that  after  dinner  he  would  shew  him  more  of  his  mind 
between  them  two. 

And  so  after  dinner  he  came  up  to  him,  and  there 
called  him  into  the  gallery  adjoining  to  his  chamber.  He 
put  him  in  remembrance  of  that  which  he  had  before 
oftentimes  admonished  him,  \dz.  his  outrageous  talk  in 
his  absence  used  at  his  table,  whereof  he  had  sundry 
times  given  him  warning;  for  that  the  same  might  breed 
peril  to  himself,  blame  to  the  bishop,  and  offence  to 
others.  And  because  he  found  still  the  continuance  of 
that  his  misorder,  therefore  he  willed  him  thenceforth  to 
abstain  from  conferring  with  any  man  at  all ;  adding, 
that  he  should  have  to  his  chamber  all  things  necessary, 
and  what  meat  he  should  competently  appoint  for  his  own 
diet.  Which  he  had  accordingly.  But  though  he  did 
restrain  him  from  coming  to  his  table,  or  to  go  much  at 
large,  as  he  had  done,  yet  had  he  no  other  keeper  than 
he  had  before,  which  was  his  own  man.  He  had  a 
gallery  adjoining  to  his  chamber,  opening  to  the  park  ; 
his  servant  a  chamber  by  himself  near  to  his.  He  had 
leads  fair  and  large,  on  which  he  might  walk,  and  have 
prospect  over  the  parks,  gardens,  and  orchards.  And 
thrice  in  the  week  at  least,  while  the  bishop  lay  at  Wal- 
tham,  with  one,  by  the  bishop  appointed,  he  walked 
abroad  in  those  parks  and  gardens.  The  bishop  Horn 
wrote  in  his  answer  to  Feckenham's  Declaration,  wherein 
he  had  called  this  restraint  close  imprisonment. 

The  connexion  between  Horn  and  Feckenham  becom- 
ing mutually  irksome,  the  latter  was  again  committed  to 
the  tower,  but  not  to  close  confinement,  his  charges 
being  borne  by  some  of  his  friends,  and  sent  to  him 
weekly  by  his  servant.  While  he  was  in  the  tower, 
secretary  Cecil  heard  of  certain  writings  which  had 
passed  between  him  and  Bishop  Horn,  touching  the  oath 
of  the  queen's  supremacy,  and  he  intimated  to  the  lieu- 


tenant  of  the  tower,  that  he  should  acquaint  Feckenham 
that  he,  the  secretary,  desired  to  have  them  sent  unto 
him  to  peruse  :  which,  in  the  month  of  March,  Fecken- 
ham accordingly  did,  together  with  a  letter  to  him. 
"  And  herein  he  humbly  heseeched  his  honour,  that 
while  he  read  them  he  would  observe  how  slenderly  the 
bishop  had  satisfied  his  expectation ;  w^ho,  in  requesting 
of  his  lordship  to  be  resolved  by  the  authority  of  the 
scriptures,  doctors,  general  councils,  and  by  the  example 
of  like  government  in  some  one  part  and  church  of  all 
Christendom,  his  lordship  in  no  one  part  of  his  resolu- 
tions had  alleged  any  testimony  out  of  any  of  them  ;  but 
only  had  used  the  authority  of  his  own  bare  words, 
naked  talk,  and  sentences  ;  which  in  so  great  and  weighty 
a  matter  of  conscience,  he  said,  he  esteemed  and  weighed 
as  nothing.  And  that  if  his  lordship  should  at  any 
time  hereafter  (and  especially  at  his  honour's  request)  be 
able  to  bring  forth  any  better  matter,  he,  the  said  Feck- 
enham, should  be  at  the  sight  thereof,  at  all  times,  in 
readiness  to  receive  the  said  oath,  and  to  perform  his 
promise  before  made  in  the  writings.  But  that  if  the 
bishop  should  be  found  (notwithstanding  his  honour's 
request)  to  have  no  better  matter  in  store,  he  should, '  for 
his  duty  sake  towards  the  queen's  majesty,  considering 
the  degree  and  state  her  highness  hath  placed  him  in, 
abstain  from  that  plain  speech  which  he  might  justly 
use,  (his  lordship  first  beginning  the  complaint,)  yet  that 
notwithstanding,  his  honour  must  give  him  leave  to 
think,  that  his  lordship  had  not  all  the  divine  scriptures, 
doctors,  general  councils,  and  all  other  kind  of  learning, 
so  much  at  his  commandment,  as  he  said,  he  had  often- 
times heard  him  boast,  and  speak  of. 

"And  thus  much  to  write  of  his  own  secret  thought, 
either  against  him  or  yet  an}^  other,  it  was  very'  much 
contrary  to  the  inclination  of  his  nature.  For  he,  as  he 
proceeded  in  his  letter,  being  a  poor  man  in  trouble,  was 
now,  like  as  at  all  other  times,  very  loath  to  touch  him, 


or  any  man  else.  But  that  whenever  it  should  please 
his  honour  by  his  wisdom  to  weigh  the  matter  indiffer- 
ently betwixt  them,  he  should  be  sure  to  have  this  short 
end  and  conclusion  thereof,  that  either  upon  his  lord- 
ships  pithier  and  more  learned  resolutions,  his  honour 
should  be  well  assured  that  he  would  receive  the  oath  ; 
or  else  for  lack  of  learned  resolution,  his  honour  should 
have  certain  and  sure  knowledge,  that  the  stay  so  long 
time  on  his  part  in  not  receiving  of  the  same  oath,  was 
of  conscience,  and  not  of  will  stubbornly  set ;  but  only  of 
dread  and  fear  to  commit  peijury,  thereby  to  procure  and 
purchase  to  himself  God  His  wrath  and  indignation ; 
finally  to  inherit  perpetual  death  and  torment  of  hell 
fire ;  and  that  remediless  by  a  separation-making  of 
himself  from  God,  and  the  unity  of  the  Catholic  Church  ; 
being  always  after  unsure,  how,  or  by  what  means  he 
might  be  united  and  knit  thereunto  again.  That  the 
upright  and  due  consideration  of  this  his  lamentable 
estate  was  all  that  he  did  seek  at  his  honour's  hands,  as 
knoweth  our  Lord  God,  &c.  From  the  Tower  the  14th 
of  this  present  March. 

Subscribed,  by  your  poor  orator, 

John  Feckenham,  Priest." 
And  so  indeed  Feckenham  reported  in  his  Declaration 
before  mentioned,  that  he  should  join  that  issue  with  his 
lordship  ;  that  when  he,  the  bishop,  should  be  able  either 
by  such  order  of  government  as  our  Saviour  Christ  left 
behind  Him  in  His  gospel  and  New  Testament;  either  by 
the  writing  of  such  learned  doctors,  both  old  and  new, 
which  had  from  age  to  age  witnessed  the  order  of  eccle- 
siastical government  in  Christ's  Church  ;  either  by  the 
general  councils,  wherein  the  right  order  of  ecclesiastical 
government  in  Christ's  Church  had  been  most  faithfully 
declared,  and  shewed  from  time  to  time ;  or  else  by  the 
common  practice  of  the  like  ecclesiastical  government,  in 
some  one  Church  or  part  of  all  Christendom  ;  that  when 
he  should  be  able  by  any  of  those  four  means  to  make 


proof  that  any  emperor,  empress,  king,  or  queen,  might 
claim  or  take  upon  them  any  such  government  in  spiri- 
tual and  ecclesiastical  causes ;  then  he  should  herein 
yield,  &c.  And  in  his  letter  above  to  the  secretary,  he 
tells  him  in  effect  tliat  the  bishop  was  not  able  to  resolve 
him  by  any  one  of  these  proofs. 

But  on  the  other  hand,  let  us  hear  the  bishop  in  his 
answer  to  Feckenham,  who  there  asserts,  that  he  had 
often  and  many  times  proved  the  same  that  he  required, 
and  by  the  self-same  means  in  such  sort  unto  him,  that 
he  had  nothing  to  say  to  the  contrary.  But  notwith- 
standing, the  bishop  added,  he  would  once  again  prove 
the  same  after  his  desire,  as  it  were  by  putting  him  in 
remembrance  of  those  things,  which  by  occasion  in  con- 
ference he  had  often  before  reported  unto  him.  And 
then  he  proceeded  at  large  upon  all  those  four  heads. 
The  bishop  withal  reminded  him,  how  he  well  knew, 
acknowledged,  and  confessed  this  supreme  authority  in 
causes  ecclesiastical  to  be  in  king  Henry  VIII.  and  his 
heirs,  when  he  surrendered  his  abbey  of  Evesham  into 
his  hands ;  and  so  taught  and  preached  during  that 
king  s  reign.  And  that  the  same  knowledge  remained 
in  him  at  the  time  of  king  Edward. 

Afterwards  he  was  removed  to  the  Marshalsea,  and 
then  to  a  private  house  in  Holborn.  In  3  571  he  attend- 
ed Dr.  John  Storie  before  his  execution.  In  1578  we 
find  him  in  free  custody  with  Cox,  Bishop  of  Ely,  whom 
the  queen  had  requested  to  use  his  endeavours  to  induce 
Feckenham  to  acknowledge  her  supremacy  in  ecclesias- 
tical matters.  With  this  prelate  Feckenham  seems  to 
have  been  on  good  terms,  being  admitted  to  his  table,  and 
engaging  in  conversation  without  restraint.  How  far  the 
bishop  succeeded  in  persuading  him  to  submit  to  the 
queen  is  shewn  in  a  letter  from  his  lordship,  addressed 
to  the  lord  treasurer ;  the  bishop  describes  Feckenham 
as  a  gentle  person,  but  in  popish  religion  too,  obdu- 
rate.    And  that  he  had  often  conference  with  him.    And 


other  learned  men  at  his  request  had  conferred  with 
him  also;  touching  going  to  church,  and  touching 
taking  the  oath  to  the  queen's  majesty.  The  bishop 
added,  that  he  had  examined  him,  whether  the  pope  were 
not  an  heretic  :  alleging  to  him  the  saying  of  Christ, 
Reges  gentium  clominantur ;  [i.  e.  The  kings  of  the  gentiles 
exercise  lordship  over  them.]  Vos  autem  non  sic  ;  [i.  e.  But 
it  shall  not  he  so  among  you.]  That  the  people  in  all  his 
government  did  contrary  to  this.  And  that  they  did 
maintain  it  by  all  means,  by  fire  and  sword,  &c.  That 
his  answer  was.  That  that  was  the  sorest  place  in  all 
scripture  against  him."  And  further  added,  "  That  when 
he  was  in  some  hope  of  his  conformity,  he  [the  abbot] 
said  unto  him.  All  these  things  that  be  laid  against  me, 
with  leisure  I  could  answer  them.  And  further  said, 
That  he  was  fully  persuaded  in  his  religion,  which  he 
will  stand  to.  When  I  heard  this,  said  the  bishop,  I 
gave  him  over ;  and  received  him  no  more  to  my  table." 
And  in  some  zeal  subjoining,  "  Whether  it  be  meet  that 
the  enemies  of  God  and  the  queen  should  be  fostered  in 
our  houses,  and  not  used  according  to  the  laws  of  the 
realm,  I  leave  to  the  judgment  of  others.  What  my  poor 
judgment  is,  I  will  express,  being  commanded.  I  think 
my  house  the  worse,  being  pestered  with  such  a  guest. 
Yet  for  obedience  sake  I  have  tried  him  thus  long. 

"  And  finally,  he  wished  that  he  and  the  rest  of  his 
company  were  examined  and  tried  in  open  conference  in 
the  universities :  but  not  as  good  Cranmer,  good  Latimer, 
good  Ridley,  and  others  more;  from  disputations  to  the 
fire.  In  the  mean  season,  this  my  guest  might  have 
some  imprisonment  in  the  university,  where  learned  men 
might  have  access  unto  him."  This  letter  the  bishop 
dated  from  Ely,  styling  it,  that  unsavoury  isle  with  turves 
and  dried  up  loads,  the  29th  of  August,   1578. 

Dr.  Perne,  dean  of  Ely,  was  one  of  those  the  said 
bishop  desired  to  have  some  discourse  with  the  said  Feck- 
enham  ;  which  he  undertook  some  months  before.     And 

VOL  V.  G 


what  success  he  had,  take  from  his  own  account  thereof, 
given  to  the  said  lord  treasurer;  viz.  "That  he  had  divers 
conferences  with  Mr.  Feckenham,  sometime  abbot  of 
Westminster,  (and  that  in  the  presence  of  divers  learned 
men,)  at  the  request  of  the  Bishop  of  Ely,  unto  whose 
custody  he  was  then  committed.  And  this,  he  said,  he 
the  rather  wrote  to  his  lordship,  for  that  in  his  opinion 
it  was  very  good  and  expedient  to  have  those  things 
known  unto  his  honour  and  unto  others,  which  the  said 
Feckenham  had  in  his  said  conferences  confessed  and 
granted  unto  him  and  others,  before  Mr.  Nicholls,  his 
honour's  chaplain,  and  before  Mr.  Stanton,  chaplain  to 
the  Bishop  of  Ely.  And  at  another  time  he  had  granted 
and  acknowledged  unto  him,  in  the  presence  of  Mr.  Holt, 
a  preacher,  and  of  one  Mr.  Crowe,  reader  of  the  divinity 
lecture  in  the  cathedral  church  of  Ely. 

"  First,  He  did  confess,  that  he  did  acknowledge  the 
supremacy  of  the  queen's  majesty  in  causes  ecclesiastical, 
in  such  manner  as  it  is  set  forth  and  declared  in  her 
majesty's  injunctions,  set  forth  by  her  clergy,  for  the 
true  understanding  of  the  words  of  the  act  of  parliament 
made  for  the  same.  Which  injunction  I  did  read  unto 
him,  being  printed.  But  that,  as  Dr.  Perne  added,  he 
did  mislike  these  words  in  the  act  of  parliament,  that 
she  should  be  supreme  governor,  as  well  in  causes  eccle- 
siastical as  civil.  Whereby,  he  said,  she  had  authority 
to  preach  and  minister  sacraments,  and  consecrate 
bishops,  &c.  Which  was  otherwise  declared  in  her  ma- 
jesty's said  Injunctions.  The  which  he  did  very  well 

"  Secondarily,  He  did  very  well  allow  to  have  the  com- 
mon service  in  the  church  to  be  read  in  the  vulgar  tongue 
to  all  the  people  that  should  hear  the  same.  And  he  did 
profess  unto  me,  saith  Dr.  Perne,  in  his  conscience  and 
before  God,  that  he  did  take  the  fourteenth  chapter  of 
the  first  epistle  to  the  Corinthians  to  be  as  truly  meant 
of  public  prayer  in  the  congregation,  to  the  edifying  of 


the  people,  as  of  public  preaching,  or  prophesying.  But 
he  would  have  this  allowed  by  the  authority  of  the  Bishop 
of  Rome. 

"  Thirdly,  Where  he,  the  said  dean  of  Ely,  had  made 
a  discourse,  and  a  comparison  between  the  Book  and 
Order  of  Common  Prayer  used  in  the  Church  of  England 
this  day,  with  the  book  and  order  of  service  used  in  the 
Church  in  the  time  of  popeiy,  he  saying,  that  he  [Feck- 
enham]  could  find  no  fault  with  the  Book  of  Common 
Service  which  was  now,  except  he  must  condemn  that 
which  he  used  in  the  yortas  and  mass-book ;  for  that  we 
have  those  Psalms,  the  Epistles  and  the  Gospels,  those 
Collects  and  other  Prayers,  which  be  either  taken  out  of 
the  word  of  God,  or  consonant  to  the  same,  and  were 
taken  out  and  chosen  by  godly,  learned  men,  out  of  those 
ordinaiy  prayers  that  were  used  in  the  time  of  ignorance 
and  superstition  :  leaving  out  all  other  things  brought  in 
by  the  inventions  of  men,  into  the  said  portas  and  mass- 
book,  which  had  no  warrant  of  the  word  of  God,  or  were 
repugnant  to  the  same  :  -he  did  answer,  that  he  did  find 
no  fault  with  those  things  which  were  in  the  book ;  but 
he  wished  there  should  be  more  things  and  prayers  added 
to  the  same.  And  that  as  he  liked  well  of  prayers  therein 
that  were  made  to  Almighty  God  in  the  name  of  His  Son 
Jesus  Christ;  so  he  would  also  have  added  the  invocation 
of  our  blessed  lady,  and  other  saints,  and  the  prayers  for 
the  dead." 

All  which  his,  the  said  Mr.  Feckenham's,  confession, 
the  dean  tells  the  lord  treasurer,  that  he  had  declared 
unto  my  lord  of  Ely ;  desiring  him  that  he  would  make 
the  same  known  unto  her  majesty,  or  unto  his  honour. 
The  bishop,  upon  this  confession,  had  earnestly  requested 
him,  [the  dean,]  that  he  would  get  his  hand  and  sub- 
scription to  the  same.  For  that  the  said  Mr.  Feckenham, 
after  the  reasoning  that  had  been  with  him,  said  to  the 
said  bishop,  when  he,  the  dean,  was  gone,  that  if  he 
had  leisure,  he  would  answer  to  all  those  authorities  and 


reasons  that  were  brought  out  against  him  in  these 
articles  and  others.  Which  thing  when  the  dean  de- 
manded of  him,  and  he  refused  to  set  his  hartd  to  it,  he 
urged  him  as  vehemently  as  he  could ;  signifying,  how 
great  good  he  might  do  by  the  same,  in  the  reducing  of 
many  from  blind  and  obstinate  superstition,  wherein  they 
were  led,  rather  by  his  and  others'  example,  than  by 
any  reason :  reducing  also  both  them  and  others  thereby 
from  wilful  extremities  to  some  better  order  and  godly 
conformity,  and  some  pacification. 

The  dean  said  moreover,  that  he  needed  not  be  afraid 
to  subscribe  to  that,  which,  in  his  conscience  and  before 
God,  he  did  confess  to  be  true.  He  did  also  move  him, 
that  if  he  would  not  give  my  lord  of  Ely  his  hand  for 
these  matters,  that  he  would  write  his  letter  unto  the 
queen's  majesty,  or  to  his  honour,  [the  lord  treasurer,] 
acknowledging  the  same.  The  which  thing  the  dean 
further  told  him,  that  if  he  would  do,  he  might  procure 
imto  himself  great  favour,  both  at  her  majesty's  hands, 
and  also  at  his  honour's. 

To  all  which  arguments  used  by  the  dean,  he  made 
this  answer :  "  That  he  was  persuaded  of  a  singular  good- 
will, he  said,  both  that  her  majesty  and  his  honour  bore 
unto  him,  if  he  should  shew  himself  any  thing  conform- 
able. That  he  thought  verily,  that  if  it  were  not  for  her 
majesty  and  his  honour,  that  it  would  have  been  worse 
with  him  and  others  of  his  sect  than  it  was  at  that  day. 
For  the  which,  he  said,  that  he  did  daily,  and  was  bound 
to  pray,  for  the  long  preservation  of  her  majesty,  and 
also  for  his  lordship's  honourable  estate.  But  yet  to  sub- 
scribe he  did  refuse ;  saying.  That  if  he  should  subscribe 
and  yield  in  one  thing,  he  had  as  good  to  yield  in  all." 
"  The  which,  the  dean  then  told  him,  was  not  well  said, 
except  he  were  well  persuaded  in  all.  For  to  yield  to 
that,  which  he  confessed  plainly  in  his  conscience  before 
God  to  be  true,  was  the  duty  of  every  Christian  man- 
But  to  confess  that  which  he  was  not  so  persuaded  of,  he 
would  not  enforce  him  [to  do]  against  his  conscience." 


.  The  dean  lent  him  a  Bible  of  the  annotations  of  Va- 
tablus  and  Maiiorate  upon  Genesis.  Which  were  very 
good  books;  and  he  did  greatly  commend  them.  Of  this 
particular  he  thought  fit  to  acquaint  the  lord  treasurer  in 
his  letter.  Concluding,  that  Mr.  Nicolls,  his  lordship's 
chaplain,  attending  upon  him  at  the  present,  could  more 
at  large  declare  what  he  had  writ.  And  thus  referring 
the  whole  matter  unto  his  lordship's  best  consideration, 
he  humbly  took  his  leave.  From  Cambridge,  the  11th 
of  May,  1578.     Subscribing, 

His  honour's  daily  orator  always  to  command, 

Andkew  Perne. 

Soon  after,  the  restless  spirit  of  some  Roman  Catho- 
lics, and  their  frequent  attempts  upon  the  queen's  life, 
obliged  her  to  imprison  the  most  considerable  among 
them ;  upon  which  Feckenham  was  sent  to  Wisbeach 
castle,  in  the  Isle  of  Ely,  where  he  continued  till  his 
death,  in  1583. 

Wood  has  given  us  the  following  catalogue  of  his 
works:  1.  A  Conference  Dialogue-wise  held  between 
the  Lady  Jane  Dudley,  and  Mr.  John  Feckenham,  four 
days  before  her  death,  touching  her  faith  and  belief  of 
the  Sacrament  and  her  religion.  Lond.  1554.  On  the 
10th  of  April,  1554,  he  was  sent  by  the  queen  to  this 
lady  to  commune  with  her,  and  to  reduce  her  from  the 
doctrine  of  Christ  to  queen  Mar}^"s  religion,  as  Mr.  Fox 
expresses  it.  The  substance  of  this  conference  may  be 
seen  also  in  Fox's  Acts  and  Monuments  of  Martyrs. 
2.  Speech  in  the  House  of  Lords,  1553.  3.  Two  Homilies 
on  the  first,  second,  and  third  articles  of  the  Creed.  4. 
Oratio  Funebris  in  exequiis  Ducissse  Parmae,  &c.  that  is, 
a  Funeral  Oration  on  the  death  of  the  Duchess  of  Parma, 
daughter  of  Charles  V.  and  governess  of  the  Netherlands. 
5.  Sermon  at  the  Exequies  of  Joan,  Queen  of  Spain. 
Lond.  1555.  6.  The  declaration  of  such  scruples  and 
stays  of  conscience,  touching  the  Oath  of  Supremacy, 
delivered  by  writing  to  Dr.  Horn,  Bishop  of  Winchester. 

74  FELL. 

Lond.  1566,  7.  Objections  or  Assertions  made  against 
Mr.  John  Gough's  Sermon,  preached  in  the  Tower  of 
London,  Jan.  L5th,  1570.  8.  Caveat  Emptor:  which 
seems  to  have  been  a  caution  against  buying  abbey  lands. 
He  had  also  written,  Commentaries  on  the  Psalms,  and 
a  Treatise  on  the  Eucharist,  which  were  lost  among  other 
things.  Another  author  mentions,  9.  A  Sermon  on  the 
Funeral  of  Queen  Mary,  on  Ecclesiastes  iv.  2. — Wood. 
Strype.    Dod.    Burnet. 


John  Fell  was  son  of  the  dean  mentioned  in  the  fol- 
lowing article,  and  was  born  at  Longworth  in  Berkshire, 
on  the  23rd  of  June,  1625.  He  was  educated  mostly  at 
the  free-school  of  Thame  in  Oxfordshire;  and,  in  1636, 
when  he  was  only  eleven  years  of  age,  was  admitted  stu- 
dent of  Christ  Church  in  Oxford.  In  October,  1640,  he 
took  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  arts,  and  that  of  master 
in  June  1643  ;  about  which  time  he  was  in  arms  for  king 
Charles  I.  within  the  garrison  of  Oxford,  and  afterwards 
became  an  ensign.  In  1648,  the  dissenters  and  rebels 
having  now  obtained  power,  he  was  deprived  of  his 
studentship  by  the  parliamentarian  visitors,  being  then 
in  holy  orders ;  and  from  that  time  till  the  restoration  of 
Charles  II.  lived  in  a  retired  and  studious  condition, 
partly  in  the  lodgings  of  the  famous  physician  Willis, 
who  was  his  brother-in-law,  and  partly  in  his  own  house 
over  against  Merton  College,  wherein  he  and  others  kept 
up  the  devotions  and  discipline  of  the  Church  of  Eng- 

After  the  Restoration  he  was  made  prebendary  of  Chi- 
chester, and  canon  of  Christ  Church,  into  which  last  he  was 
installed  on  the  27th  of  July,  1660  ;  and  on  the  30th  of 
November  following,  he  was  made  dean  of  the  said  church, 
being  then  doctor  of  divinity,  and  one  of  his  majesty's 

FELL.  75 

chaplains  in  ordinary.  As  soon  as  he  was  fixed  in  that 
eminent  station,  he  earnestly  applied  himself  to  purge 
the  college  of  all  remains  of  hypocrisy  and  nonsense, 
which  had  every  where  prevailed  in  the  late  times  of 
confusion,  and  to  improve  it  in  all  sorts  of  learning  as 
well  as  true  religion :  laying  those  foundations,  that  have 
rendered  it  so  famous  to  posterity,  and  will,  we  trust,  con- 
tinue to  make  it  ever  flourish.  Nor  was  he  more  diligent  in 
restoring  its  discipline,  than  in  adorning  it  with  magni- 
ficent buildings,  towards  which  he  contributed  very  great 
sums.  He  built  the  north  side  of  the  great  quadrangle. 
It  was  begun  to  be  built  in  a  manner  suitable  to  the  rest 
of  the  quadrangle,  by  his  father,  Dr.  Samuel  Fell  ;  and 
was  by  him,  the  college,  and  several  benefactors,  carried 
on  to  the  top,  and  had  all  the  frame  of  timber  belonging 
thereunto  laid.  But  before  the  inside  could  be  finished, 
and  the  top  covered  with  lead,  the  civil  wars  began  :  so 
it  continued  exposed  to  the  weather,  till  the  Presbyterians 
became  masters  of  the  university ;  who,  minding  their 
own  private  concerns  more  than  the  public  good,  took  the 
timber  away,  and  employed  it  for  their  own  use.  But 
after  the  Restoration,  Dr.  Fell,  by  his  own  benefaction, 
and  those  of  the  then  canons,  and  many  generous  per- 
sons that  had  been  formerly  members  of  the  college,  and 
of  others,  quite  finished  that  building,  for  the  use  of  two 
canons  ;  together  with  the  part  between  the  then  imper- 
fect building  on  the  north  side  of  the  great  gate,  and  the 
north-west  comer  of  that  quadrangle.  Towards  this 
building,  Dr.  J.  Fell  gave  no  less  than  five  hundred  and 
fifty  pounds.  He  next  rebuilt  part  of  the  lodgings  of  the 
canon  of  the  second  stall  and  the  east  side  of  the  chap- 
lain's quadrangle,  both  of  which  were  finished  in  1672, 
and  the  handsome  range  of  buildings  facing  Christ 
Church  meadow,  which  still  go  by  the  name  of  Fell's 
buildings.  The  lodging  belonging  to  the  third  stall, 
near  the  passage  leading  from  the  great  quadrangle  into 
Peckwater,    and   usually  called  Kill-canon  corner,   was 

76  FELL. 

next  erected  by  him  ;  to  whom  not  only  Christ  Church 
but  the  whole  university  are  indebted,  for  the  long  walk 
in  the  meadow. 

Amongst  other  things,  he  built  the  stately  tower  over 
the  principal  gate  of  the  college  ;  into  which,  in  1683, 
he  caused  to  be  removed  out  of  the  steeple  in  the  cathe- 
dral, the  bell,  called  "  Great  Tom  of  Christ  Church," 
said  to  have  been  brought  thither  w^ith  the  other  bells 
from  Oseney  abbey.  He  took  care  to  have  it  recast  with 
additional  metal,  so  that  it  is  now  by  far  the  largest  bell 
in  England  ;  unless  the  Great  Tom  at  Lincoln,  or  the 
new  bell  in  York  minster,  may  be  supposed  to  exceed  it 
in  their  dimensions.  Dr.  Fell,  like  the  celebrated  Dean 
Jackson,  was  a  benefactor  to  the  world,  by  doing  with  all 
his  might  what  his  hand  found  to  do.  Being  dean  of 
Christ  Church,  he  devoted  ever}"  energy  of  his  mind  to 
his  college  duties  ;  every  other  care  and  study  yielded  to 
this.  This  was  his  office,  and  to  discharge  it  properly 
was  his  chief  concern  in  life.  He  only  is  a  happy  and 
a  useful  man  who  pursues  such  a  course. 

In  the  years  1666,  1667,  1668,  and  1669,  Dr.  Fell  was 
vice-chancellor  of  the  university  :  during  which  time  he 
used  every  possible  means  to  restore  the  discipline  and 
credit  of  the  university ;  and  such  was  his  indefatigable 
spirit  that  he  succeeded  to  a  miracle.  In  1675-6,  he  was 
advanced  to  the  bishopric  of  Oxford,  with  leave  at  the  same 
time  to  hold  his  deanery  of  Christ  Church  in  commen- 
dam,  that  he  might  continue  his  services  to  his  college 
and  the  university  :  and  he  was  no  sooner  settled  in  his 
see.  but  he  set  about  re-building  the  episcopal  palace  of 
Cuddesden  in  Oxfordshire.  In  a  word,  he  devoted  his 
whole  substance  to  works  of  piety  and  charity.  Among 
his  other  benefactions  to  his  college,  it  must  not  be  for- 
gotten, that  the  best  rectories  belonging  to  it  were  bought 
with  his  money :  and  as  he  had  been  so  bountiful  a 
patron  to  it  while  he  lived,  and  a  second  founder  as  it 
were,  so  he  left  to  it  at  his  death  an  estate,  for  ten  or  more 

FELL.  77 

exhibitions  forever.  It  is  said,  that  he  brought  his  body 
to  an  ill  habit,  and  wasted  his  spirits,  by  too  much  zeal 
for  the  public,  and  by  forming  too  many  noble  designs  ; 
and  that  all  these  things,  together  with  the  unhappy  turn 
of  religion,  which  he  dreaded  under  king  James  IL  con- 
tributed to  shorten  his  life.  Be  this  as  it  may,  he  died 
on  the  10th  of  July,  1686,  to  the  great  loss  of  learning, 
of  the  whole  university,  and  of  the  Church  of  England. 
He  was  buried  in  Christ  Church  cathedral ;  and  over  his 
tomb,  which  is  a  plain  marble  one,  is  an  elegant  inscrip- 
tion, composed  by  Aldrich,  his  successor.  He  wrote  the 
Life  of  the  most  reverend,  learned,  and  pious  Dr.  Henry 
Hammond,  1660,  reprinted  afterwards  with  additions  at 
the  head  of  Hammond's  works.  Alcinoi  in  Platonicam 
Philosophiam  Introductio,  1667.  In  Laudem  Mu sices 
Carmen  Sapphicum.  The  vanity  of  Scoffing ;  in  a  letter  to 
a  gentleman,  1 674,  4to.  St.  Clement's  two  Epistles  to  the 
Corinthians,  in  Greek  and  Latin,  with  notes  at  the  end, 
1677.  Account  of  Dr.  Richard  Allestree's  life,  being  the 
preface  to  the  doctor's  sermons,  published  by  Dr.  Fell.  Of 
the  Unity  of  the  Church,  translated  from  the  original  of  St. 
Cyprian,  1681.  St.  Cyprian's  Works,  revised  and  illus- 
trated with  notes,  168 '-i.  Several  Sermons.  ArtisLogicse 
Compendium.  The  Paraphrase  of  St.  Paul's  Epistles. 
An  edition  of  the  New  Testament,  which  gave  birth   to 

Mill's,    and   was   entitled,  Trjg  icaivrjg  dia9T]Kr]g  uTravra,    Novi 

TestamentiLibriomnes — accesserunt  Parallela  Scriptures 
Loca,  necnon  variantes  Lectiones,  ex  plus  100  MSS. 
Codicibus  et  Antiquis  Versionibus  collectae,  1675,  Svo. 
This  edition  was  twice  reprinted  at  Leipsic,  in  1697  and 
1702,  and  at  Oxford  in  splendid  foho,  by  John  Gregory, 
in  1703.  Fabricius  says,  in  his  Bibl.  Graeca,  that  the  ex- 
cellent edition  of  Aratus,  Oxford,  1672,  Svo,  was  publish- 
ed by  Dr.  Fell.  It  is  much  to  be  wished  that  a  history 
of  the  life  and  times  of  Bishop  Fell  should  be  undertaken 
by  some  student  of  Christ  Church,  who  like  the  compiler 
of  this  article,  has  profited  by  his  benefactions. — Bio(/. 
Brit.     Wood. 



Samuel  Fell  was  born  iu  London,  in  1594.  He  was 
elected  from  Westminster  school,  student  of  Christ  Church, 
Oxford,  in  1601  ;  and  in  1615  he  became  rector  of  Fresh- 
water in  the  Isle  of  Wight.  In  1 61 9  he  was  installed  canon 
of  Christ  Church;  and  in  1626  appointed  Margaret  pro- 
fessor of  divinity.  He  was  made  dean  of  Lichfield  in 
1637,  and  the  year  following  dean  of  Christ  Church.  He 
served  the  office  of  vice-chancellor  in  1645  ;  and  again  in 
1647,  but  was  ejected  the  same  year  by  the  parliamen- 
tary visitors.  He  died  of  grief  on  hearing  of  the  murder 
of  Charles  I.  Feb.  1st,  1648-9.  He  wrote,  Primitise  ;  sive 
Oratio  habita  Oxonias  in  Schola  Theologite,  9  Nov.  1626, 
and  Concio  Latina  ad  Baccalaureos  Die  Cinerum  in 
Coloss.  ii.  8.  They  were  both  printed  at  Oxford  in  1627. 


Feancts  DE  Salignac  DE  LA  MoTTE  Fenelon  was  bom 
of  noble  parentage,  August  6th,  J  651.  He  was  sent  first 
to  the  university  of  Cahors,  and  afterwards  finished  his 
studies  at  Paris.  At  twenty-four  years  of  age  he  was 
ordained  priest  in  the  seminary  of  St.  Sulpice,  and  pas- 
sed the  three  following  years  in  absolute  retirement ;  after 
which,  by  desire  of  the  cure  of  the  parish  of  St.  Sulpice, 
he  delivered  on  Sundays  and  Festivals,  a  course  of 
familiar  explanations  of  the  Old  and  New  Testament,  by 
which  he  first  became  known  to  the  public. 

In  ]  685  the  edict  of  Nantes  was  revoked.  By  that 
edict  Henry  IV.  had  granted  to  the  Huguenots  the  free 
exercise  of  their  religion,  and  placed  them  nearly  on  an 
equality  of  civil  rights  with  his  other  subjects.  It  is  said 
that  by  revoking  this  edict,   Louis  XIV.  drove  out  of 


France  two  hundred  thousand  families.  Those  that  were 
left  he  sought  to  convert,  compelling  them  to  attend  mass 
at  the  point  of  the  sword.  As  the  soldiers  employed  in 
assisting  the  missionary  priests  were  taken  from  dragoon 
companies,  their  unholy  employment  was  called  the 
dragonade.  In  1686  Fenelon  was  named  as  the  head  of 
those  missionaries  who  were  sent  along  the  coast  of 
Santogne  and  Pais  de  Aunis,  to  convert  the  Protestants 
or  Huguenots ;  but  he  absolutely  refused  to  be  assisted 
by  the  soldiers,  and  uttered  some  tnily  Christian  senti- 
ments on  the  subject.  His  principle  of  acting  is  laid 
down  in  the  following  extract  from  a  letter  he  wrote  to 
the  mareshal  of  Noailles,  who  had  consulted  him  on  the 
line  of  conduct  he  should  pursue  in  respect  to  the  Hu- 
guenot soldiers  under  his  command. 

Fenelon  says,  ",That  tormenting  and  teazing  heretic 
soldiers  into  conversion  will  answer  no  end  ;  it  will  not 
succeed ;  it  will  only  produce  hypocrites ;  the  converts 
made  by  them  will  desert  in  crowds.  If  an  officer,  or 
any  other  person  can  insinuate  the  truth  into  their  hearts, 
or  excite  in  them  a  desire  of  instruction,  it  is  well ;  but 
there  should  be  no  constraint,  no  indirect  officiousness. 
When  they  are  ill,  a  catholic  officer  may  visit  them,  pro- 
cure them  assistance,  and  drop  on  them  a  few  salutary 
words.  If  that  produce  no  good,  and  the  sickness  con- 
tinue, one  may  go  a  little  further,  but  softly,  and  without 
constraint.  One  may  hint,  that  the  ancient  is  the  best 
Church,  and  derived  to  us  immediately  from  the  apostles. 
If  the  sick  person  be  unable  to  enter  into  this,  you  should 
be  satisfied  with  leading  him  to  make  some  acts  of  sor- 
row for  his  sins,  and  some  acts  of  faith  and  charity,  add- 
ing words  like  these,  0  my  God !  I  submit  to  whatever 
the  true  Church  teaches.  In  whatever  place  she  resides, 
I  acknowledge  her  for  my  mother." 

The  chevalier  Ramsay  relates,  that  Fenelon  recom- 
mended to  prince  Charles,  the  grandson  of  our  James 
the  second,  never  to  use  compulsion  in  matters  of  religion. 


"  No  human  power,"  he  said,  "  can  force  the  impenetra- 
ble retrenchments  of  the  freedom  of  the  mind.  Com- 
pulsion never  persuades,  it  only  makes  hypocrites.  When 
kings  interfere  in  matters  of  religion,  they  don't  protect 
it,  they  enslave  it.  Give  civil  liberty  to  all,  not  by  ap- 
proving all  religions,  as  indifferent,  but  by  permitting  in 
patience  what  God  permits,  and  by  endeavouring  to  bring 
persons  to  what  is  right  by  mildness  and  persuasion." 

His  conduct  during  his  mission  was  such  as  to  recom- 
mend him  to  the  favour  of  the  king,  but  he  lived  for  two 
years  without  going  to  court,  during  which  time  he  pub- 
lished his  treatises  on  the  Mission  of  the  Clergy,  and 
Female  Education.  In  1609  he  was  appointed  preceptor 
to  the  Duke  of  Burgundy,  the  Duke  of  Anjou,  and  the 
Duke  of  Berri,  the  grandsons  of  Louis  XlVth.  Although 
no  pecuniary  income  was  attached  to  his  office,  and  his 
private  income  was  so  small  that  he  found  great  difficulty 
in  supporting  his  very  moderate  establishment,  he  made 
a  rule  of  never  asking  a  favour  of  the  court  for  himself 
or  his  friends,  and  he  received  no  favour  till  his  nomina- 
tion to  the  abbey  of  St.  Valery,  at  the  end  of  several  years. 

In  the  Duke  of  Burgundy,  he  had  to  deal  with  a  proud, 
passionate,  self-willed  youth,  and  his  success  in  the  man- 
agement of  him  was  remarkable.  He  always  made  the 
3^oung  prince  understand  that  his  preceptor  pos^tessed 
over  him  full  and  ample  authority,  and  that  so  far  from 
regarding  his  situation  as  an  honour,  he  only  held  it  in 
obedience  to  the  king's  command,  and  would  resign  it 
immediately  if  not  obeyed.  Successful  in  a  wonderful 
manner  as  a  preceptor,  especially  as  regarded  the  Duke  of 
Burgundy,  honoured  by  all,  and  beloved  by  the  good,  Fene- 
lon  was  first  appointed  to  the  abbey  of  St.  Valery,  and  in 
a  few  months  after  to  the  Archbishopric  of  Cambray. 
Increase  of  honours  did  not  bring  with  it  increase  of 
happiness.  Happy  indeed  the  pious  Fenelon  must  have 
been  at  all  times,  but  cares  and  anxieties  now  awaited 
liirn,  to  which  he  had  hitherto  been  a  stranger. 


He  was  implicated  before  his  consecration  with  the 

Quietism  had  been  at  this  time  revived  in  France,  by 
the  friend  of  Fenelon,  Madame  du  Guyon,  of  whom  her 
adversaries  are  compelled  to  confess,  that  in  every  part  of 
her  life  her  morals  were  irreproachable.  Her  sin  in  the 
sight  of  the  worldly,  consisted  in  the  power  with  which 
she  descanted  on  the  love  of  God.  But  her  words  found 
a  response  in  the  pious  heart  of  Fenelon  :  and  through- 
out Paris  and  the  provinces  there  were  many  who  were 
prepared  to  adopt  her  system  of  Quietism.  By  several 
of  the  clergy  of  the  established  Church  of  France,  how- 
ever, the  system  was  condemned  as  an  innovation.  Fen- 
elon denied  that  the  consequences  they  deduced  from 
her  theoiy  w^ere  justly  to  be  derived  from  it,  and  the  late 
Mr.  John  Wesley,  the  founder  of  Methodism,  translated 
her  autobiography  into  English,  and  says,  "As  to  Ma- 
dame de  Guyon  herself,  I  believe  she  is  not  only  a  good 
woman,  but  good  in  an  eminent  degree  ;  deeply  devoted 
to  God,  and  often  favoured  with  uncommon  communion 
of  His  Spirit." 

The  celebrated  Bossuet  took  part  against  Madame  de 
Guyon,  and  conducted  the  controversy  with  his  usual 
sldll, — a  skill  which  sometimes  looked  like  craft.  He, 
together  with  the  Bishop  of  Chartres  and  M.  Tronson, 
were  appointed  by  the  king  commissioners  to  enquire 
into  the  orthodoxy  or  heterodoxy  of  the  doctrines  ad- 
vanced by  Madame  Guyon  :  a  board  of  heresy,  we  should 
now  style  them.  Unlike  the  easy  manner  in  which  a 
deep  point  of  doctrine  would  in  these  days  be  discussed 
by  doctors  of  the  Church  of  England,  these  divines  of 
the  Church  of  France  carried  on  their  conferences  be- 
tween themselves  and  the  party  accused  for  six  months, 
examined  the  authorities,  and  weighed  the  references 
with  great  deliberation.  Bossuet  alw^ays  admitted  that, 
before  these  disputes,  he  was  little  conversant  with  mys- 
tical theology,  and  at  his  request  Fenelon  provided  him 

VOL  V.  H 


with  extracts  from  the  chief  of  the  mystical  writers, 
Francis  of  Sales  and  John  of  the  Cross. 

The  commissioners  assembled  at  Issy,  a  retired  coun- 
try house,  belonging  to  the  congregation  of  St.  Sulpice. 
They  drew  up  thirty  articles,  in  which  certain  alterations 
were  made  by  Fenelon,  by  whom  four  were  added.  There 
was  no  mention  in  them  of  Madame  de  Guyon  or  her 
doctrines,  but  they  were  supposed  to  express  the  doctrines 
of  the  established  Church  of  France,  on  the  principal 
subjects  in  dispute.  The  commissioners  evidently  per- 
ceived that  they  had  a  difficult  duty  to  discharge,  and 
for  discharging  which,  from  what  has  been  just  said  of 
Bossuet,  they  must  have  felt  their  incompetence  :  on  the 
one  hand  they  were  not  to  condemn  Francis  of  Sales, 
called  by  Romanists  a  saint,  and  other  spiritualists,  and 
on  the  other  a  faction  called  out  for  a  censure  on  Madame 
de  Guyon.  Their  conclusion  amounts  to  little  more  than 
this,  that  spiritualism,  or  an  aim  at  the  very  highest 
devotional  feeling  and  communion  with  God,  is  not 
necessary  to  all,  and  is  liable  to  abuse.  Certain  it  is 
that  their  conclusions  were  such  that  Madame  de  Guyon 
immediately  expressed  her  acquiescence  in  the  doctrine 
contained  in  the  articles  of  Issy.  The  whole  question 
seemed  now  to  be  set  at  rest.  Fenelon,  having  been 
nominated  before  these  transactions  to  the  Archbishopric 
of  Cambray,  was  duly  consecrated,  Bossuet,  Bishop  of 
Meaux,  officiating,  at  his  own  earnest  request.  Bossuet 
and  Fenelon  had  been  formerly  intimate  as  friends. 

But  Quietism  continued  to  gain  ground,  and  to  stop 
its  progress  Bossuet  published  his  "  Instruction  sur  les 
etats  de  I'oraison,"  for  which  he  sought  the  approbation 
of  the  new  archbishop ;  but  he  withheld  it,  on  the  grounds 
that  it  contained  an  absolute  and  unqualified  denial  of 
the  possibility  of  a  pure  disinterested  love  of  God,  and 
that  its  censures  of  Madame  de  Guyon  were  too  general 
and  too  severe. 

This  was  the  commencement  of  that  long  and  bitter  con- 


troversy  between  these  two  distinguished  prelates,  which 
for  a  long  time  disturbed  the  peace  of  the  Church  of 
France.  Fenelon  published  his  celebrated  "  Explication 
des  maximes  des  saints  sur  la  vie  interieuse,"  but  not  be- 
fore it  was  carefully  examined  by  the  Cardinal  de  Noailles 
and  M.  Tronson,  two  of  the  committee  at  Issy,  and  by 
M.  Pirot,  a  theologian  of  eminence  attached  to  Bossuet. 
These  pronounced  the  Maximes  des  Saints  to  be  a  golden 
work.  But  no  sooner  was  it  published,  than  an  uproar 
was  raised  against  it,  by  the  whole  of  that  party  in  the 
French  Church,  who,  with  great  pretensions  to  spiritu- 
ality, were  ignorant  of  its  real  nature.  With  these,  the 
worldly  and  the  careless,  as  is  ever  the  case,  took  part ; 
they  are  always  on  the  side  of  those  who  take  the  lowest 
views  of  religion.  In  this  controversy  Louis  XlVth  and 
Madame  de  Maintenon  ventured  to  take  part,  and  sided, 
of  course,  against  Fenelon. 

Bossuet  had  the  support  of  the  court,  and  most  violently 
did  he  conduct  himself,  introducing  the  vilest  insinuations 
and  the  most  gross  personalities  in  his  writings  against 
Fenelon.  The  real  character  of  Bossuet  is  to  be  seen 
rather  in  this  controversy  with  a  bishop  of  the  same 
Church  as  himself,  than  in  his  dispute  with  protestants. 
Fenelon  defended  himself  with  spirit,  and  the  writings 
of  both  the  controversialists  are,  as  pieces  of  literature, 
highly  praised  by  the  French  critics. 

An  appeal  was  made  to  Kome.  Bossuet  artfully  brought 
his  influence  with  Louis  to  bear  upon  the  court  of  Rome: 
and  had  the  audacity  to  insinuate  that  Fenelon  was, 
in  his  own  diocese,  considered  an  heretic ;  and  that  as 
soon  as  Rome  should  speak,  Cambray,  and  all  the  Low 
Countries,  would  rise  against  him.  This  w^ould  seem 
to  imply  a  belief  on  his  part  that  the  pope  and  his  ad- 
visers might  be  influenced  by  other  considerations  than 
those  which  depended  upon  the  justice  of  the  case.  But 
notwithstanding  the  remonstrances  of  Louis,  the  pope 
proceeded  cautiously,  and  delayed  his  decision.     In  the 


mean  time  the  friends  of  Fenelon  were  persecuted  by  the 
court,  and  he  himself  was  suspended  from  his  office  of 
preceptor  to  the  royal  dukes ;  but  never,  amidst  all  the 
indignities  he  suffered,  did  Fenelon  lose  the  pious  sere- 
nity of  his  mind.  "  Yet  but  a  little  while,"  he  says  in  one 
of  his  letters,  "  and  the  deceitful  dream  of  this  life  will 
be  over.  We  shall  meet  in  the  kingdom  of  truth,  where 
there  is  no  error,  no  division,  no  scandal ;  we  shall 
breathe  the  pure  love  of  God ;  He  will  communicate  to 
us  His  everlasting  peace.  In  the  meanwhile  let  us  suffer; 
let  us  be  trodden  under  foot ;  let  us  not  refuse  disgrace  ; 
Jesus  Christ  was  disgraced  for  us ;  may  our  disgrace  tend 
to  His  glory." 

At  length  the  pope  appointed  a  congregation  of  cardi- 
nals, who  met  twelve  times  without  coming  to  any  resolu- 
tion ;  he  then  appointed  a  new  congregation  of  cardinals, 
who  met  fifty-two  times,  who  extracted  from  Fenelon's 
work  several  propositions,  which  they  reported  to  the 
pope  as  censurable,  after  which  they  had  thirty-seven 
meetings  to  settle  the  form  of  censure.  Meantime  Louis 
XlVth  was  urging  the  pope  to  condemn  Fenelon,  al- 
though the  pope  himself  was  unwilling  to  come  to  a 
final  decision.  It  was  difficult  to  censure  Fenelon  with- 
out censuring  some  catholic  writer  of  acknowledged 
orthodoxy.  Holy  too  as  Fenelon  was,  it  was  considered 
that  to  submit  to  a  decision  against  him  was  an  act  of 
such  heroic  humility,  that  it  could  scarcely  be  expected, 
and  that  a  schism  might  be  caused  equal  to  that  which 
was  the  result  of  Pope  Pius's  indiscretion,  at  the  time  of 
the  Pteformation.  The  pope  was  aware  that  after  all,  the 
dispute  was  one  chiefly  about  words.  The  pope  inclined 
to  issue  a  brief,  stating  the  doctrine  of  the  Church,  and 
calling  upon  each  party  to  abstain  from  future  discus- 
sions. But  even  a  pope,  like  a  more  humble  divine,  may 
stand  in  awe  of  worldly  consequences.  The  profligate 
monarch  of  France,  urged  on  by  Bossuet,  insisted  upon 
the   archbishop's    condemnation,    and  the  pope  at  last 


issued  a  brief,  by  which  twenty- three  propositions  were 
extracted  from  Fenelon's  work  and  condemned,  though 
the  expressions  used  in  the  condemnation  of  them  were 
so  gentle,  that  it  is  evident  that  if  the  pope  had  feared 
God  as  much  as  he  feared  the  French  king,  Fenelon 
would  have  escaped  all  censure.  By  this  course,  the 
friends  of  Fenelon  were  soothed  and  his  adversaries 
mortified ;  and  their  mortification  was  increased  by  an 
expression  of  the  pope,  which  was  soon  in  every  one's 
mouth,  that  Fenelon  was  in  fault  for  too  great  love  of 
God ;  his  enemies  equally  in  fault,  for  too  little  love  of 
their  neighbour.  Beautiful  is  the  letter  which  was 
written  on  the  occasion  by  the  Abbe  de  Chanterac  to  the 
archbishop,  so  beautiful  that  long  as  this  article  is,  it 
shall  be  given  : — 

*'  Now  is  the  time  arrived,"  wrote  the  good  Abbe  de 
Chanterac  to  the  archbishop,  "  to  put  in  practice  what- 
ever religion  has  taught  you  to  be  most  holy,  in  a  perfect 
conformity  to  the  will  of  God.  You,  and  all  attached  to 
you,  must  be  obedient  to  Jesus  Christ,  to  death,  even  to 
the  death  of  the  cross.  You  will  want  all  your  piety,  all 
the  submission  which  you  have  so  often  promised  the 
pope  in  your  letters,  to  possess  your  soul  in  patience, 
when  you  read  the  brief,  which  he  has  just  published 
against  your  book. — It  was  intimated  to  me,  that  I  ought 
to  wait  upon  him,  to  assure  him  of  your  submission. — 
All  of  us  together  cannot  be  so  much  affected,  as  he 
appears  to  be,  for  what  may  be  painful  to  you  in  his 
brief;  most  pious,  most  holy,  most  learned  ; — were  epi- 
thets he  often  applied  to  you.  All  your  friends  here 
think  you  should  receive  this  brief  with  the  most  perfect 
submission  ;  and  that  the  more  simple  your  submission 
shall  be,  the  more  acceptable  it  will  be  to  God  and 
man.  Jesus  Christ  agonized  on  the  cross,  exposed  to  the 
judgments  of  men,  appears  to  me  the  true  model  which 
religion  now  holds  out  for  your  imitation,  and  to  which 
the  Holy  Ghost  wishes  you  to  conform.  It  is  chiefly  in 


situations  like  that,  in  which  providence  has  now  placed 
you,  that  the  just  man  lives  by  faith,  and  that  we  ought 
to  be  founded  and  rooted  in  the  charity  of  Jesus  Christ. 
Who  shall  separate  us  from  it  ?  Never  was  I  so  intimately 
united  to  you  for  eternity." 

Fenelon  was  just  about  to  ascend  the  pulpit  in  his 
cathedral,  when  information  was  brought  to  him  of  the 
pope's  brief.  The  news  circulated  through  the  congrega- 
tion, at  the  same  time.  The  archbishop  paused.  He 
changed  the  subject  of  his  sermon.  He  preached  on  the 
duty  of  obedience  to  the  Church.  The  calmness  of  the 
meek  and  mild  prelate,  the  pledge  which  all  felt  he  was 
now  giving,  to  act  up  to  his  principles,  plunged  the  whole 
congregation  in  tears.  With  their  beloved  pastor  they 

The  noble  archbishop  immediately  addressed  a  pastoral 
letter  to  the  faithful  in  his  diocese,  in  which  he  stated : 
"  Our  holy  father  has  condemned  my  book,  entitled 
'  Maxims  of  Saints,'  and  has  condemed  in  a  particular 
manner  twenty-three  propositions  extracted  from  it.  We 
adhere  to  his  brief,  and  condemn  the  book  and  the 
propositions,  simply,  absolutely,  and  without  a  shadow  of 
reserve."  It  was  observed  that  the  Archbishop  of  Cam- 
bray  fought  like  a  lion  in  defence  of  his  book  while  there 
was  a  chance  of  victory,  but  submitted  in  an  instant,  like 
the  lowliest  of  his  flock,  when  the  decision  of  the  autho- 
rity to  which  through  ignorance,  he  deferred,  was  against 
him.  From  that  time  he  dismissed  the  thought  of  the 
controversy  from  his  mind.  Such  conduct  rendered 
powerless  the  attempts  of  the  king  and  Bossuet,  to  excite 
against  him  the  feelings  of  the  Church  of  France.  He 
lost  no  friends,  notwithstanding  the  displeasure  of  the 
court,  and  no  one  possessed  friends  more  devoted  and 
attached,  including  his  pupil,  the  Duke  of  Burgundy. 

It  was  during  these  disputes  that  Telemachus  was 
surreptitiously  published  by  the  person  to  whom  Fenelon 
had  committed  the  manuscript  to  be  copied.    It  was  con- 


sidered  a  libel  upon  the  court,  and  suppressed,  though 
Fenelon  denied  any  intentional  allusion  to  Louis  or  his 
courtiers.  It  was  published  in  the  next  reign,  and  has 
obtained  an  European  fame. 

Of  Fenelon's  conduct  in  his  diocese,  it  is  agreed  by 
all  persons  that  it  is  impossible  to  speak  too  highly. 

In  the  disputes  on  the  subject  of  Jansenism,  Fenelon 
appeared  several  times  in  print  against  Jansenius :  but 
though  he  combated  their  errors,  he  left  them  in  quiet. 
He  expressed  himself  strongly,  though  charitably,  against 
both  Quesnel  and  Pascal.  His  gentleness  and  forbear- 
ance seem  often  remarkable  :  a  cure  one  day  complained 
to  him  that  after  the  evening  service  on  the  Sunday,  his 
parishioners,  true  Frenchmen,  would  dance.  The  arch- 
bishop replied,  "  My  good  friend  ;  neither  you  nor  I 
should  dance,  but  let  us  leave  these  poor  people  to  dance 
as  they  please,  their  hours  of  happiness  are  not  too 
numerous."  What  the  poor  require  is  sympathy,  and 
this  they  found  in  Fenelon ;  when  the  people  hear  their 
pastors  declaim  against  their  few  amusements,  while  they 
see  the  said  pastors  returning  from  such  declamations 
to  a  comfortable  fire-side  and  a  good  dinner,  they  are  apt 
to  think  scorn  of  their  instructions.  Men  must  be 
ascetic  themselves,  ere  they  preach  asceticism  to  others. 
Let  the  self-indulgent  be  lenient  in  their  judgments. 

Such  was  the  esteem  in  which  Fenelon  was  held,  that 
when  we  conquered  the  French  in  the  reign  of  queen 
Anne,  our  illustrious  commander,  the  Duke  of  Marl- 
borough, directed  the  lands  of  Fenelon  to  be  spared. 
He  died  in  1715,  leaving  behind  him  neither  debt  nor 

The  principal  works  of  Fenelon,  besides  those  already 
mentioned,  are  Dialogues  of  the  Dead,  2  vols,  IJimo. 
These  have  more  solid  sense  and  a  more  elevated  morality 
than  those  of  Fontenelle,  to  which  La  Harpe  has  pre- 
ferred them.  Dialogues  on  Eloquence  in  general,  and 
on  that  of  the  pulpit  in  particular,  with   a  Letter  on 

88  FENN. 

Rhetoric  and  Poetry,  12mo ;  tlie  letter  is  addressed  to 
the  French  Academy,  of  which  he  became  a  member  in 
1693  ;  Philosophical  Works,  or  Demonstration  of  the 
Existence  of  a  God  by  Natural  Proofs,  12mo ;  Letters 
on  different  Religious  and  Metaphysical  Subjects,  12mo  ; 
Spiritual  Works,  4  vols,  12mo;  Sermons,  12mo;  several 
pieces  in  favour  of  the  bull  Unigenitus  and  the  Formu- 
lary. An  edition  of  his  works  was  published  at  Paris  by 
Didot,  in  1787-92,  in  9  vols,  4to  ;  another  was  published 
at  Toulous€,  in  1809-11,  in  19  vols,  12mo. — Life  hij 
Butler.     Ramsaij.     M.  de  Bausset. 


John  Fenn,  was  born  at  Montacute^  in  Somersetshire, 
and  educated  at  Winchester  school,  from  whence  he  re- 
moved to  New  College,  Oxford,  where  he  obtained  a 
fellovv'ship.  In  the  reign  of  queen  Mary  he  became  mas- 
ter of  the  free-school  at  St.  Edmundsbury  in  Suffolk; 
but  when  Elizabeth  came  to  the  throne  he  went  to  Flan- 
ders, and  afterwards  to  Rome,  where  he  was  admitted 
into  the  English  college,  studied  theology  for  four  years, 
and  took  orders.  Returning  afterwards  to  Flanders,  he 
became  confessor  to  the  English  nuns  at  Louvain.  He 
died  in  1615.  He  wrote,  Vitas  quorundam  Martyrum  in 
Anglia;  which  is  inserted  in  Bridgwater's  Concertatio 
Ecclesise  Catholicae  in  Anglia;  several  of  Bishop  Fisher's 
English  works,  translated  into  Latin;  Catechismus  Tri- 
dentinus,  translated  into  English ;  Osorius's  treatise 
against  Walter  Haddon,  translated  into  English,  Lou- 
vain, 1568,  8vo ;  The  Life  of  St.  Catharine  of  Sienna, 
from  the  ItaUan,  1609,  8vo;  A  Treatise  on  Tribulation, 
from  the  Italian  of  Caccia  Guerra ;  Mysteries  of  the 
Rosary,  from  Gaspar  Loartes. — Wood. 

FERNE.  89 


Henrt  Ferne  was  born  at  York,  in  1602,  and  educated 
at  the  free-school  of  Uppingham,  in  Rutlandshire,  whence 
he  was  removed  to  St.  Mary  Hall,  Oxford,  and  thence, 
but  after  two  years'  residence,  to  Trinity  college,  Cam- 
bridge, of  which  he  became  fellow.  He  was  next  domestic 
chaplain  to  Morton,  Bishop  of  Durham;  and  was  succes- 
sively presented  to  the  living  of  Masham  in  Yorkshire, 
to  that  of  Medborn  in  Leicestershire,  and  to  the  arch- 
deaconry of  Leicester.  In  1642  he  took  his  doctor's 
degree,  and  kept  the  act  at  the  commencement.  He 
then  went  into  Leicestershire,  where  he  had  an  oppor- 
tunity of  waiting  on  Charles  L,  and  preached  before 
him  as  he  was  going  to  Nottingham  to  set  up  his  stand- 
ard. The  king,  with  whom  he  was  in  great  favour,  made 
him  his  chaplain.  In  1642  he  j)ublished  his  Case  of 
Conscience  touching  Rebellion,  and  is  said  to  have  been 
the  first  that  wrote  openly  in  defence  of  the  royal  cause. 
He  was  next  appointed  chaplain  to  one  of  the  lords 
commissioners  at  the  treaty  of  Uxbridge,  where,  at  the 
request  of  some  of  them,  he  stated  the  case  between 
episcopacy  and  presbytery.  He  attended  the  king  at 
Oxford  until  he  had  taken  Leicester,  and  was  present 
at  the  unfortunate  battle  of  Naseby ;  after  which  he  went 
to  Newark,  and  continued  preaching  until  the  king 
ordered  the  garrison  to  surrender.  His  next  retreat  was 
to  Yorkshire,  where  he  remained  with  his  relations,  until 
Charles  called  him  to  the  Isle  of  Wight.  During  the 
usurpation  he  lived  in  privacy,  having  been  cruelly 
deprived  of  his  living,  and  reduced  to  poverty,  by  the 
triumphant  dissenters.  They  would  not  permit  him  to 
preach,  but  he  maintained  the  cause  of  the  Church  by 
controversies  with  the  Romanists.  And  his  powerful 
unanswerable  discourse  on  the  case  as  it  stands  between 
the    Church  of  England  and  of  Rome,  has  lately  been 

90  FERNE. 

republished  by  Mr.  Brogden,  in  his  excellent  and  well 
timed  work  entitled,  "  Catholic  Safeguards."  We  shall 
make  one  short  extract;  "The  Church  of  England, 
standing  thus  between  the  Church  of  Rome  on  the  one 
hand,  and  the  aforesaid  sects,  whi-ch  have  divided  from  it 
on  the  other  hand,  is  challenged,  and  assaulted  by  both, 
put  now  to  defend  itself  against  both.  Which  brings  to 
mind  the  device  of  some  Romanist,  who  to  make  himself 
merry,  has  pictured  an  English  Protestant  standing  be- 
tween a  Papist  and  an  Independent,  borrowing  arguments 
and  reasons  from  the  one,  to  oppose  or  answer  the  other : 
against  the  Papists  he  must  plead,  as  do  all  sectaries, 
invisibility  of  the  Church,  Scripture  alone,  liberty  of  pri- 
vate judgment :  against  other  sects  he  must  help  himself 
by  urging,  as  do  the  Papists,  the  visible  condition  of  the 
Church,  the  authority  of  it,  Catholic  tradition  and  prac- 
tice, and  the  succession  of  bishops  and  pastors.  Well, 
the  Romanists  may  thus  seemingly  please  themselves, 
but  indeed  this  of  all  other  reformed  Churches  has  been, 
and  is,  by  reason  of  its  most  regular  Reformation,  their 
great  eye-sore  and  heart-sorrow.  And  the  English  Pro- 
testant, or  obedient  son  of  the  Church  of  England,  as  he 
is  well  set  between  a  Papist  and  Sectary,  as  between  two 
extremes,  so  he  only  is  able  to  stand  against  the  opposi- 
tions or  pretensions  of  both ;  for  if  we  examine  the  false 
grounds  and  deceiving  principles  of  both,  as  to  this  point 
of  the  constitution,  government,  and  communion  of  the 
Church :  we  shall  clearly  see  the  truth  lies  in  the  midst 
between  both,  and  the  Church  of  England  holds  and 
maintains  it." 

On  the  restoration,  Charles  II.  gave  him  the  master- 
ship of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  which  he  kept  a  year 
and  a  half,  and  was  twice  chosen  vice-chancellor.  He 
was  also  promoted  to  the  deanery  of  Ely;  and  upon 
Dr.  Walton's  death,  in  1660,  he  was  made  Bishop  of 
Chester.  He  died  in  the  following  year,  1661,  and  was 
buried  in  Westminster  Abbey.    He  is  said  to  have  assist- 

FEREAR.  91 

ed  Dr.  Walton  in  his  Polyglott,  He  published,  The 
Resolving  of  Conscience,  &c.  on  the  question  of  taking  up 
arms  against  the  king,  Cambridge,  1642,  and  Oxford, 
1643;  and  two  other  tracts  in  answer  to  his  opponents, 
on  the  same  subject;  Episcopacy  and  Presbyteiy  con- 
sidered, London,  1647;  Certain  Considerations  of  pre- 
sent Concernment  touching  the  Reformed  Church  of 
England,  against  Ant.  Champney,  Doctor  of  the  Sor- 
bonne,  ibid.  1653  ;  On  the  Case  as  it  stands  between  the 
Church  of  England  and  of  Rome  on  the  one  hand,  and 
those  Congregations  which  have  divided  from  it  on  the 
other,  ibid.  1655  ;  On  the  Division  between  the  English 
and  Romish  Church  upon  the  Reformation,  ibid.  1655  ; 
Answer  to  Mr.  Spencer's  book,  entitled  Scripture  mis- 
taken, 1660.  He  also  published  several  sermons. — Wood. 


Robert  Feerar  was  born  at  Halifax  in  Yorkshire.  He 
studied  at  Oxford  and  Cambridge,  and  became  a  canon 
regular  of  the  order  of  St.  Augustine,  and  was  chosen 
prior  of  the  monasteiy  of  St.  Oswald,  which  dignity  he 
surrendered  on  the  dissolution,  in  1540,  and  received  a 
pension  of  £100  per  annum.  Early  embracing  the  prin- 
ciples of  the  Reformation,  he  was  made  Bishop  of  St. 
David's  by  Edward  VI.  In  consequence  of  incautiously 
issuing  out  his  commission  to  his  chancellor  to  visit  his 
chapter,  and  inspect  into  some  dilapidations,  in  an  ex- 
ploded form,  not  sufficiently  admissive  of  the  king's 
supremacy,  his  enemies  found  occasion  to  accuse  him  of 
a  prcBmunire,  and  so  great  were  the  expences  of  the  prose- 
cution, that  he  became  unable  to  pay  his  first  fruits  and 
tenths,  and  was  imprisoned  for  the  same  as  a  debtor  to 
the  crown. 

He  remained  in  prison  till  the  accession  of  Mary,  and 

92  FERRAR. 

certainly  the  treatment  he  received  from  the  reformers 
was  sufficient  to  have  influenced  him  to  join  the  Popish 
party  now  in  power,  if  he  had  not  been  under  the  influ 
ence  of  religious  impressions  and  principles.  Although 
implicit  reliance  cannot  always  be  placed  on  the  state- 
ments of  Fox,  the  account  of  the  bishop's  last  trials  may 
be  given  in  the  words  of  that  author.  He  informs  us 
that  articles  to  the  number  of  fifty-six,  were  preferred 
against  him,  in  which  he  was  charged  with  many  negli- 
gences and  contumacies  of  Church  government.  These 
he  answered  and  denied.  But  so  many  and  so  bitter 
were  his  enemies,  that  they  prevailed,  and  he  was  in 
consequence  thrown  into  prison.  He  was  prosecuted  on 
different  heads,  but  chiefly  as  related  to  doctrine ;  and 
he  had  been  called  up  in  company  with  the  martyrs, 
Hooper,  Rogers,  Bradford,  and  Saunders,  on  the  4th  of 
February,  and  with  them  would  have  been  condemned ; 
but  through  want  of  leisure  or  some  such  cause  among 
his  judges,  he  was  remanded  back  to  prison,  where  he 
remained  till  the  14th  of  the  same  month.  The  sub- 
stance of  the  examination  we  here  present  to  our  readers. 
At  his  first  coming  and  kneeling  before  the  lord  chan- 
cellor, the  bishops  of  Durham  and  Worcester  sat  at  the 
table,  and  Mr.  Rochester,  Mr.  Southwel,  Mr.  Bourne, 
and  others,  stood  at  the  table's  end.  The  lord  chan- 
cellor first  addressed  him  in  such  questions  as  these — 
"  Well,  sir,  have  you  heard  how  the  world  goeth  here  ? 
Do  you  not  know  things  abroad,  notwithstanding  you 
are  a  prisoner  ?  Have  you  not  heard  of  the  coming  in  of 
the  lord  cardinal  Pole?  The  queen's  majesty  and  the 
parliament  hath  restored  religion  to  the  same  state  it  was 
in  at  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  our  king  Henry  the 
VIIT.  You  are  in  the  queen's  debt,  and  her  majesty 
will  be  good  unto  you,  if  you  will  return  to  the  Catholic 
Church."  To  this  Ferrar  said,  "  In  what  state  I  am  con- 
cerning my  debts  to  the  queen's  majesty,  in  the  court  of 
exchequer,   my  lord  treasurer   knoweth:    and   the  last 

FERRAR.  93 

time  that  I  was  before  your  honour,  and  the  first  time 
also,  I  shewed  you  that  I  had  made  an  oath  never  to 
consent  nor  agree,  that  the  Bishop  of  Rome  should  have 
any  power  or  jurisdiction  within  this  realm  :  and  further, 
I  need  not  rehearse  to  your  lordship,  you  know  it  well 

Instead  of  proceeding  with  one  examination,  the  chan- 
cellor and  the  bishops  allowed  the  lay  inferiors  to  insult 
Dr.  Ferrar  with  several  questions  and  charges  as  imper- 
tinent as  they  were  false  and  groundless.  Among  the 
accusations,  he  was  charged  with  supplanting  a  patron 
whom  he  had  actually  defended  from  the  danger  of  being 
supplanted  by  another.  They  accused  him  of  defrauding 
the  queen  of  divers  sums  of  money,  and  of  violating  an 
oath  of  chastity — not  celibacy — by  taking  to  himself  a 
wife !  To  these  false  allegations  Ferrar  answered  with 
remarkable  decision,  which  put  not  only  the  subordinate 
but  also  the  superior  and  the  supreme  members  of  this 
iniquitous  court  to  perfect  shame  and  silence.  The  fol- 
lowing are  samples  of  his  firm  resistance  of  untruth,  as 
well  as  his  noble  advocacy  of  the  rights  of  conscience  and 
the  purity  of  the  gospel.  Rising  from  the  kneeling  pos- 
ture in  which  for  some  time  he  had  continued,  and  stand- 
ing up  unbidden  as  well  as  undaunted  before  his  power- 
ful foes,  he  said — "My  lord,  I  never  defrauded  king  or 
queen  of  one  penny  in  my  life  ;  I  am  a  tme  man,  I  thank 
God  for  it.  I  was  born  under  king  Henry  VITL,  have 
lived  under  king  Edward  VI.  truly,  and  have  served  the 
queen's  majesty  that  now  is,  with  my  heart  and  word : 
more  I  could  not  do,  and  I  was  never  false,  nor  shall  be 
by  the  grace  of  God.  I  have  made  an  oath  to  God,  and 
to  king  Henry  VIII.,  and  also  to  king  Edward,  and  to 
the  queen's  majesty,  the  which  I  can  never  break  while 
I  live,  if  I  die  for  it.  I  never  made  a  profession  to  live 
without  a  wife.  I  made  a  profession  to  live  chastely; 
but  not  without  a  wife.  I  am  as  it  pleaseth  you  to  call 
me ;  but  I  cannot  break  an  oath  which  your  lordship 

VOL  V.  I 

94  FERRAR. 

yourself  made  before  me,  and  gave  an  example,  the  which 
confirmed  my  conscience.  I  can  never  break  that  oath 
whilst  I  live  to  die  for  it.  I  pray  God  to  save  the  king 
and  queen's  majesties  long  to  continue  in  honour  to  God's 
glory  and  their  comfort,  and  the  comfort  of  the  whole 
realm  ;  and  I  pray  God  save  all  your  honours." 

After  this  examination  Bishop  Ferrar  remained  in 
prison  uncondemned,  till  the  14th  day  of  February,  and 
then  was  sent  down  into  Wales,  there  to  receive  sentence 
of  condemnation.  Upon  the  26th  of  February,  in  the 
church  of  Carmarthen,  being  brought  by  Griffith  Leyson, 
Esq.,  sheriff  of  the  county  of  Carmarthen,  he  was  there 
personally  presented  before  the  new  Bishop  of  St.  David's 
and  Constantine  the  public  notary :  who  did  there  and 
then  discharge  the  said  sheriff,  and  receive  him  into  their 
own  custody,  further  committing  him  to  the  keeping  of 
Owen  Jones,  and  thereupon  declared  unto  Mr.  Ferrar  the 
great  mercy  and  clemency  that  the  king  and  queen's 
highness'  pleasure  was  to  be  offered  unto  him,  which  they 
there  did  offer ;  that  if  he  would  submit  himself  to  the 
laws  of  the  realm,  and  conform  himself  to  the  unity  of 
the  Catholic  Church,  he  should  be  received  and  pardoned. 
Seeing  that  Dr.  Ferrar  gave  no  answer  to  the  premises, 
the  bishop  ministered  unto  him  these  articles  following — 
evidently  the  main  questions  on  which  it  was  purposed 
to  sentence  and  put  him  to  death. 

Whether  he  believed  the  marriage  of  priests  lawful  by 
the  laws  of  God,  and  his  holy  Church,  or  not?  and  whe- 
ther he  believed  that  in  the  blessed  sacrament  of  l^e 
altar,  after  the  words  of  consecration  duly  pronounced  by 
the  priest,  the  very  body  and  blood  of  Christ  is  really  and 
substantially  contained,  without  the  substance  of  bread 
and  wine  ?  Upon  the  bishop  requiring  Dr.  Ferrar  to 
answer  upon  his  allegiance,  the  latter,  doubting  the 
bishop's  authority  said,  he  would  answer  when  he  saw  a 
lawful  commission,  and  would  make  no  further  answer 
at  that  time.   Whereupon  the  bishop,  taking  no  advantage 

FERRAR.  95 

upon  the  answer,  committed  him  to  prison  until  a  new 
monition ;  in  the  mean  time  to  deliberate  with  himself 
for  his  further  answer  to  the  premises. 

It  has  been  intimated  that  a  new  bishop  was  placed  at 
St.  David's  :  this  was  one  Henr}^  Morgan,  a  furious  papist, 
who  now  became  the  chief  judge  of  his  persecuted  prede- 
cessor. This  Morgan,  sitting  as  judge,  ministered  unto 
Bishop  Ferrar  certain  articles  and  interrogatories  in 
writing;  which  being  openly  read  unto  him  a  second 
time,  Ferrar  still  refused  to  answer,  till  he  might  see  his 
lawful  commission  and  authority.  Whereupon  Morgan 
pronounced  him  as  contumax,  and  for  the  punishment  of 
this  his  contumacy  to  be  counted  ^;ro  confesso,  and  so  did 
pronounce  him  in  writing.  This  done,  he  committed 
him  to  the  custody  of  Owen  Jones,  until  the  4th  of 
March,  then  to  be  brought  again  into  the  same  place, 
between  one  and  two. 

The  day  and  place  appointed,  the  bishop  appeared 
again  before  his  haughty  successor,  submitted  himself  as 
ready  to  answer  to  the  articles  and  positions  above  men- 
tioned, gently  required  a  copy  of  the  articles,  and  a  com- 
petent term  to  be  assigned  unto  him,  to  answer  for  him- 
self. This  being  granted,  and  the  Thursday  next  being 
assigned  to  him  between  one  and  three  to  answer  pre- 
cisely and  fully,  he  was  committed  again  to  custody.  On 
the  appointed  day  he  again  appeared  and  exhibited  a 
bill  in  w^riting,  containing  in  it  his  answer  to  the  articles 
objected  and  ministered  unto  him  before.  Then  Morgan 
offered  him  again  the  articles  in  this  brief  form — that 
he  willed  him  being  a  priest  to  renounce  matrimony — to 
grant  the  natural  presence  of  Christ  in  the  sacrament, 
under  the  forms  of  bread  and  wine — to  confess  and 
allow  that  the  mass  is  a  propitiatory  sacrifice  for  the 
quick  and  the  dead — that  general  councils  lawfully  con- 
gregated never  did,  and  never  can  err — that  men  are  not 
justified  before  God  by  faith  only,  but  that  hope  and 
charity  are  also  necessarily  required  to  justification — and 

96  FERRAR. 

that  the  Catholic  Church  only  hath  authority  to  expound 
scripture  and  to  define  controversies  of  religion,  and  to 
ordain  things  appertaining  to  public  discipline. 

To  these  articles  he  still  refused  to  subscribe,  affirming 
that  they  were  invented  by  man,  and  pertain  notliing  to 
the  catholic  faith.  After  this  Morgan  delivered  unto  him 
the  copy  of  the  articles,  assigning  him  Monday  following, 
to  answer  and  subscribe  to  them  either  affirmatively  or 
negatively.  The  day  came,  and  he  exhibited  in  a  written 
paper  his  mind  and  answer  to  the  articles,  adding  these 
words,  tenens  se  de  (Equitate  et  justicia  esse  episcopum  Mene- 
vensem.  The  bishop  assigned  the  next  Wednesday,  in 
the  forenoon,  to  hear  his  final  and  definitive  sentence. 
On  that  day,  Morgan  demanded  of  him  whether  he 
would  renounce  and  recant  his  heresies,  schisms,  and 
errors,  which  hitherto  he  had  maintained,  and  if  he 
would  subscribe  to  the  catholic  articles  otherwise  than  he 
had  done  before. 

Upon  this  Ferrar  did  exhibit  a  certain  schedule  written 
in  English,  and  remaining  in  the  acts,  appealing  from 
the  bishop,  as  from  an  incompetent  judge,  to  Cardinal 
Pole  and  other  the  highest  authorities.  This,  how- 
ever, did  not  avail  him.  Morgan  proceeding  in  his  rage, 
pronounced  the  definitive  sentence  against  him :  by 
which  sentence  he  pronounced  him  as  a  heretic  excom- 
municate, and  to  be  given  up  forthwith  to  the  secular 
power,  namely,  to  the  sheriff  of  the  town  of  Carmarthen, 
Mr.  Leyson.  After  which  his  degradation  followed  of 

Thus  was  this  godly  bishop  condemned  and  degraded, 
and  committed  to  the  secular  power,  and  not  long  after 
was  brought  to  execution  in  the  town  of  Carmarthen, 
where  in  the  market-place  on  the  south  side  of  the  cross, 
on  the  30th  of  March,  being  Saturday  before  Passion- 
Sunday,  he  most  constantly  sustained  the  torments  of 
the  fire.  Among  the  incidents  of  his  martyrdom  worthy 
of  mention  is  the  following :  one  Richard  Jones,  a  young 

FERRAR.  97 

gentleman,  and  son  of  a  knight,  coming  to  Dr.  Ferrar  a 
little  before  his  death,  seemed  to  lament  the  painfulness 
of  what  he  had  to  suffer:  unto  whom  the  bishop  answered, 
that  if  he  saw  him  once  to  stir  in  the  pains  of  his  burn- 
ing, he  should  then  give  no  credit  to  his  doctrine.  And 
as  he  said,  so  he  performed ;  for  so  patiently  he  stood, 
that  he  never  moved,  till  one  Richard  Gravell,  with  a 
staff,  struck  him  down,  that  he  fell  amidst  the  flames,  and 
expired,  or  rather  rose  to  heaven  to  live  for  ever. 

A  monument  has  lately  been  erected  to  his  memory  in 
Halifax  church,  by  the  exertions  of  a  parishioner  distin- 
guished by  his  zeal  for  the  Church  of  England. — Strype. 


Nicholas  Ferrar  was  born  in  1592,  in  the  parish  of 
St.  Mary  Stayning,  in  Mark-lane,  London.  His  father 
traded  very  extensively  to  the  East  and  West  Indies, 
and  lived  in  high  repute  in  the  city,  where  he  joined  in 
commercial  matters  with  Sir  Thomas  and  Sir  Hugh  Mid- 
dleton,  and  Mr.  Bateman.  He  was  a  man  of  liberal 
hospitality,  and  frequently  received  persons  of  the  great- 
est eminence.  Sir  John  Hawkins,  Sir  Francis  Drake, 
Sir  Walter  Raleigh,  and  others  with  whom  he  was  an 
adventurer;  and  in  all  their  expeditions  he  was  ever 
zealous  to  establish  the  Church  ;  nor  was  he  less  zealous 
when  in  his  own  country.  The  parish  church  and  chan- 
cel of  St.  Bennet  Sherhog  in  London,  Mr.  Ferrar  rej^aired 
and  decently  seated  at  his  own  expence ;  and  as  there 
was  not  any  morning  preacher  there,  he  brought  from 
the  country  Mr.  Francis  White,  and  made  him  their  first 
lecturer.  Mr.  White  was  afterwards  advanced  to  the  see 
of  Ely. 

When  a  stranger  preached,  Mr.  Ferrar  always  invited 
him  to  dinner,  and  if  it  was  discovered  that  he  was  in 

98  FERRAR. 

any  necessity,  he  never  departed  without  a  handsome 
present.  In  truth  they  never  were  without  a  clergyman 
as  a  companion  in  their  house,  or  even  on  their  journeys, 
as  they  always  accustomed  themselves  to  morning  and 
evening  prayer. 

Nicholas  was  sent  to  school  at  four  years  of  age,  and 
at  five  he  could  accurately  repeat  a  chapter  in  the  Bible, 
which  the  parents  made  the  daily  exercise  of  their  chil- 
dren. He  received  his  earlier  education  at  Euborn, 
near  Newbery,  in  Berkshire,  whence,  in  his  fourteenth 
year,  he  was  removed  to  Clare  Hall,  Cambridge.  In 
1610  he  took  his  degree  of  B.A.  At  this  time  he  was 
appointed  to  make  the  speech  on  the  king's  coronation 
day  in  the  college  hall ;  and  the  same  year  he  was  elected 
fellow.  The  delicacy  of  his  health  made  it  necessaiy  for 
him  to  travel,  and  in  1613  he  attended  in  the  retinue  of 
the  lady  Elizabeth,  to  conduct  her  to  the  Palatinate  with 
the  Palsgrave  her  husband,  and  accompanied  her  to  Hol- 
land. He  then  visited  most  of  the  German  universities, 
and  returned  home  in  1618.  Soon  after  his  return,  he 
was  introduced  to  Sir  Edwyn  Sandys,  who  made  him 
known  to  the  Earl  of  Southampton,  and  the  other  prin- 
cipal members  of  the  Virginia  company,  to  which  he  was 
appointed  secretary ;  and  after  the  company  was  dissolved, 
he  was,  in  16*24,  chosen  member  of  parliament.  He 
must,  however,  have  sat  a  very  short  time,  as  he  began 
soon  to  put  in  execution  his  scheme  of  retiring  from  the 
world,  and  leading  a  monastic  life  on  the  principles  of 
the  Church  of  England.  For  this  purpose,  in  the  last- 
mentioned  year,  he  purchased  the  lordship  of  Little  Gid- 
ding,  in  the  county  of  Huntingdon,  where  his  mother, 
his  sister,  with  all  her  family,  and  other  relations  to  the 
number  of  forty  persons,  came  to  reside  as  soon  as  it 
could  be  prepared  for  their  reception.  The  better  to  carry 
on  this  plan,  by  his  personal  assistance,  Mr.  Ferrar  ap- 
plied to  Dr.  Laud,  then  Bishop  of  St.  David's,  and  was 
ordained  deacon.     He  would  not  proceed  to  the  higher 

FERRAK.  91* 

order  of  a  priest,  and  refused  the  many  offers  of  high 
preferment  which  his  great  friends  were  not  slow  to  make 
when  they  understood  that  he  was  ordained.  It  now 
comes,  says  his  biographer,  Dr.  Peckard,  to  speak  of  the 
established  economy  of  the  house  and  church  of  Little 
Gidding,  which  will  be  presented  to  the  reader  in  the 
doctor's  narrative,  a  little  abbreviated.  In  these  days, 
when  there  seems  to  be  a  desire  on  the  part  of  some  to 
establish  similar  communities,  the  example  of  Little 
Gidding  is  indeed  peculiarly  interesting.  In  the  seven- 
teenth century  whatever  w-as  done  by  our  divines  was 
done,  not  in  imitation  of  the  Papists,  but  on  principles 
laid  down  at  the  English  Reformation ;  primitive  prece- 
dent was  followed,  and  good  old  English  feeling  predomi- 
nated ;  w^hat  w^as  Romish  was  avoided,  although  by  the 
wicked  among  the  Puritans,  and  among  their  weak  fol- 
lowers, all  who  aimed  at  Christian  excellence  were  mis- 
represented as  Papists  at  heart. 

Many  workmen  having  been  employed  for  nearly  two 
years  at  Little  Gidding,  both  the  house  and  the  church 
were  in  tolerable  repair,  yet  with  respect  to  the  church 
Mrs.  Ferrar  was  not  well  satisfied.  She  therefore  new- 
floored  and  wainscotted  it  throughout.  She  provided 
also  two  new  suits  of  furniture  for  the  reading-desk,  pul- 
pit, and  communion-table  :  one  for  the  week  days,  and 
the  other  for  Sundays  and  other  festivals.  The  furniture 
for  week  days  was  of  green  cloth,  with  suitable  cushions 
and  carpets.  That  for  festivals  was  of  rich  blue  cloth, 
with  cushions  of  the  same,  decorated  with  lace,  and  fringe 
of  silver.  The  pulpit  was  fixed  on  the  north,  and  the 
reading-desk  over  against  it,  on  the  south  side  of  the 
church,  and  both  on  the  same  level :  it  being  thought 
improper  that  a  higher  place  should  be  appointed  for 
preaching  than  that  which  was  allotted  for  prayer.  A 
new  font  was  also  provided,  the  leg,  laver,  and  cover  all 
of  brass,  handsomely  and  expensively  wrought  and  carved; 
with  a  large  brass  lectern,  or  pillar  and  eagle  of  brass  for 

100  FERRAR. 

the  Bible.  The  font  was  placed  by  the  pulpit,  and  the 
lectern  by  the  reading-desk. 

The  half-pace,  or  elevated  floor,  on  which  the  commu- 
nion table  stood  at  the  end  of  the  chancel,  with  the  stalls 
on  each  side,  w^as  covered  with  blue  taffety,  and  cushions 
of  the  finest  tapestry  and  blue  silk.  The  space  behind 
the  communion-table,  under  the  east  window,  was  ele- 
gantly wainscotted,  and  adorned  with  the  Ten  Command- 
ments, the  Lord's  Prayer,  and  the  Apostles'  Creed,  en- 
graved on  four  beautiful  tablets  of  brass,  gilt. 

The  communion-table  itself  was  furnished  with  a  silver 
paten,  a  silver  chalice,  and  silver  candle-sticks,  with  large 
wax  candles  in  them.  Many  other  candles  of  the  same 
sort  were  set  up  in  every  part  of  the  church,  and  on  all 
the  pillars  of  the  stalls.  And  these  were  not  for  the  pur- 
poses of  superstition,  but  for  real  use ;  which  for  great 
part  of  the  year  the  fixed  hours  for  prayer  made  neces^ 
sary  both  for  morning  and  evening  semce.  Mrs.  Ferrar 
also  taking  great  delight  in  church  music,  built  a  gallery 
at  the  bottom  of  the  church  for  the  organ.  Thus  was 
the  church  decently  furnished,  and  ever  after  kept  ele- 
gantly neat  and  clean. 

All  matters  preparatory  to  order  and  discipline  being 
arranged  and  settled,  about  the  year  1G31,  Dr.  Williams, 
the  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  came  privately  to  Gidding,  to  pay 
a  visit  to  his  old  friend  Mr.  N.  Ferrar,  with  whom  he  had 
contracted  a  friendship  at  the  Virginia  board,  and  for 
whom  he  ever  held  the  highest  and  most  affectionate 

By  this  visit  he  had  an  opportunity  to  view  the  church, 
and  the  house,  and  to  examine  into  their  way  of  serving 
God,  which  had  been  much  spoken  against;  to  know 
also  the  soundness  of  the  doctrine  they  maintained :  to 
read  the  rules  which  Mr.  N.  Ferrar  had  drawn  up  for 
watching,  fasting,  and  praying,  for  singing  psalms  and 
hymns,  for  their  exercises  in  readings,  and  repetitions ; 
for  their  distributions  of  alms,  their  care  of  the  sick,  and 

FERRAR.  101 

wounded ;  and  all  other  regularities  of  their  institution. 
All  which  the  bishop  highly  approved,  and  bade  them  in 
God's  name  to  proceed. 

In  1633  Mrs.  Ferrar  came  to  a  resolution  to  restore  the 
glebe  lands  and  tithes  to  the  church,  which  some  four- 
score years  before  had  been  taken  away,  and  in  lieu 
thereof  only  £20  a  year  paid  to  the  minister.  She  had 
from  the  first  been  so  resolved,  but  had  been  put  off  by 
unexpected  delays.  She  found  great  difficuUy  in  making 
out  the  glebe  lands  :  but  at  length  by  the  industry  of 
Mr.  N.  Ferrar,  she  overcame  it.  She  then  sent  her  sons 
John  and  Nicholas  with  a  letter  to  the  bishop  informing 
him  of  her  determination,  and  desiring  it  might  be  con- 
firmed by  his  authority.  This  authority  from  the  bishop 
was  farther  strengthened  by  a  decree  in  chancery  under 
Lord  Coventry. 

In  the  spring  of  1634,  the  bishop,  to  make  some  ac- 
knowledgment of  this  generosity,  gave  notice,  that  he 
would  again  pay  a  visit  to  the  family  and  give  them  a 
sermon.  And  it  being  known  that  he  was  a  lover  of 
Church  music,  application  was  made  to  Dr.  Towers,  dean 
of  Peterborough,  who  sent  his  whole  choir  to  Gidding 
on  the  occasion.  Divine  service  was  performed  through- 
out in  the  cathedral  manner  with  great  solemnity.  The 
bishop  preached  a  sermon  adapted  to  the  occasion,  and 
in  the  afternoon  gave  confinnation  to  all  of  the  neigh- 
bourhood who  desired  it. 

Every  thing  relative  to  the  church  being  now  complete- 
ly settled,  Mr.  Ferrar  next  turned  his  attention  to  the 
disposition  of  the  mansion.  The  house  being  vei-y  large, 
and  containing  many  apartments,  he  allotted  one  great 
room  for  their  family  devotions,  which  he  called  the 
oratory,  and  adjoining  to  this,  two  other  convenient 
rooms,  one  a  night  oratory  for  the  men,  the  other  a  night 
oratory  for  the  women  :  he  also  set  out  a  separate  cham- 
ber and  closet  for  each  of  his  nephews  and  nieces  ;  three 
more  he  reserved  for  the  school-masters ;    and  his  own 

102  FERRAR 

lodgings  were  so  contrived  that  he  could  conveniently  see 
that  every  thing  vras  conducted  with  decency  and  order  : 
without  doors  he  laid  out  the  gardens  in  a  beautiful  man- 
ner, and  formed  them  in  many  fair  w^alks. 

Another  circumstance  that  engaged  his  attention  was, 
that  the  parish  had  for  many  years  been  turned  into 
pasture  grounds  ;  that  as  there  was  a  veiy  large  dovecote, 
and  a  great  number  of  pigeons  upon  these  premises, 
these  pigeons  must  consequently  feed  upon  his  neigh- 
bours' corn ;  and  this  he  thought  injustice.  He  there- 
fore converted  this  building  into  a  school-house,  which 
being  larger  than  was  wanted  for  the  young  people  of  the 
family,  permission  was  given  to  as  many  of  the  neigh- 
bouring towns  as  desired  it,  to  send  their  children  thither, 
where  they  were  instructed  without  expense,  in  reading, 
writing,  arithmetic,  and  the  principles  of  the  Christian 

For  this  and  other  purposes,  he  provided  three  masters 
to  be  constantly  resident  in  the  house  with  him.  The 
first  was  to  teach  English  to  strangers,  and  English  and 
Latin  to  the  children  of  the  family :  the  second,  good 
writing  in  all  its  hands,  and  arithmetic  in  all  its  branches : 
the  third,  to  instruct  them  in  the  theoiy  and  practice  of 
music,  in  singing,  and  performing  upon  the  organ,  viol, 
and  lute ;  on  the  last  instrument  his  sister  Collet  was  a 
distinguished  performer. 

For  all  these  things  the  children  had  their  stated  times 
and  hours.  So  that  though  they  were  always  in  action, 
and  always  learning  something,  yet  the  great  variety  of 
things  they  were  taught  prevented  all  weariness,  and 
made  every  thing  be  received  with  pleasure.  And  he  was 
used  to  say  that  he  who  could  attain  to  the  the  well- 
timing  things,  had  gained  an  important  point,  and  found 
the  surest  way  to  accomplish  great  designs  with  ease. 

On  Thursdays,  and  Saturdays,  in  the  afternoons,  the 
youths  were  permitted  to  recreate  themselves  with  bows 
and  arrows,  with  running,  leaping,   and  vaulting,  and 

FERRAR.  103 

what  other  manly  exercises  they  themselves  liked  best. 
With  respect  to  the  younger  part  of  the  females,  the 
general  mode  of  education  was  similar  to  that  of  the 
boys,  except  where  the  difference  of  sex  made  a  ditierent 
employment  or  recreation  proper.  When  the  powers  of 
reason  and  judgment  became  in  some  degree  matured, 
they  were  all  at  proper  times  taken  under  the  immediate 
instruction  of  Mr.  Ferrar  himself,  who  bestowed  several 
hours  every  day  in  that  important  employment.  Accord- 
ing to  the  capacity  of  each  he  gave  them  passages  of 
scripture  to  get  by  heart,  and  particularly  the  whole  book 
of  psalms.  He  selected  proper  portions,  of  which  he 
gave  a  clear  explanation,  and  a  judicious  comment.  But 
above  all  things  he  was  anxiously  attentive  to  daily 
catechetical  lectures,  according  to  the  doctrine  of  the 
Church  of  England.  And  in  order  to  make  his  pious 
labours  extensively  beneficial,  he  invited  the  children  of 
all  the  surrounding  parishes,  to  get  the  book  of  psalms 
by  heart.  To  encourage  them  to  this  performance,  each 
was  presented  with  a  psalter  :  all  were  to  repair  to  G id- 
ding  every  Sunday  morning,  and  each  was  to  repeat  his 
psalm,  till  they  could  all  repeat  the  whole  book.  These 
psalm-children,  as  they  were  called,  more  than  a  hundred 
in  number,  received  every  Sunday,  according  to  the  pro- 
ficiency of  each,  a  small  pecuniary  reward  and  a  dinner, 
which  was  conducted  with  great  regularity.  For,  when 
they  returned  from  church,  long  trestles  were  placed  in 
the  middle  of  the  great  hall,  round  which  the  children 
stood  in  great  order.  Mrs.  Ferrar,  and  her  family  then 
came  in  to  see  them  served.  The  servants  brought  in 
baked  puddings  and  meat :  which  was  the  only  repast 
provided  on  Sundays  for  the  whole  family,  that  all  might 
have  an  opportunity  of  attending  divine  service  at 
church.  She  then  set  on  the  first  dish  herself,  to  give 
an  example  of  humility.  Grace  was  said,  and  then  the 
bell  rang  for  the  family,  who  thereupon  repaired  to  the 
great  dining  roon^,   and  stood  in  order  round  the  table. 

104  FERRAR. 

Whilst  the  dinner  was  sendng,  they  sang  a  hymn  to  the 
organ  :  then  grace  was  said  by  the  minister  of  the  parish, 
and  they  sat  down.  During  dinner  one  of  the  younger 
people,  whose  turn  it  was,  read  a  chapter  in  the  Bible, 
and  when  that  was  finished,  another  recited  some  chosen 
story  out  of  the  book  of  martyrs,  or  Mr.  Ferrar's  short 
histories.  When  the  dinner  was  finished  throughout  the 
family,  at  two  o'clock  the  bell  summoned  them  to  church 
to  evening  service,  whither  they  went  in  a  regular  form 
of  procession,  Mr.  N.  Ferrar  sometimes  leading  his 
mother,  sometimes  going  last  in  the  train :  and  having 
all  returned  from  church  in  the  same  form,  thus  ended 
the  jjyhlic  employment  of  every  Sunday. 

Immediately  after  church  the  family  all  went  into  the 
oratory,  where  select  portions  of  the  psalms  were  repeated, 
and  then  all  were  at  liberty  till  five  o'clock :  at  which 
hour  in  summer,  and  six  in  the  winter,  the  bell  called 
them  to  supper :  where  all  the  ceremonial  was  repeated 
exactly  the  same  as  at  dinner.  After  supper  they  were 
again  at  liberty  till  eight,  when  the  bell  summoned  them 
all  into  the  oratory,  where  they  sang  a  hymn  to  the  organ, 
and  went  to  prayers ;  when  the  children  asked  blessing 
of  their  parents,  and  then  all  the  family  retired  to  their 
respective  apartments  ;  and  thus  ended  the  private  obser- 
vation of  the  sabbath. 

On  the  first  Sunday  of  every  month  they  always  had  a 
communion,  which  was  administered  by  the  clergyman 
of  the  adjoining  parish ;  Mr.  N.  Ferrar  assisting  as  dea- 
con. All  the  servants  who  then  received  the  communion, 
when  dinner  was  brought  up,  remained  in  the  room,  and 
on  that  day  dined  at  the  same  table  with  Mrs.  Ferrar, 
and  the  rest  of  the  family. 

That  I  may  not  be  thought  to  conceal  any  thing  which 
brought  censure  upon  them,  and  led  to  their  persecution, 
I  will  here  insert  the  particular  mode  of  their  proces- 
sions, and  other  circumstances  which  were  condemned 
])y  some  as  being  superstitious.     I  shall  not  pass  any 

FERRAR.  105 

judgment  myself  on  these  ceremonials,  relating  mere 
matter  of  fact,  and  observing  only  that  where  there  was 
error,  it  was  error  on  the  side  of  virtue  and  goodness. 

When  their  early  devotions  in  the  oratoi7  were  finished 
they  proceeded  to  church  in  the  following  order  : 

First,  the  three  school-masters,  in  black  gowns  and 
Monmouth  caps. 

Then,  Mrs.  Ferrar's  grandsons,  clad  in  the  same  man- 
ner, two  and  two. 

Then  her  son,  Mr.  J.  Ferrar,  and  her  son-in-law,  Mr. 
Collet,  in  the  same  dress. 

Then,  Mr.  N.  Ferrar,  in  sui-plice,  hood,  and  square 
cap,  sometimes  leading  his  mother. 

Then,  Mrs.  Collet,  and  all  her  daughters,  two  and  two. 

Then,  all  the  servants,  two  and  two.  The  dress  of  all 
was  uniform. 

Then,  on  Sundays,  all  the  psalm-children,  two  and 

As  they  came  into  the  church,  every  person  made  a  low 
obeisance,  and  all  took  their  appointed  places.  The 
masters,  and  gentlemen  in  the  chancel :  the  youths  knelt 
on  the  upper  step  of  the  half-pace ;  Mrs.  Ferrar,  her 
daughters,  and  all  her  grand-daughters  in  a  fair  island- 
seat.  Mr,  N.  Ferrar  at  coming  in  made  alow  obeisance; 
a  few  paces  farther,  a  lower:  and  at  the  half-pace,  a  lower 
still ;  then  went  into  the  reading-desk,  and  read  matins 
according  to  the  book  of  common  prayer.  This  service 
over,  they  returned  in  the  same  order,  and  with  the  same 
solemnity.  This  ceremonial  was  regularly  observed  every 
Sunday,  and  that  on  every  common  day  was  nearly  the 
same.  They  rose  at  four ;  at  five  went  to  the  oratory  to 
prayers ;  at  six,  said  the  psalms  of  the  hour ;  for  every 
hour  had  its  appointed  psalms,  with  some  portion  of  the 

VOL  V.  K 

106  FERRAR. 

gospel,  till  Mr.  Ferrar  had  finished  his  Concordance, 
when  a  chapter  of  that  work  was  substituted  in  place  of 
the  portion  of  the  gospel.  Then  they  sang  a  short  hymn, 
repeated  some  passages  of  scripture,  and  at  half-past  six 
went  to  church  to  matins.  At  seven  said  the  psalms  of 
the  hour,  sang  the  short  hymn,  and  went  to  breakfast. 
Then  the  young  people  repaired  to  their  respective  places 
of  instruction.  At  ten,  to  church  to  the  litany.  At 
eleven  to  dinner.  At  which  seasons  were  regular  read- 
ings in  rotation,  from  the  scripture,  from  the  book  of 
martyrs,  and  from  short  histories  drawn  up  by  Mr.  Ferrar, 
and  adapted  to  the  purpose  of  moral  instruction.  Recrea- 
tion was  permitted  till  one  ;  instruction  was  continued 
till  three.  Church  at  four,  for  evensong  ;  supper  at  five, 
or  sometimes  six.  Diversions  till  eight.  Then  prayers 
in  the  oratory  :  and  afterwards  all  retired  to  their  respec- 
tive apartments.  To  preserve  regularity  in  point  of  time, 
Mr.  Ferrar  invented  dials  in  painted  glass  in  every  room : 
he  had  also  sun-dials,  elegantly  painted  with  proper 
mottos,  on  every  side  of  the  church :  and  he  provided  an 
excellent  clock  to  a  sonorous  bell. 

The  holy  course  of  life  thus  pursued  at  Gidding,  the 
strictness  of  their  rules,  their  prayers,  literally  without 
ceasing,  their  abstinence,  mortifications,  nightly  watch- 
ings,  and  various  other  peculiarities,  gave  birth  to  censure 
in  some,  and  inflamed  the  malevolence  of  others,  but 
excited  the  wonder  and  curiosity  of  all.  So  that  they 
were  frequently  visited  with  different  views  by  persons  of 
all  denominations,  and  of  opposite  opinions.  They  re- 
ceived all  who  came  with  courteous  civility  ;  and  from 
those  who  were  inquisitive  they  concealed  nothing,  as 
indeed  there  was  not  any  thing  either  in  their  opinions, 
or  their  practice,  in  the  least  degree  necessary  to  be  con- 
cealed. Notwithstanding  this,  they  were  by  some  abused 
as  Papists,  by  others  as  Puritans.     Mr.  Ferrar  himself, 

FERRAR.  107 

though  possessed  of  uncommon  patience  and  resignation, 
yet  in  anguish  of  spirit  complained  to  his  friends,  that 
the  perpetual  obloquy  he  endured  was  a  sort  of  unceas- 
ing martyrdom.  Added  to  all  this,  violent  invectives 
and  inflammatory  pamphlets  were  published  against 
them.  Amongst  others,  not  long  after  Mr.  Ferrar's 
death,  a  treatise  was  addressed  to  the  parliament,  enti 
tied,  *'  The  Arminian  Nunnery,  or  a  brief  description 
and  relation  of  the  late  erected  monastical  place,  called 
the  Arminian  Nunnery  at  Little  Gidding  in  Huntingdon- 
shire :  humbly  addressed  to  the  wise  consideration  of  the 
present  parliament.  The  foundation  is  by  a  company 
of  Ferrars  at  Gidding;"  printed  by  Thomas  Underbill, 

Among  other  articles  of  instruction  and  amusement 
in  this  monastery,  Mr.  Ferrar  engaged  a  bookbinder  who 
taught  his  art  to  the  whole  family,  females  as  well  as 
males,  and  what  they  called  pasting-printing,  by  the  use 
of  the  rolling-press.  By  this  assistance  he  composed  a 
full  harmony  or  concordance  of  the  evangelists,  adorned 
with  many  beautiful  pictures,  which  required  more  than 
a  year  for  the  composition,  and  was  divided  into  150 
heads  or  chapters.  This  book  was  so  neatly  done  by 
pieces  pasted  together  from  different  copies  of  the  same 
type,  as  to  have  the  appearance  of  having  been  printed  in 
the  ordinary  way. 

King  Charles  the  martyr  twice  visited  Gidding,  and 
his  pious  mind  took  much  interest  in  the  proceedings. 
A  copy  of  the  Harmony,  splendidly  bound,  was  presented 
to  his  majesty. 

Old  Mrs.  Ferrar  died  in  1635,  and  Nicholas  in  1637. 
The  third  day  before  his  death,  he  ordered  a  place  to  be 
marked  out  for  his  grave,  and  being  told  that  the  place 
was  accordingly  marked,  he  requested  his  brother,  before 
all  the  family,  to  take  out  of  his  study  three  large  ham- 

108.  FERRAR. 

pers  full  of  books,  which  had  been  there  locked  up  many 
years  ;  and  said,  "  they  are  comedies,  tragedies,  heroic 
poems,  and  romances ;  let  them  be  immediately  burnt 
upon  the  place  marked  out  for  my  grave,  and  when 
you  shall  have  so  done,  come  back  and  infonn  me." 
When  information  was  brought  him  that  they  were  all 
consumed,  he  desired  that  this  act  might  be  considered 
as  the  testimony  of  his  disapprobation  of  all  such  pro- 
ductions, as  tending  to  corrupt  the  mind  of  man,  and 
improper  for  the  perusal  of  every  good  and  sincere  Chris- 

Soon  after  his  death,  certain  soldiers  of  the  parliament 
resolved  to  plunder  the  house  at  Gidding.  The  family 
being  informed  of  their  hasty  approach,  thought  it  pru- 
dent to  fly ;  while  these  military  zealots,  in  the  rage  of 
what  they  called  reformation,  ransacked  both  the  church 
and  the  house ;  in  doing  which,  they  expressed  a  par- 
ticular spite  against  the  organ.  This  they  broke  in 
pieces,  of  which  they  made  a  large  fire,  and  at  it  roasted 
several  of  Mr.  Ferrar's  sheep,  which  they  had  killed  in 
his  grounds.  This  done,  they  seized  all  the  plate,  furni- 
ture, and  provision,  which  they  could  conveniently  carry- 
away.  And  in  this  general  devastation  perished  the 
works  which  Mr.  Ferrar  had  compiled  for  the  use  of  his 
household,  in  the  way  we  have  already  described,  con- 
sisting chiefly  of  harmonies  of  the  Old  and  New  Testa- 

The  only  publication  by  Mr.  Ferrar,  but  without  his 
name,  was  a  translation  from  Valdesso,  entitled,  The  Hun- 
dred and  Ten  Considerations,  &c.,  written  in  Spanish, 
brought  out  of  Italy  by  Vergerius,  and  first  set  forth  in 
Italian,  at  Basil,  by  Cselius  Secundus  Curio,  1550. 
Whereunto  is  added  a  preface  of  the  author's  to  his  Com- 
mentary on  the  Romans,  Oxford,  printed  by  Litchfield, 
1638. — Peckard.    Wordstvorth. 

FEYDEAU.  109 


Matthew  Feydeau  was  born  at  Paris  in  1616,  and 
studied  at  the  Sorbonne,  In  1646  he  accepted  the  vicar- 
age of  Belleville,  attached  to  the  cure  of  St.  Merry,  at 
Paris,  where  he  was  prevailed  upon  to  assist  with  his 
advice  several  young  students  in  philosophy  and  theology, 
at  the  university  of  Paris.  For  their  use  he  composed 
his  Meditations  on  the  Principal  Duties  of  a  Christian, 
taken  from  the  Sacred  Scriptures,  the  Councils,  and  the 
Fathers,  which  was  published  in  1649,  12mo,  and  has 
undergone  numerous  impressions.  From  the  vicarage  of 
Belleville  he  was  transferred  to  that  of  St.  Merry ;  and 
in  that  parish,  conjointly  with  some  other  ecclesiastics, 
he  established  the  Conferences,  which  became  so  cele- 
brated in  the  ecclesiastical  history  of  the  times.  In  1650 
he  published  A  Catechism  on  Grace,  which  he  had  drawn 
up  at  the  request  of  M.  Francis  le  Fevre  de  Caumartin, 
Bishop  of  Amiens,  and  which  was  soon  afterwards  re- 
printed under  the  title  of  Illustrations  of  certain  Diffi- 
culties respecting  Grace.  This  work  was  condemned,  in 
the  same  year,  by  a  decree  of  the  Inquisition  at  Rome, 
which  M.  Fouquet,  attorney-general  of  the  parliament  of 
Paris,  would  not  permit  to  be  promulgated  in  that  city. 
Several  pieces  appeared  from  the  press,  however,  in 
opposition  to  the  Catechism,  which  were  answered  by  the 
celebrated  Arnauld,  in  his  Reflections  on  a  Decree  of  the 
Inquisition  at  Rome,  Paris,  1661.  In  1656  M.  Feydeau 
was  one  of  the  seventy-two  doctors  who  were  expelled  by 
the  faculty  of  the  Sorbonne,  for  refusing  to  subscribe  to 
the  condemnation  of  Arnauld  ;  on  which  account  he  was 
also  obliged  to  relinquish  his  vicarage  of  St.  Merry.  In 
1657  a  lettre  de  cachet  exiled  him  to  Cahors.  For  several 
years  aftei-wards  he  lived  chiefly  in  retirement,  where  he 
produced  his  Reflections  on  the  History  and  Harmony  of 
the  Gospels,  2  vols,  12mo,  which  has  been  often  reprinted 

VOL  V.  L 

no  FIDDES. 

both  in  France  and  Flanders.  In  1665  the  Bishop  of  Aleth 
gave  him  a  prebend  in  his  diocese,  which  he  resigned 
three  years  afterwards  to  undertake  the  cure  of  Vitri  le 
Francais,  in  Champagne.  The  Bishop  of  Beauvais  soon 
afterwards  appointed  him  to  a  prebend  in  his  church  ; 
but  a  second  lettre  de  cachet,  in  1677,  procured  his  ban- 
ishment to  Bourges,  whence,  nine  years  after,  a  third 
lettre  de  cachet  banished  him  to  Annonay,  in  the  Vivares, 
where  he  died  in  1694. — Moreri. 


Richard  Fiddes  was  born  at  Hunmanby  in  Yorkshire, 
in  1671.  He  became  a  student  of  Corpus  Christi,  and  next 
of  University  College,  Oxford,  where  he  took  his  bachelor's 
degree  in  1693.  Soon  afterwards  he  was  presented  to 
the  rectory  of  Halsham  in  Yorkshire ;  but  the  air  being 
bad  in  that  marshy  place,  he  contracted  an  illness,  which 
affected  his  speech,  and  deprived  him  of  the  power  of 
preaching.  He  then  removed  to  London,  and  subsisted 
chiefly  by  writing,  though  he  was  appointed  chaplain  to 
Lord  Oxford,  and  to  the  garrison  of  Hull.  In  1713  the 
degree  of  bachelor  in  divinity  was  conferred  on  him  by 
the  university  of  Oxford,  and  that  of  doctor  in  1718.  He 
died  at  Putney  in  1725.  His  works  are — 1.  An  epistle 
concerning  Remarks  to  be  published  on  Homer's  Iliad, 
12mo.  S.  Theologia  Speculativa  et  Practica,  or  a  Body 
of  Divinity,  2  vols,  folio.  3.  Fifty-two  Practical  Dis- 
courses, folio.  4.  The  Life  of  Cardinal  Wolsey,  folio, 
1724.  This  is  a  very  able  work,  but  because  the  author 
stated  facts  as  he  found  them,  without  distorting  them 
for  party  purposes,  he  was  reviled  by  certain  ultra-pro- 
testants  as  a  papist.  5.  A  treatise  of  Morality,  8vo. 
6.  A  Preparative  to  the  Lord's  Supper.  7.  Vindication 
of  the  Duke  of  Buckingham's  Epitaph.  In  this  he 
committed  a  great  error.  He  also  wrote  the  lives  of  Sir 
Thomas  More  and  Bishop  Fisher ;  but  the  manuscripts 
were  lost. — Birch  in  the  Gen.  Diet. 

FIELD.  Ill 


Richard  Field  was  born  at  Hempsted,  in  Hertford- 
shire, in  15  01.  He  received  his  earlier  education  at  the 
free-school  of  Berkhampstead,  whence  he  was  removed  to 
Magdalen  College,  Oxford,  and  thence  to  Magdalen  Hall. 
After  taking  his  degree  of  M.A.,  he,  for  about  seven 
years,  delivered  lectures  in  logic  and  philosophy,  and  on 
Sundays  catechetical  lectures,  in  Magdalen  Hall,  which 
were  attended  by  many  members  of  the  university.  At 
this  time  he  was  esteemed  one  of  the  ablest  disputants  in 
Oxford.  He  was  also  famed  for  his  acquaintance  with 
school  divinity,  and  for  his  talents  as  a  preacher.  After- 
wards he  became  divinity  reader  for  a  time  in  the  cathe- 
dral church  at  Winchester;  and  in  1594  he  was  chosen 
divinity  reader  to  the  society  of  Lincoln's-inn,  a  member 
of  which  presented  him  to  the  living  of  Burghclear,  in 
Hampshire.  He  soon  after  declined  the  living  of  St. 
Andrew's,  Holborn.  In  1598,  being  then  doctor  of  divi- 
nity, he  was  made  chaplain  in  ordinary  to  queen  Eliza- 
beth, and  soon  afterwards  prebendary  of  Windsor.  About 
this  time  he  maintained  a  friendly  intercourse  with  the 
judicious  Hooker.  Soon  after  the  accession  of  James  I. 
Dr.  Field  was  appointed  chaplain  in  ordinary  to  his 
majesty,  and  was  included  in  special  commissions  that 
were  issued  for  ecclesiastical  causes,  and  the  exercise  of 
spiritual  jurisdiction  within  the  diocese  of  Winchester. 
In  1604  he  was  made  canon  of  Windsor ;  and  in  the 
following  year,  when  the  king  was  to  be  entertained  at 
Oxford,  he  was  sent  for  to  take  a  part  in  the  divinity  act, 
and  on  that  occasion  he  greatly  distinguished  himself. 
In  1606  he  published,  in  London,  his  great  work.  Of 
the  Church,  four  books,  folio;  to  which,  in  1610,  he 
added  a  fifth,  with  an  appendix,  containing  A  defence  of 
such  passages  of  the  former  books  that  have  been  excepted 
against,  or  wrested  to  the  maintenance  of  the  Romish 

112  FIELD. 

errors.  They  were  afterwards  reprinted  at  Oxford  in 
1628.  In  this  work  he  says,  "Much  contention  there 
hath  heen  about  traditions,  some  arguing  the  necessity  of 
them,  others  rejecting  them.  For  the  clearing  whereof 
we  must  observe,  that  though  we  reject  the  uncertain  and 
vain  traditions  of  the  Papists,  yet  we  reject  not  all :  for 
first,  we  receive  the  number  and  names  of  the  authors  of 
books  divine  and  canonical,  as  delivered  by  tradition. 
This  tradition  we  admit,  for  that,  though  the  books  of 
scripture  have  not  their  authority  from  the  approbation 
of  the  Church,  but  win  credit  of  themselves,  and  yield 
sufficient  satisfaction  to  all  men,  of  their  divine  truth, 
whence  we  judge  the  Church  that  receiveth  them,  to  be 
led  by  the  spirit  of  God;  yet  the  number,  authors,  and 
integrity  of  the  parts  of  these  books,  we  receive  as  de- 
livered by  tradition. 

"  The  second  kind  of  tradition  which  we  admit,  is  that 
summary  comprehension,  of  the  chief  heads  of  Christian 
doctrine,  contained  in  the  Creed  of  the  Apostles,  which 
was  delivered  to  the  Church,  as  a  rule  of  her  faith.  For 
though  every  part  thereof  be  contained  in  the  scripture, 
yet  the  orderly  connexion  and  distinct  explication  of  these 
principal  articles  gathered  into  an  epitome,  wherein  are 
implied,  and  whence  are  inferred  all  conclusions  theolo- 
gical, is  rightly  named  a  tradition.  The  third,  is  that 
form  of  Christian  doctrine,  and  explication  of  the  several 
parts  thereof,  which  the  first  Christians  receiving  of  the 
same  Apostles  that  delivered  to  them  the  scriptures, 
commended  to  posterities.  This  may  rightly  be  named 
a  tradition,  not  as  if  we  were  to  believe  anything  without 
the  warrant  and  authority  of  the  scripture,  but  for  that 
we  need  a  plain  and  distinct  explication  of  many  things, 
which  are  somewhat  obscurely  contained  in  the  Scripture  : 
which  being  explicated,  the  scriptures  we  should  not  so 
easily  have  understood,  yield  us  satisfaction  that  they  are 
so  indeed,  as  the  Church  delivereth  them  unto  us. 

"  The  fourth  kind  of  tradition,  is  the  continued  prac- 

FIELD.  113 

tice  of  such  things,  as  neither  are  contained  in  the  scrip- 
ture expressly,  nor  the  examples  of  such  practice  expressly 
there  delivered,  though  the  grounds,  reasons,  and  causes 
of  the  necessity  of  such  practice,  be  there  contained,  and 
the  benefit,  or  good  that  followeth  of  it;  of  this  sort  is 
the  baptism  of  infants,  which  is  therefore  named  a  tradi- 
tion, because  it  is  not  expressly  delivered  in  scripture 
that  the  Apostles  did  baptize  infants,  nor  any  express 
precept  there  found  that  they  should  so  do.  Yet  is  not 
this  so  received  by  bare  and  naked  tradition,  but  that  we 
find  the  scripture  to  deliver  unto  us  the  grounds  of  it. 
The  fifth  kind  of  tradition,  comprehendeth  such  observa- 
tions, as  in  particular,  are  not  commanded  in  scripture, 
nor  the  necessity  of  them  from  thence  concluded,  though 
in  general  without  limitation  of  times,  and  other  circum- 
stances, such  things  be  there  commanded.  Of  this  sort, 
many  think,  the  observation  of  the  Lent  fast  to  be,  the 
fast  of  the  fourth  and  sixth  days  of  the  week,  and  some 
other.  .  .  . 

"  Thus  having  set  down  the  kinds  and  sorts  of  tradi- 
tions, it  remaineth  to  examine,  by  what  means  we  may 
come  to  discern,  and  by  what  rules  we  may  judge,  which 
are  true  and  indubitate  traditions.  The  first  rule  is 
delivered  by  Augustine;  quod  universa  tenet  ecclesia, 
nee  conciliis  institutum,  sed  semper  retentum  est,  non 
nisi  auctoritate  Apostolica  traditum,  rectissime  creditur. 
Whatsoever  the  whole  Church  holdeth,  not  being  decreed 
by  the  authority  of  councils,  but  having  been  ever  holden, 
may  rightly  be  thought  to  have  proceeded  from  apostolic 
authority.  The  second  rule  is,  whatsoever  all,  or  the 
most  famous  and  renowned  in  all  ages,  or  at  the  least  in 
diverse  ages,  have  constantly  delivered,  as  received  from 
them  that  went  before  them,  no  man  contradicting  or 
doubting  of  it,  may  be  thought  to  be  an  apostolical  tradi- 
tion. The  third  rule,  is  the  constant  testimony  of  the 
pastors  of  an  apostolic  Church,  successively  delivered  :  to 
which  some  add  the  present  testimony  of  an  apostolic 

114  FIELD. 

Church,  whose  decliniugs  when  they  began,  we  cannot 
precisely  tell.  But  none  of  the  fathers  admit  this  rule. 
For  when  they  urge  the  authority  and  testimony  of  apos- 
tolic churches,  for  the  proof,  or  reproof  of  true  or  pre- 
tended traditions,  they  stand  upon  the  consenting  voice, 
or  silence,  of  the  pastors  of  such  churches,  successively 
in  diverse  ages  concerning  such  things.  Some  add  the 
testimony  of  the  present  Church  :  but  we  inquire  after 
the  rule,  whereby  the  present  Church  may  know  true 
traditions  from  false ;  and  besides,  though  the  whole 
multitude  of  believers,  at  one  time  in  the  world,  cannot 
err  pertinaciously,  and  damnably,  in  embracing  false 
traditions  instead  of  true ;  yet  they  that  most  sway  things 
in  the  Church  may,  yea  even  the  greater  part  of  a  general 
council ;  so  that  this  can  be  no  sure  rule  for  men  to  judge  of 
traditions  by.  And  therefore  Canus  reasoneth  foolishly, 
that  whatsoever  the  Church  of  Rome  practiseth,  which 
she  may  not  do  without  special  warrant  from  God,  and 
yet  hath  no  warrant  in  Scripture  so  to  do,  the  same 
things  and  the  practice  of  them  she  hath  received  by 
tradition.  He  giveth  example  in  the  present  practice  of 
the  Romish  Church,  in  dispensing  wdth,  and  remitting 
vows  and  oaths,  and  in  dissolving  marriages,  (not  con- 
summated by  carnal  knowledge,)  by  admitting  men  into 
orders  of  religion.  But  this  practice  of  the  Romish 
Church,  we  condemn,  as  wdcked  and  antichristian." 

The  republication  of  this  deeply  learned  work  of  Field 
would  in  these  days  be  very  advantageous.  He  clearly 
distinguishes  between  the  doctrines  of  the  modern 
Church  of  Rome  and  the  primitive  Church,  and  shews 
how  the  Church  of  England  accords  with  the  other.  On 
one  point  he  is  peculiarly  powerful :  he  shews  that  the 
peculiar  doctrines  of  Romanism  before  the  council  of 
Trent,  were  chiefly  floating  opinions  in  the  Church,  but 
not  authoritatively  asserted  in  the  sense  in  which  they 
are  now  received.  If  a  convocation  in  England  were  to 
establish  the  dogmas  of  Calvin,  a  writer  might  maintain 

FIELD.  115 

that  Calvinism  up  to  that  period  had  not  been  estabhshed 
in  our  Church,  although  he  might  admit  that  a  majority 
of  the  clergy  and  people  held  those  heresies.    Thus  Field 
argues,   and  shews,  that  although  Romanizing  feelings 
existed,  Romanism  was  not  established  in  the  Church  of 
Rome  before  the  council  of  Trent.     One  of  the  distin- 
guishing characteristics  of  this  great  divine  is,  that  in 
refuting  error,  he  always  takes  care  to  state  with  preci- 
sion the  opposite  truth.     Take  for  example  the  sacrifice 
in  the  eucharist :  having  shewed  the  error  of  the  modern 
Church  of  Rome,  he  says  :  "  This  is  the  present  doctrine 
of  the  Roman  Church  :  but  this  was  not  the  doctrine  of 
the   Church  at  the  time  of  Luther's  appearing :  for  the 
best  and  principal  men  then  living,  taught  peremptorily 
that  Christ  is  not  newly  offered  any  otherwise,  than  that 
He  is  offered  to  the  view  of  God ;    nor  any  otherwise 
sacrificed,  than  in  that  His  sacrifice  on  the  cross  is  com- 
memorated and  represented.    *  The  things  that  are  offered 
in  the  sacrament  are  two,  (saith  the  author  of  the  Enchi- 
ridion of  Christian  Religion,  published  in  the  provincial 
council  of  Cologne,)  the  tiTie  Body  of  Christ  with  all  His 
merits,  and  His  mystical  Body,  with  all  the  gifts  which 
it  hath  received  of  God.     In  that,  therefore,  the  Church 
doth  offer  the  true  Body  and  Blood  of  Christ  to  God  the 
Father,  it  is  merely  a  representative  sacrifice,  and  all  that 
is  done  is  but  the  commemorating  and  representing  of 
that  sacrifice  which  was  once  offered  on  the  cross.     But 
in  that  it  dedicateth  itself,  which  is  the  mystical  body  of 
Christ  unto   God,  it  is  a  true,  but  a  spiritual  sacrifice, 
that  is,  an  eucharistical  sacrifice  of  praise,  thanksgiving, 
and  of  obedience  due  unto  God.     Christ,  therefore,  is 
offered  and  sacrificed  on  the  altar,  but  sacramentally  and 
mystically  ;  in  that  in  the  sacrament  there  is  a  comme- 
moration  and    remembrance   of    that   which   was   once 
done.  .  .  .'     The  most  reverend  canons  of  the  metropoli- 
tan Church  of  Cologne  agree  with  the  author  of  the  En- 
chiridion.  ...    In  the   book  proposed  by  Charles  V., 

116  FIELD. 

written  by  certain  learned  and  godly  men,  much  com- 
mended to  him  by  men  worthy  to  be  credited,  as  opening 
a  way  for  the  composing  of  the  controversies  in  rehgion, 
we  shall  find  the  same  explication  of  this  point,  touching 
the  sacrifice  that  I  have  already  delivered  out  of  the 
former  authors.  ,  .  .  Hosius  was  of  the  same  opinion 
with  those  before  recited :  .  .  .  Michael,  Bishop  of  Wers- 
purge,  a  man  learned,  godly,  and  truly  catholic  .  .  .  and 
with  him  agreeth  another  learned  Bishop  (Thomas  Wat- 
son,) sometime  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  in  his  Sermons  upon 
the  Seven  Sacraments.  .  .  .  With  these  Gregorius  Wice- 
lius,  a  man  much  honoured  by  the  emperors  Ferdinand 
and  Maximilian,  fully  agreeth,  defining  the  mass  to  be  a 
sacrifice  rememorative,  and  of  praise  and  thanksgiving  : 
and  in  another  place  he  saith,  the  mass  is  a  commemora- 
tion of  the  passion  of  Christ  celebrated  in  the  public 
assembly  of  Christians,  where  many  give  thanks  for  the 
price  of  redemption.  With  these  agreeth  the  Interim, 
published  by  Charles  V.  in  the  assembly  of  the  states  of 
the  empire,  at  Augusta,  March  15th,  1548,  and  there 
accepted  by  the  same  states.  But  some  man  happily 
will  say,  here  are  many  authorities  alleged,  to  prove  that 
sundry  worthy  divines  in  the  Roman  Church,  in  Luther's 
time,  denied  the  new  real  offering  or  sacrificing  of  Christ, 
and  made  the  sacrifice  of  the  altar  to  be  only  representa- 
tive and  commemorative,  but  before  his  time  there  were 
none  found  so  to  teach.  Wherefore  I  will  show  the  con- 
sent of  the  Church  to  have  been  clear  for  us,  touching 
this  point,  before  his  time,   and   against  the  Tridentine 

doctrine  now  prevailing Wherefore  that  which 

Bellarmine  hath,  that  Aquinas  and  the  other  schoolmen, 
for  the  most  part,  do  no  otherwise  say  that  the  sacrifice 
of  the  mass  is  an  immolation  of  Christ,  but  in  that  it  is 
a  representation  of  Christ's  immolation  on  the  cross,  or 
because  it  hath  like  effect  with  that  true  and  real  sacri- 
ficing of  Christ  that  implied  his  death,  is  most  true  ;  his 
evasion  is  found   too  silly,   and  it   is  made   clear   and 

FIELD.  117 

evident  that  the  best  and  worthiest  amongst  the  guides 
of  God's  Church,  before  Luther's  time,  taught  as  we  do, 
that  the  sacrifice  of  the  altar  is  only  the  sacrifice  of  praise 
and  thanksgiving,  and  a  mere  representation  and  com- 
memoration of  the  sacrifice  once  offered  on  the  cross, 
and,  consequently,  are  all  put  under  the  curse,  and  ana- 
thematized by  the  Tridentine  council.  .  .  . 

"Wherefore,  to  conclude  this  point,  it  appeareth  by  that 
which  hath  been  said,  that  neither  the  canon  of  the  mass, 
rightly  understood,  includeth  in  it  any  such  points  of 
Romish  religion,  as  some  imagine,  but  in  sundiy,  yea,  in 
all  the  capital  differences,  between  us  and  them  of  the 
Romish  faction,  witnesseth  for  us,  and  against  them  ; 
and  that  the  prelates  and  guides  of  the  Church  formerly 
made  no  such  construction  of  it,  as  now  is  made.  .  .  . 
For  the  canon  of  the  mass,  rightly  understood,  is  found 
to  contain  nothing  in  it  contrary  to  the  rule  of  faith,  and 
the  profession  of  the  protestant  Churches;  .  .  and  the 
construction  that  they  now  make  of  the  word  sacrifice, 
so  often  used  in  it,  appeareth  to  be  a  mere  perverting  of 
the  meaning  of  the  canon  to  a  sinister  sense,  never  in- 
tended by  the  authors  of  it,  nor  ever  allowed  by  the  best 
men  in  the  Church.  This  canon,  notwithstanding,  is 
found  to  have  some  passages,  that,  in  the  judgment  of  men 
rightly  learned,  cannot  well  have  any  true  meaning,  unless 
the  old  custom  of  offering  bread  and  wine  on  the  Lord's 
table,  out  of  which  the  sacrament  may  be  consecrated, 
be  restored ;  so  that  those  parts,  that  custom  being  dis- 
continued, may  well  be  omitted.  Some  other  parts  are 
obscure,  and  need  explication,  which  being  added  or 
inserted,  it  will  differ  little  or  nothing  from  those  forms 
of  consecration  of  those  holy  mysteries,  that  now  are  in 
use  in  the  reformed  churches  of  England,  and  some  other 
places,  therefore  brought  in  because  in  later  ages  many 
things  were  added  to  the  canon  anciently  in  use,  which 
the  best  and  gravest  in  the  Church  thought  fit  to  be 
taken  away,  and  a  new  form  of  divine  service  to  be  com- 
VOL  v.  M 

118  FIELD. 

posed.  So  that  the  Church  that  formerly  was  having  no 
different  judgment  touching  matters  dogmatical,  no  liking 
of  those  abuses  in  practice,  which  some  had  brought  in, 
and  wishing  things  to  be  brought  to  such  a  course  as 
protestants  now  have  brought  them,  it  may  well  be  said 
to  have  been  a  protestant  Church,  in  such  sort  as  I  have 
formerly  shewed." 

Speaking  of  this  sacrifice,  he  says  in  another  place : 
"  Touching  the  canon  of  the  mass,  it  is  true  that  therein 
there  is  often  mention  of  sacrifice  and  oblation :  but  Lu- 
ther professeth,  that  the  words   may  be  understood  in 
such  a  sense,  as  is  not  to  be  disliked.  .  .  That  the  form 
of  words  used  in  the  canon  are  obscure  in  sundry  parts 
of  it,  and  hard  to  be  understood  even  by  the  learned, 
Cassander  confesseth.  ,  .  .  The  obscurity  that  is  in  it 
groweth,  as  he  rightly  observeth,  partly  out  of  the  disuse 
and  discontinuing  of  certain  old  observations,  to  which 
the  words  of  the  canon,  composed  long  since,  have  a 
reference,  and  partly  from  the  using  of  the  word  sacri- 
fice in  divers  and  different  senses,  though  all  connected  : 
and  the  sudden  passing  from  the  using  of  it  in  one  sense, 
to  the  using  of  it  in  another.     It  is  not  unknown  to 
them  that  are  learned,  that  in  the  primitive  Church  the 
people  were  wont  to  offer  bread  and  wine,  and  that  out 
of  that  which  they  offered,   a  part  was  consecrated,  to 
become  unto  them  the  sacrament  of  the  Lord's  Body  and 
Blood,  and  other  parts  converted  to  other  good  and  holy 
uses.      Respectively   to   this    ancient   custom    are  those 
prayers  concerned,  that  are  named  Secreta; ;  and  the  first 
part  of  the  canon,  wherein  we  desire  that  God  will  accept 
those  gifts,  presents,  offerings,   and  sacrifices  which  we 
bring  unto  Him,  and  that  He  will  make  them  to  become 
unto  us  the  Body  and  Blood  of  His   Son  Christ,  which 
only  are  that  sacrifice  that  procureth  the  remission  of  our 
sins,  and  our  reconciliation  and  acceptation  with  God. 
So  that  to  take  away  this  obscurity,  and  that  the  words 
mav  have   a   true   sense,  the  ancient  custom  must   be 

FIELD.  119 

brought  back  again,  or  at  least  it  must  be  conceived  that 
the  elements  of  bread  and  wine,  that  are  set  upon  the 
mystical  table  and  are  to  be  consecrated,  are  brought 
thither  and  offered  in  the  name  of  the  people,  and  that, 
as  being  their  presents,  they  are  symbols  of  that  inward 
sacrifice,  whereby  they  dedicate  and  give  themselves  and 
all  that  they  have  unto  God.  Touching  the  second 
cause  of  the  obscurity  of  the  words  of  the  canon,  which 
is  the  using  of  the  word  sacrifice,  and  offering,  in  so 
manifold  and  different  senses,  and  the  sudden  passing 
from  the  one  of  them  to  the  other ;  we  must  observe, 
that  by  the  name  of  sacrifice,  gift,  or  present,  first,  the 
oblation  of  the  people  is  meant,  that  consisteth  in  bread 
and  wine,  brought  and  set  upon  the  Lord's  table.  In 
which,  again,  two  things  are  to  be  considered,  the  outward 
action,  and  that  which  is  signified  thereby,  to  wit,  the 
people  dedicating  of  themselves,  and  all  that  they  have, 
to  God  by  faith  and  devotion,  and  offering  to  Him  the 
sacrifice  of  praise.  In  this  sense  is  the  word  sacrifice 
used,  in  the  former  part  of  the  canon,  as  I  have  already 
showed.  In  respect  of  this  is  that  prayer  poured  out  to 
God,  that  He  will  be  mindful  of  His  servants,  that  do 
offer  unto  Him  this  sacrifice  of  praise,  that  is,  these  out- 
ward things,  in  acknowledgment  that  all  is  of  Him,  that 
they  had  perished  if  He  had  not  sent  His  Son  to  redeem 
them  ;  that  unless  they  eat  the  flesh  and  drink  the  blood 
of  Christ,  they  have  no  life  ;  that  He  hath  instituted  holy 
sacraments  of  His  Body  and  Blood,  under  the  forms  of 
bread  and  wine,  in  which  He  will  not  only  represent,  but 
exhibit  the  same  unto  all  such  as  hunger  and  thirst  after 
righteousness ;  and,  therefore,  they  desire  Him  so  to 
accept  and  sanctify  these  their  oblations,  of  bread  and 
wine,  which  in  this  sort  they  offer  unto  Him,  that  they 
may  become  unto  them  the  Body  and  Blood  of  Christ, 
that  so,  partaking  in  them,  they  may  be  made  partakers 
of  Christ,  and  all  the  benefits  of  redemption  and  salva- 
tion, that  He  hath  wrought.  Secondly,  by  the  name  of 
sacrifice  is  understood,  the  sacrifice  of  Christ's  Body ; 

120  FIELD. 

wherein  we  must  first  consider  the  thing  offered,  and, 
secondly,  the  manner  of  offering.  The  thing  that  is 
offered  is  the  Body  of  Christ,  which  is  an  eternal  and 
perpetual  propitiatory  sacrifice,  in  that  it  was  once  offered 
by  death  upon  the  cross,  and  hath  an  everlasting,  never- 
failing  force  and  efficacy.  Touching  the  manner  of  offer- 
ing Christ's  Body  and  Blood,  we  must  consider  that  there 
is  a  double  offering  of  a  thing  to  God.  First,  so  as  men 
are  wont  to  do  that  give  something  to  God  out  of  that 
they  possess,  professing  that  they  will  no  longer  be  owners 
of  it,  but  that  it  shall  be  His,  and  serve  for  such  uses 
and  employments  as  He  shall  convert  it  to.  Secondly,  a 
man  may  be  said  to  offer  a  thing  unto  God,  in  that  he 
bringeth  it  to  His  presence,  setteth  it  before  His  eyes, 
and  offereth  it  to  His  view,  to  incline  Him  to  do  some- 
thing by  the  sight  of  it,  and  respect  had  to  it.  In  this 
sort  Christ  offereth  Himself  and  His  Body  once  crucified 
daily  in  heaven :  Who  intercedeth  for  us,  not  as  giving 
it  in  the  nature  of  a  gift,  or  present,  for  He  gave  Himself 
to  God  once,  to  be  holy  unto  Him  for  ever ;  not  in  the 
nature  of  a  sacrifice,  for  He  died  once  for  sin,  and  rose 
again,  never  to  die  any  more ;  but  in  that  He  setteth  it 
before  the  eyes  of  God  His  Father,  representing  it  unto 
Him,  and  so  offering  it  to  His  view,  to  obtain  grace  and 
mercy  for  us.  And  in  this  sort  we  also  offer  Him  daily 
on  the  altar,  in  that,  commemorating  His  death,  and 
lively  representing  His  bitter  passion,  endured  in  His 
body  upon  the  cross,  we  offer  Him  that  was  once  crucified, 
and  sacrificed  for  us  on  the  cross,  and  all  His  sufferings, 
to  the  view  and  gracious  consideration  of  the  Almighty, 
earnestly  desiring,  and  assuredly  hoping,  that  He  will 
incline  to  pity  us,  and  shew  mercy  unto  us,  for  this  His 
dearest  Son's  sake.  Who,  in  our  nature  for  us,  to  satisfy 
His  displeasure,  and  to  procure  us  acceptation,  endured 
such  and  so  grievous  things.  This  kind  of  offering,  or 
sacrificing  Christ  commemoratively,  is  twofold,  inward 
and   outward.     Outward,   as  the  taking,   breaking,   and 

FIELD.  121 

distributing  this  mystical  bread,  and  pouring  out  the  cup 
of  blessing,  which  is  the  communion  of  the  blood  of  Christ. 
The  inward  consisteth  in  the  faith  and  devotion  of  the 
Church  and  people  of  God,  so  commemorating  the  death 
and  passion  of  Christ,  their  crucified  Saviour,  and  repre- 
senting and  setting  it  before  the  eyes  of  the  Almighty, 
that  they  fly  unto  it  as  their  only  stay  and  refuge,  and 
beseech  Him  to  be  merciful  unto  them  for  His  sake  that 
endured  all  these  things,  to  satisfy  His  wrath,  and  work 
their  peace  and  good.  And  in  this  sense,  and  answerable 
hereunto  that  is,  which  we  find  in  the  canon,  where  the 
Church  desireth  Almighty  God  to  accept  those  oblations 
of  bread  and  wine  which  she  presenteth  unto  Him  ;  and 
to  make  them  to  become  unto  the  faithful  communicants 
the  Body  and  Blood  of  Christ,  Who  the  night  before  He 
w^as  betrayed  took  bread,  &c.  .  .  .And  then  proceedeth 
and  speaketh  unto  Almighty  God  in  this  sort :  Where- 
fore, 0  Lord,  we  Thy  servants,  and  Thy  holy  people, 
mindful  of  that  most  blessed  passion  of  the  same  Christ 
Thy  Son  our  Lord,  as  also  of  His  resurrection  from  the 
dead :  and  His  glorious  ascension  into  heaven,  do  offer  to 
Thy  divine  Majesty,  out  of  Thine  own  gifts  consecrated, 
and  by  mystical  blessing  made  unto  us  the  Body  and 
Blood  of  Thy  Son  Christ,  a  pure  sacrifice,  a  holy  sacrifice, 
and  an  undefiled  sacrifice  ;  the  holy  bread  of  eternal  life, 
and  the  cup  of  everlasting  salvation ;  that  is,  we  offer  to 
Thy  view,  and  set  before  Thine  eyes,  the  crucified  body 
of  Christ  Thy  Son,  which  is  here  present  in  mystery  and 
sacrament,  and  the  blood  which  He  once  shed  for  our 
sakes,  which  we  know  to  be  that  pure,  holy,  undefiled, 
and  eternal  sacrifice,  wherewith  only  Thou  art  pleased ; 
desiring  Thee  to  be  merciful  unto  us  for  the  merit  and 
worthiness  thereof,  and  so  to  look  upon  the  same  sacri- 
fice, which  representatively  we  offer  to  Thy  view,  as  to 
accept  it  for  a  full  discharge  of  us  from  our  sins,  and  a 
perfect  propitiation ;  that  so  Thou  mayest  behold  us  with 
a  pleased,  cheerful,  and  gracious  countenance." 
M  2 


As  the  present  publication  is  intended  for  those  who 
have  not  many  theological  books  at  hand,  and  as  the 
object  is  to  inculcate  right  princij^les  as  well  as  to  state 
facts  correctly,  no  apology  is  necessar}^  for  these  copious 
extracts  from  a  work,  once  very  popular,  for  we  quote 
from  the  third  folio  edition,  but  now  little  known.  About 
the  year  1610  James  I.  bestowed  uj^on  him  the  deanery 
of  Gloucester.  The  Bishopric  of  Oxford  was  intended  for 
him,  but  he  died  of  apoplexy  before  the  appointment  was 
conferred  in  form,  21st  of  November,  1616,  aged  fifty-five. 
— Field  on  the  Church.    Le  Neves  Jjife. 


Saint  Firmilian,  Bishop  of  Caesarea,  in  Cappadocia, 
in  the  third  century,  is  justly  celebrated  for  a  long  epistle, 
which  is  published  among  St.  Cyprian's  works,  having 
been  translated  into  Latin  by  that  father;  he  took  St. 
Cyprian's  side  in  the  controversy  concerning  the  re-bap- 
tizing of  heretics,  and  is  justly  severe  upon  Stephen, 
Bishop  of  Rome.  The  epistle  is  most  valuable,  as  indeed 
are  all  the  works  of  St.  Cyprian,  [see  his  Life)  as  shewing 
that  the  Bishop  of  Rome  had  no  more  weight  and  author- 
ity than  any  other  bishop  of  an  important  see  ;  that  his 
opinions  and  decisions  were  freely  censured,  and  that  any 
other  bishop  had  as  much  right  to  pronounce  sentence 
on  the  Bishop  of  Rome  as  the  Bishop  of  Rome  upon  him. 
He  is  one  of  the  witnesses  out  of  many,  to  prove  that  the 
claims  of  the  modern  papacy  are  without  support  in 
primitive  Christianity,  as  they  are  undoubtedly  without 
support  in  holy  Scripture. 

Firmilian  was  of  noble  birth  and  was  born  in  Cappa- 
docia. He  was  a  disciple  of  Origen  ;  and  when  he  be- 
came Bishop  of  Cesarea,  was,  according  to  Eusebius,  so 
favourably  disposed  towards  him,  *'  that  he  called  him  to 
the  regions  where  he  dwelt,  to  benefit  the  churches  :  at 


another  time  he  went  to  visit  him  in  Jiulea  for  the  sake 
of  improvement  in  divine  things."  He  was  the  friend  of 
(jrregory  Thaumatnrgns,  who  first  confided  to  him  his 
purpose  to  abandon  secular  philosophy,  and  give  his  life 
and  his  thoughts  wholly  to  God.  Gregory  Nyssen  calls 
him  an  ornament  of  the  Church  of  Caesarea.  St.  Diony- 
sius  the  Great  counts  him  among  the  most  illustrious 
bishops  of  his  time ;  Eusebius,  as  (with  St.  Greg.  Thaum. 
and  six  others)  one  of  the  most  eminent  of  the  very  large 
council  of  Antioch,  which  condemned  Paul  of  Samosata. 
He  is  quoted  by  St.  Basil,  (from  his  then  extant  writ- 
ings,) as  an  authority  in  doctrine.  Theodoret  calls  him 
"  an  illustrious  person,  and  possessed  both  of  secular  and 
divine  knowledge."  He  seems  to  state  that  he  himself 
had  with  many  others  been  present  at  the  council  of 
Iconium,  where  the  practice  of  baptizing  heretics  was 
confirmed  ;  and  if  so,  it  must  have  been  at  the  very 
beginning  of  his  episcopate.  He  with  Helenus  and 
Theoctistus  urged  St.  Dionysius  to  "  come  to  the  synod 
of  Antioch,  where  some  were  trying  to  establish  the 
heresy  of  Novatian,"  and  he  is  mentioned  as  one  of  those 
who  joyed  exceedingly  at  the  restored  peace  of  the 
Church,  which  had  been  distracted  by  it.  He  was  pre- 
sent at  two  synods  of  Antioch,  in  which  he  condemned 
the  heresy  of  Paul  of  Samosata,  at  the  second  of  which 
he  seems  to  have  presided,  since  he  is  related  to  have 
deferred  the  sentence  against  Paul,  trusting  in  his  pro- 
mise to  recant.  He  departed  this  life  at  Tarsus  on  his 
way  to  the  great  council  of  Antioch,  where  Paul  was 
condemned,  and  which  was  awaiting  his  coming,  and  by 
whom  he  was  at  once,  with  Dionysius,  entitled  "  of  bles- 
sed memory." 

Pope  Stephen  had  the  hardihood  to  reject  his  commu- 
nion and  that  of  the  bishops  of  the  neighbouring  pro- 
vinces, as  well  as  that  of  another  great  father  and  saint, 
St.  Cyprian ;  the  Eastern  Churches,  caring  nothing  for 
the   Pope  of  Rome,   regarded  him  as  a  saint,  and  still 

124  FISHER. 

commemorate  him  on  the  28th  of  October.  Euinart 
conjectures  that  he  may  have  been  the  author  of  the  Acta 
Cyrilli  pueri. — Cyprians  Works,  Edit.  Oxon.     Eusebius. 


John  Fisher,  prelate,  was  born  at  Beverley,  in  York- 
shire, in  1459.  His  father,  a  merchant,  left  him  an  orphan 
very  young  ;  but,  by  the  care  of  his  mother,  he  was 
taught  classical  learning  at  Beverley,  and  was  afterwards 
admitted  in  Cambridge,  of  Michael  House,  since  incor- 
porated into  Trinity  College,  of  which  he  successively 
became  fellow,  proctor,  and  master.  He  took  holy  orders, 
and  the  fame  of  his  learning  and  worth  reaching  the  ears 
of  Margaret,  Countess  of  Richmond,  mother  of  Henry 
VII.,  she  chose  him  for  her  chaplain  and  confessor.  It 
was  by  his  counsel  that  she  undertook  those  magnificent 
foundations  of  St.  John's  and  Christ's  Colleges  at  Cam- 
bridge ;  established  the  divinity-professorships  in  both 
universities  ;  and  did  a  thousand  other  acts  of  generosity, 
for  the  propagation  of  learning  and  piety. 

In  1501,  he  took  the  degree  of  doctor  of  divinity,  and 
the  same  year  was  chosen  chancellor  of  the  university : 
during  the  exercise  of  which  office,  he  encouraged  learn- 
ing and  good  manners,  and  is  said  by  some  to  have  had 
prince  Henry,  afterwards  king  Henry  VIII.  under  his 
tuition  in  that  university.  In  1502,  he  was  appointed  by 
charter  the  lady  Margaret's  first  divinity-professor  in 
Cambridge  ;  and  in  1504,  was  made  Bishop  of  Rochester, 
at  the  recommendation  of  Fox,  Bishop  of  Winchester. 
It  is  remarkable,  that  he  never  would  exchange  this 
bishopric,  though  then  the  least  in  England,  for  a  better: 
for  he  called  his  church  his  wife,  and  was  wont  to  say, 
"  He  would  not  change  his  little  old  wife,  to  whom  he 
had  been  so  long  wedded,  for  a  wealthier."  In  1505,  he 
accepted  the  headship  of  Queen's  College,  in  Cambridge, 
which  he  held  for  little   more  than   three   years.     The 

FISHER.  125 

foundation  of  Christ's  College  was  perfected,  under  his 
care  and  superintendence,  in  the  year  1506 ;  and  himself 
was  appointed  by  the  statutes,  visitor  for  life,  after  the 
death  of  the  munificent  foundress.  The  king  s  licence 
for  founding  St.  John's  was  obtained  soon  after :  but 
before  it  was  passed  in  due  form,  the  king  died,  April  the 
1st,  1509,  as  did  the  lady  Margaret  herself  the  29th  of 
June  following.  The  care  of  the  new  foundation  now 
devolved  upon  her  executors,  of  whom  the  most  faithful 
and  most  active,  nay,  the  sole  and  principal  agent,  was 
Bishop  Fisher:  and  he  carried  it  on  with  the  utmost 

In  1512  he  was  appointed  to  go  to  the  council  of 
Lateran  at  Piome,  but  he  did  not  go,  though  it  is  certain 
that  at  one  time  he  fully  intended  to  do  so,  as  the  univer- 
sity had  recommended  its  affairs  to  him,  and  as  he  had 
drawn  up  and  sealed  procuratorial  powers  to  William 
Fresel,  Prior  of  Leeds,  (of  Kirkstall  Abbey  probably,  in 
the  parish  of  Leeds,)  during  his  absence;  but,  he  says 
Jiimself  that  he  was  stopt. 

St.  John's  College  being  finished,  in  1516  he  went  to 
Cambridge,  and  opened  it  with  due  solemnity.  He  was 
also  commissioned  to  make  the  statutes  for  the  same,  and 
became  one  of  its  benefactors. 

The  great  question  of  the  Reformation  of  the  Church 
was  now  in  agitation.  The  calm  and  sedate  mind  of 
Bishop  Fisher  refused  to  go  with  the  movement,  and  he 
was  zealous  in  endeavouring  to  prevent  the  propagation  of 
Lutheranism,  preaching  against  it,  and  using  his  influ- 
ence in  the  university  of  which  he  was  chancellor.  Henry 
VIII.  published  a  book,  entitled  An  Assertion  of  the 
Seven  Sacraments  against  Martin  Luther,  which  has  been 
thought  by  some  to  have  been  the  production  of  Bishop 
Fisher,  though  there  appears  to  be  no  ground  for  the 
supposition.  But  on  the  publication  of  Luther's  answer, 
Bishop  Fisher  certainly  entered  into  the  lists,  and  pub- 
lished a  "  Defence  of  the  king  of  England's  Assertion  of 

126  FISHER. 

the  Catholic  Faith  against  M.  Luther's  Book  of  the  Cap- 
tivity of  Babylon."  He  also  published  a  Defence  of  the 
Order  of  Priesthood  against  Martin  Luther,  and  other 

But  although  opposed  to  the  Lutheran  Reformation, 
and  although  prejudiced  in  favour  of  some  of  those  Romish 
errors  then  received  as  a  tradition  in  the  Church  of  Eng- 
land,— errors  which  were  adopted  and  confirmed  by  the 
Romish  Church  in  her  council  of  Trent,  this  excellent 
prelate.  Bishop  Fisher,  was  keenly  sensible  of  the  cormp- 
tions  of  the  Church,  and  of  the  necessity  of  some  kind  of 
reformation  ;  he  perceived  that  a  reform  was  necessary,  to 
prevent  the  revolution  which  he  foresaw  to  be  the  conse- 
quence of  the  prevalence  of  Lutheranism.  A  synod  hav- 
ing been  called  by  Cardinal  Wolsey,  who  appeared  in  all 
his  pomp  and  secularity.  Bishop  Fisher  delivered  himself 
at  it  in  the  following  speech. : — 

"  May  it  not  sesm  displeasing  (said  Bishop  Fisher)  to 
your  eminence,  and  the  rest  of  these  grave  and  reverend 
fathers  of  the  Church,  that  I  speak  a  few  words,  which 
I  hope  may  not  be  out  of  season.  I  had  thought,  that 
when  so  many  learned  men,  as  substitutes  for  the  clergy, 
had  been  drawn  into  this  body,  that  some  good  matters 
should  have  been  propounded  for  the  benefit  and  good  of 
the  Church  :  that  the  scandals  that  lie  so  heavy  upon  her 
men,  and  the  disease  which  takes  such  hold  on  those 
advantages,  might  have  been  hereby  at  once  removed, 
and  also  remedied.  Who  hath  made  any  the  least  pro- 
position against  the  ambition  of  those  men,  whose  pride 
is  so  offensive,  whilst  their  profession  is  humility?  or 
against  the  incontinency  of  such  as  have  vowed  chastity  ? 
how  are  the  goods  of  the  Church  wasted  ?  the  lands,  the 
tithes,  and  other  oblations  of  the  devout  ancestors  of  the 
people  (to  the  great  scandal  of  their  posterity)  wasted  in 
superfluous  riotous  expences  ?  How  can  we  exhort  our 
flocks  to  fly  the  pomps  and  vanities  of  this  wicked  world, 
when  we  that  are  bishops  set  our  minds  on  nothing  more 

FISHER.  127 

than  that  which  we  forbid  ?  If  we  should  teach  accord- 
ing to  our  doing,  how  absurdly  would  our  doctrines  sound 
in  the  ears  of  those  that  should  hear  us  ?  and  if  we  teach 
one  thing,  and  do  another,  who  believeth  our  report? 
which  would  seem  to  them  no  otherwise,  than  as  if  wo 
should  throw  down  with  one  hand,  what  we  built  with 
the  other.  We  preach  humility,  sobriety,  contempt  of 
the  world,  &c.  and  the  people  perceive  in  the  same  men 
that  preach  this  doctrine,  pride  and  haughtiness  of  mind, 
excess  in  apparel,  and  a  resignation  of  ourselves  to  all 
worldly  pomps  and  vanities.  And  what  is  this  otherwise, 
than  to  set  the  people  at  a  stand,  whether  they  shall  fol- 
low the  sight  of  their  own  eyes,  or  the  belief  of  what  they 
hear  ?  Excuse  me,  reverend  fathers ;  seeing  herein  I 
blame  no  man  more  than  I  do  myself :  for  sundry  times, 
when  I  have  settled  myself  to  the  care  of  my  flock,  to 
visit  my  diocese,  to  govern  my  church,  to  answer  the 
enemies  of  Christ ;  suddenly  there  hath  come  a  message 
to  me  from  the  court,  that  I  must  attend  such  a  triumph, 
or  receive  such  an  ambassador.  What  have  we  to  do 
with  Princes'  courts?  If  we  are  in  love  with  majesty, 
is  there  a  greater  excellence  than  Whom  we  serve  ?  If  we 
are  in  love  with  stately  buildings,  are  there  higher  roofs 
than  our  cathedrals  ?  If  with  apparel,  is  there  a  greater 
ornament  than  that  of  priesthood  ?  or  is  there  better 
company  than  a  communion  ^rith  the  saints?  Truly, 
most  reverend  fathers,  what  this  vanity  in  temporal  things 
may  work  in  you,  I  know  not ;  but  sure  I  am,  that,  in 
myself,  I  find  it  to  be  a  great  impediment  to  devotion. 
Wherefore  I  think  it  necessary  (and  high  time  it  is)  that 
we,  that  are  the  heads,  should  begin  to  give  example  to 
the  inferior  clergy  as  to  these  particulars,  whereby  we 
may  all  be  the  better  conformable  to  the  image  of  God. 
For  in  this  trade  of  life,  which  we  now  lead,  neither  can 
there  be  likelihood  of  perpetuity  in  the  same  state  and 
condition  wherein  we  now  stand,  or  safety  to  the  clergy." 
Bishop  Fisher  continued  in  great  favour  with  Henry 

128  FISHER. 

VIII.  till  the  affair  of  the  divorce  was  set  on  foot,  in  1527. 
But  when  that  business  was  in  agitation,  the  king,  who 
had  an  high  opinion  of  Fisher's  integrity  and  learning, 
desired  his  opinion  on  the  subject  of  his  marriage  with 
queen  Catherine  of  Arragon.  Upon  which  the  Bishop 
declared,  "  That  there  was  no  reason  at  all  to  question 
the  validity  of  the  marriage,  since  it  was  good  and  lawful 
from  the  beginning."  And  from  this  opinion  nothing 
could  ever  afterwards  make  him  recede,  whatever  might 
be  the  consequences,  and  though  great  pains  were  taken 
to  bring  him  over  to  a  contrary  opinion.  But  by  this  he 
entirely  lost  the  king's  favour. 

When  the  question  of  the  divorce  came  to  be  tried  before 
the  two  legates,  Campejus  and  Wolsey,  in  June,  1529, 
Bishop  Fisher  was  one  of  the  queen's  council ;  and  pre- 
sented a  book  to  the  legates,  which  he  had  wTitten  in 
defence  of  the  marriage :  he  also  at  the  same  time  made 
a  speech,  in  which  he  desired  them  to  take  heed  what 
they  did  in  so  weighty  a  business  :  and  he  greatly  exerted 
himself  in  the  queen's  behalf. 

On  the  3rd  of  November,  in  the  same  year,  a  parlia- 
ment w^as  summoned  to  meet;  in  which  several  bills 
were  brought  in  by  the  commons  against  some  of  the 
abuses  of  the  clergy,  particularly  against  the  exactions 
for  the  probates  of  wills,  the  plurality  of  benefices,  and 
non-residence,  and  churchmen's  being  farmers  of  lands. 
In  the  passing  of  these  bills,  many  severe  reflections  were 
made  in  the  house  of  commons,  upon  the  vices  and  cor- 
ruptions of  the  clergy ;  which  attack  upon  the  ecclesiastics, 
was  supposed  to  be  much  owing  to  the  favourable  recep- 
tion which  the  Lutheran  doctrines  had  met  with  in  Eng- 
land. When  these  bills  against  the  clergy  were  brought 
up  to  the  house  of  lords,  Bishop  Fisher  made  the  follow- 
ing speech  : — 

"  My  lords,  (said  the  bishop)  here  are  certain  bills 
exhibited  against  the  clergy,  wherein  there  are  certain 
complaints  made  against  the  viciousness,  idleness,  rapa- 

FISHER.  129 

city,  and  cruelty  of  bishops,  abbots,  priests,  and  their 
officials  :  but,  ray  lords,  are  all  vicious,  all  idle,  all  raven- 
ous, and  cruel  priests,  or  bishops  ?  And  for  such  as  are 
so,  are  there  no  laws  already  provided  against  them?  Is 
there  any  abuse  that  we  do  not  seek  to  rectify  ?  Or  can 
there  be  such  a  rectification,  as  that  there  shall  be  no 
abuses  ?  Or  are  not  clergymen  to  rectify  the  abuses  of  the 
clergy  ?  Or  shall  men  find  fault  with  other  men's  manners, 
whilst  they  forget  their  own?  and  punish  where  they 
have  no  authority  to  correct?  If  we  be  not  executive  in  our 
laws,  let  each  man  suffer  for  his  delinquency ;  or  if  we 
have  not  power,  aid  us  with  your  assistance,  and  we  shall 
give  you  thanks.  But,  my  lords,  I  hear  there  is  a  motion 
made,  that  the  small  monasteries  shall  be  taken  into  the 
king's  hands,  which  makes  me  fear  it  is  not  so  much  the 
good,  as  the  goods  of  the  Church,  that  is  looked  after. 
Truly,  my  lords,  how  this  may  sound  in  your  ears,  I 
cannot  tell ;  but  to  me  it  appears  no  otherwise,  than  as 
if  our  holy  mother  the  Church  were  to  become  a  bond- 
maid, and  be  new-brought  into  sendlity  and  thraldom, 
and  by  little  and  little  to  be  quite  banished  out  of  those 
dwelling-places,  which  the  piety  and  liberality  of  our 
forefathers,  as  most  bountiful  benefactors,  have  conferred 
upon  her :  otherwise,  to  what  tendeth  these  portentous 
and  curious  petitions  of  the  commons  ?  To  no  other 
intent  or  purpose,  but  to  bring  the  clergy  into  contempt 
with  the  laity,  that  they  may  seize  their  patrimony.  But, 
my  lords,  beware  of  yourselves  and  your  country  ;  beware 
of  your  holy  mother  the  Catholic  Church  ;  the  people 
are  subject  unto  novelties,  and  Lutheranism  spreads 
itself  amonst  us.  Remember  Germany  and  Bohemia, 
what  miseries  are  befallen  them  already;  and  let  our 
neighbour's  houses  that  are  now  on  fire,  teach  us  to  be- 
ware our  own  disasters  :  wherefore,  my  lords,  I  will  tell 
you  plainly  what  I  think  ;  that,  except  ye  resist  manfully, 
by  your  authorities,  this  violent  heap  of  mischiefs  offered 
by  the  commons,  you  shall  see  all  obedience  first  drawn 

VOL  V.  N 


from  the  clergy,  and  secondly  from  yourselves.  And,  if 
you  search  into  the  true  causes  of  all  these  mischiefs 
which  reign  among  them,  you  shall  find  that  they  all 
arise  through  want  of  faith.'' 

This  speech  was  received  with  great  applause  hy  the 
staunch  adherents  of  the  estahlishment  as  it  was,  and 
with  equal  disapprohation  hy  the  advocates  for  reforma- 
tion. The  Puke  of  Norfolk,  addressing  himself  to  the 
bishop,  said,  *'  My  lord  of  Rochester,  many  of  these  words 
might  have  been  well  spared  ;  but  it  is  often  seen,  that 
the  greatest  clerks  arc  not  always  the  wisest  men."  But 
to  this  the  bishop  smartly  replied,  "  My  lord,  I  do  not 
remember  any  fools  in  my  time  that  ever  proved  great 
clerks."  When  tlie  commons  heard  of  this  speech  of 
Bishop  Fisher's,  they  were  highly  intlamed,  and  sent 
their  speaker.  Sir  Thomas  Audley,  with  thirty  of  their 
members,  to  complain  against  him  to  the  king.  They 
represented  to  Henry,  how  injuriously  the  Bishop  of 
Rochester  had  treated  them,  in  saying  that  their  acts 
llowed  from  the  want  of  faith ;  it  being,  they  said,  an 
high  imputation  on  the  whole  nation,  to  treat  the  repre- 
sentatives of  the  commons  as  if  they  had  been  infidels 
and  heathens.  And  upon  this  the  king  sent  for  the 
bishop,  and  asked  him,  "Why  he  spake  thus?"  To 
which  i'isher,  we  are  told,  answered,  that  "  being  in 
council,  he  spake  his  mind  in  defence  of  the  Church, 
which  he  saw  daily  injured,  and  oppressed  by  the  com- 
mon people,  whose  office  it  was  not  to  judge  of  her 
manners,  much  less  to  reform  them ;  and,  therefore, 
he  thought  himself  in  conscience  bound  to  defend  her  in 
all  that  lay  within  his  power."  And  upon  this  the  king 
dismissed  him,  only  bidding  him  ''  use  his  words  more 

In  15;^0  he  narrowly  escaped  being  poisoned.  One 
Rouse,  coming  into  his  kitchen,  took  occasion,  in  the 
cook's  absence,  to  throw  poison  into  some  gmel  which 
was  prepared  for  his  dinner.     Fisher  could  eat  nothing 

FISHER.  131 

that  day;  but  of  seventeen  persons  who  ate  of  it,  two 
died,  and  the  rest  never  perfectly  recovered  their  health. 
Upon  this  occasion  an  act  was  made,  declaring  poisoning 
to  be  high  treason,  and  adjudging  the  offender  to  be  boiled 
to  death :  which  punishment  was  soon  after  inflicted 
upon  Rouse  in  Smithfield.  In  the  same  year  Fisher  was 
near  meeting  his  death  from  a  cannon  shot,  which,  being 
discharged  from  the  other  side  of  the  Thames,  pierced 
through  his  house  at  Lambeth-marsh,  and  came  very 
near  his  study.  He  thereupon  retired  to  Rochester. 
When  the  question  of  giving  Henry  the  title  of  the  su- 
preme head  of  the  Church  of  England  was  debated  in 
convocation  in  1531,  Fisher  very  properly  opposed  it 
with  all  his  might.  Not  long  aftenvards  he  still  farther 
exposed  himself  to  the  resentment  of  the  king,  by  his 
weakness  and  credulity  in  giving  some  credit  to  the  en- 
thusiastic visions  and  impostures  of  Elizabeth  Barton, 
the  pretended  holy  maid  of  Kent.  The  intention  of 
those  who  carried  on  the  impostures  of  which  she  was 
the  instrument,  was  to  alienate  the  affections  of  the  peo 
p1e  from  king  Henry,  and  to  excite  insurrections  against 
his  government.  It  is  but  justice  to  Bishop  Fisher,  how- 
ever, to  acknowledge,  that  there  is  no  evidence  of  his  being 
at  all  privy  to  their  criminal  designs.  He  only,  like  many 
others,  too  readily  accepted  what  seemed  to  make  for  his 
party.  His  attention  was  drawn  to  this  impostor  in  con- 
sequence of  her  espousing  the  cause  of  queen  Catharine, 
to  whose  interests  he  was  warmly  attached.  No  persua 
sions  could  induce  Fisher  to  make  submission,  and  to 
have  recourse  to  the  king's  clemency.  It  seems  to  have 
been  Cromwell's  policy  to  alarm  the  bishop,  and  to  place 
him  under  an  obligation  to  the  king.  The  bishop  reso- 
lutely maintained  that  he  had  only  enquired  into  the 
truth  of  the  case,  and  seeing  that  he  would  often  have  to 
oppose  the  king,  refused  any  favour.  Cromwell's  con- 
duct was  insolent  and  overbearing.  In  1534  a  bill  of 
attainder  passed   against  Elizabeth  Barton   and  her  ac- 

132  FISHER 

complices ;  and  Fisher,  as  he  still  refused  to  make  sub- 
mission, was  adjudged  guilty  of  misprision  of  treason, 
and  condemned  to  forfeit  his  goods  and  chattels  to  the 
king,  and  to  be  imprisoned  during  his  majesty's  pleasure. 
In  the  same  session  of  parliament  an  act  was  made, 
which  annulled  the  king's  marriage  with  Catharine  of 
Arragon ;  confirmed  his  marriage  with  Anne  Boleyn ; 
entailed  the  crown  upon  her  issue ;  and  enjoined  all 
persons  whatsoever  to  maintain  the  same,  under  the 
penalty  attached  to  misprision  of  treason.  In  pursuance 
of  this  act,  on  the  day  of  the  prorogation  of  the  parlia- 
ment, an  oath  of  allegiance  to  the  king  and  his  heirs 
was  taken  by  both  houses ;  but  Bishop  Fisher,  instead 
of  joining  them,  retired  to  his  house  at  Rochester.  Af- 
terwards, upon  his  refusal  to  take  the  oath,  he  was  com- 
mitted to  the  tower  (April  26,  1534,)  here  no  endeavours 
were  spared  in  order  to  bring  him  to  compliance.  As 
Fisher  continued  resolute  in  his  refusal,  he  was  attainted 
in  the  parliament  which  met  November  3,  1534,  and  his 
bishopric  was  declared  void,  January  2,  1535.  In  these 
circumstances  he  would,  probably,  have  been  permitted 
to  drag  on  the  short  remainder  of  his  life,  had  not  pope 
Paul  III.,  by  unseasonably  conferring  on  him,  in  May, 
1535,  the  post  of  cardinal,  by  the  title  of  cardinal- 
priest  of  St.  Vitalis,  precipitated  his  ruin.  When  the 
king  heard  of  this  circumstance,  he  issued  the  strictest 
orders  that  no  person  should  be  permitted  to  bring  the 
hat  into  his  dominions  :  moreover,  he  sent  Lord  Crom- 
well to  examine  the  bishop  about  this  affair,  who  after 
some  conference  between  them  asked  him,  "  My  lord  of 
Rochester,  what  would  you  say,  if  the  pope  should  send 
you  a  cardinal's  hat ;  would  you  accept  of  it  ?"  The 
bishop  replied,  "  Sir,  I  know  myself  to  be  so  far  un- 
worthy any  such  dignity,  that  I  think  of  nothing  less ; 
but  if  any  such  thing  should  happen,  assure  yourself 
that  I  should  improve  that  favour  to  the  best  advantage 
that  I  could,   in  assisting  the  Holy  Catholic  Church  of 

FISHER.  ia3 

Christ ;  and  in  that  respect  I  would  receive  it  upon  my 
knees."  When  this  answer  was  brought  to  the  king  by 
secretary  Cromwell,  Henry  said  in  a  great  passion,  "  Yea, 
is  he  yet  so  lusty  ?  Well,  let  the  pope  send  him  a  hat 
when  he  will,  Mother  of  God,  he  shall  wear  it  on  his 
shoulders  then,  for  I  wdll  leave  him  never  a  head  to  set 
it  on."  The  bishop's  answer  has  been  differently  repre- 
sented by  our  historians,  as  if  it  had  been,  that  "  if  a 
cardinal's  hat  was  laid  at  his  feet,  he  would  not  stoop  to 
take  it  up  :"  but  that  was  Sir  Thomas  More's  answer  to 
his  daughter,  Mrs.  Roper,  when  she  acquainted  him  that 
the  bishop  was  created  a  cardinal. 

We  cannot  but  censure  the  good  bishop,  in  this  and 
in  other  instances,  for  a  want  of  a  conciliating  spirit :  he 
seemed  to  dare  his  enemies,  and  to  provoke  them  to 
wrath  and  sin.  From  this  time  his  ruin  was  determined; 
but  as  no  legal  advantage  could  be  taken  against  him, 
Richard  Rich,  solicitor-general,  a  busy,  officious  man, 
went  to  him,  and  in  a  fawning,  treacherous  manner, 
under  pretence  of  consulting  him,  as  from  the  king, 
about  a  case  of  conscience,  gradually  drew  him  into  a 
discourse  about  the  supremacy,  which  he  declared  to  be 
"  unlawful,  and  what  his  majesty  could  not  take  upon 
him,  without  endangering  his  soul."  Thus  caught  in 
the  snare  purposely  laid  for  him,  a  special  commission 
was  drawn  up  for  trying  him,  dated  June  1,  1535  ;  and 
on  the  17th,  upon  a  short  trial,  he  w^as  found  guilty  of 
high  treason,  and  condemned  to  suffer  death.  June  22, 
at  five  o'clock  in  the  morning,  he  was  told  that  he  was  to 
suffer  on  that  day.  He  slept  soundly  for  two  hours  ;  and 
then  with  calmness  prepared  for  death.  He  was  beheaded 
about  ten  o  clock  in  the  forenoon  ;  and  his  head  was 
fixed  over  London  bridge  the  next  day.  He  was  then  in 
his  76th  year. 

Bishop  Fisher  published  the  following  w-orks  : — 1.  A 
Sermon  on  Psalm  116,  at  the  funeral  of  King  Henry 
Vllth.  2.  His  opinion  of  King  Henry  Vlllth's  mar- 
N  2 

134  FISHER. 

riage,  in  a  letter  to  T.  Wolsey.  Printed  in  the  collection 
of  records,  at  the  end  of  Collier's  Ecclesiastical  History. 
3.  A  Funeral  Sermon  at  the  moneth  minde  of  Margaret, 
Countess  of  Richmond,  printed  by  Wynkin  de  Worde ; 
and  re-published  in  1708,  by  Thomas  Baker,  B.D.,  with 
a  learned  preface.  4.  A  Commentaiy  on  the  seven  peni- 
tential psalms ;  written  at  the  desire  of  the  Countess 
of  Richmond.  Printed  at  London  in  1509,  in  4to;  and 
in  1555,  in  8vo.  5.  A  Sermon  on  the  Passion  of  our 
Saviour.  6.  A  Sermon  concerning  the  Righteousness  of 
the  Pharisees  and  Christians.  7.  The  method  of  arriv- 
ing to  the  highest  perfection  in  religion.  These  four  last 
were  translated  into  Latin  by  John  Fenne.  8.  A  Sermon 
preached  at  London,  on  the  day  in  which  the  writings  of 
M.  Luther  were  publicly  burnt ;  on  John  xv.  26,  Cam- 
bridge, 1521,  translated  into  Latin  by  R.  Pace.  9.  Asser- 
tionum  Martini  Lutheri  Confutatio  :  that  is,  A  Confuta- 
tion of  Martin  Luther's  Assertions,  in  forty-one  articles. 
10.  Defensio  Assertionis  Henr.  VIII.  de  VII.  Sacra- 
mentis  contra  Lutheri  Captivatem  Babylonicam  :  that  is, 
A  Defence  of  King  Henry  the  Vlllth's  book  against 
Luther's,  entitled.  The  Captivity  of  Babylon.  11.  Epis- 
tola  responsoria,  EpistolsB  Lutheri :  that  is,  A  Letter  in 
answer  to  Luther's.  12.  Sacerdotii  Defensio  contra  Lu- 
therum.  A  Defence  of  the  Priesthood  against  Luther. 
13.  Pro  Damnatione  Lutheri :  that  is,  For  the  Condem- 
nation of  Luther.  14.  De  veritate  Corporis  et  Sanguinis 
Christi  in  Eucharistia,  adversus  Johannem  GEcolampa- 
dium.  Colon.  1527,  4to  :  that  is,  Of  the  reality  of  the 
Body  and  Blood  of  Christ  in  the  Eucharist,  against 
(Ecolampadius.  In  this  book  he  answers  CEcolampadius, 
paragraph  by  paragraph,  and  gives  him  many  hard 
names.  It  is,  however,  esteemed  but  a  very  indifferent  per- 
formance. 15.  De  unica  Magdalena  contra  Clichtoveum 
et  Jac.  Fabrum  Stapulensem  :  that  is,  that  there  was  only 
one  Magdalen,  against  Clichtoveus,  &c.  16.  S.  Petrum 
Romse  fuisse :    that   is,   that  St.   Peter    was    at  Rome. 

FISHER.  135 

This  was  written  against  Ulric  Velenus.  IT.  Several 
other  small  tracts,  viz.,  on  the  Benefit  of  Prayer.  The 
Necessity  of  Prayer.  Exposition  of  the  Lord's  Prayer. 
Psalms,  and  Prayers.  A  Letter  on  Christian  Charity,  to 
Herman  Lectatius,  Dean  of  Utrecht.  A  Treatise  on 
Purgatory,  &c.  Most  of  the  forementioned  pieces,  which 
were  printed  separately  in  England,  were  collected  and 
printed  together  in  one  volume,  folio,  at  Wurtzburgh,  in 
1595,  We  are  told,  that  there  is  also  in  the  Norfolk 
library  of  MSS.  belonging  to  the  royal  society,  an  answer 
of  Bishop  Fisher's  to  a  book  printed  at  London  in  1530, 
concerning  King  Henry's  Marriage  with  Queen  Catha- 
rine.— Hall.    Dod.     Collier.    Burnet. 


John  Fisher,  an  English  Jesuit,  whose  true  name  was 
Piercy,  was  born  in  Yorkshire,  and  admitted  into  the 
English  college  at  Rome,  whence  he  removed  to  Louvain, 
and  became  a  Jesuit  in  1594.  Afterwards  he  was  sent 
on  a  mission  to  England,  but  was  imprisoned  and  ban- 
ished. He  was  then  made  professor  of  divinity  at 
Louvain,  and  vice-provincial  of  the  EngHsh  Jesuits. 
Returning  to  England,  he  made  a  considerable  figure  in 
the  reigns  of  James  I.  and  Charles  I.  as  a  controversialist. 
fSee  the  life  of  Laud  and  the  life  of  White.)  His  return 
occurred  when  the  situation  of  the  Church  of  England 
was  extremely  hazardous.  Attacked  on  the  one  hand  by 
the  Papists,  and  on  the  other  by  the  Puritans,  it  re- 
quired the  greatest  skill  in  those  who  regarded  the  in- 
terests of  the  Reformation,  and  the  welfare  of  Church 
and  State,  to  restrain  the  hostile  intentions  of  those 
factions.  No  sooner  had  the  parliament  been  dissolved, 
than  the  Papists  began  to  exert  themselves  with  the 
greatest  activity.  The  Puritans  were  chiefly  popular 
among  the  lower  classes,  who  were  sufficiently  illiterate, 

136  FISHER. 

and  were  generally  treated  with  contempt  by  the  higher 
orders  of  the  kingdom.  The  Papists,  however,  who 
could  also  reckon  a  considerable  number  of  adherents 
among  the  rabble,  were  more  ambitious,  and  endeavoured 
to  secure  adherents  among  the  nobility.  For  this  pur- 
pose they  laid  a  most  crafty  plot,  and  began  first  to 
practise  on  the  Duchess  of  Buckingham,  the  lady  of 
the  celebrated  court  favourite ;  not  doubting,  that  if 
they  were  successful  in  inducing  her  to  recant,  they 
might  have  some  chance  of  favour  for  their  tenets  from 
her  husband.  Fisher  undertook  the  task  of  managing  the 
lady,  and  he  succeeded  so  well,  that  she  was  begin- 
ning to  think  favourably  of  the  superstition.  But  the 
Jesuit's  designs  were  reported  to  the  king,  who  was  him- 
self not  wanting  in  ability  to  argue  the  matter,  and  who 
frequently  discoursed  to  her  on  the  subject.  James, 
however,  feeling  interested  in  the  lady,  and  resolving  to 
silence  the  Jesuit  at  once  by  fair  argument,  advised  the 
duke  to  appoint  a  conference  between  Fisher  and  a  learn- 
ed divine  of  the  Church,  on  the  errors  of  the  Romish 
superstition.  The  duke  agreed,  and  Dr.  Francis  White, 
then  rector  of  St.  Peter's,  Cornhill,  afterwards  Bishop  of 
Ely,  was  appointed  to  meet  the  Jesuit.  Three  disputes 
were  held  in  the  presence  of  the  Duke  of  Buckingham, 
his  mother,  his  lady,  and  the  Lord  Keeper  WiUiams,  on 
the  24th  of  May,  1622  ;  the  last  was  conducted  by  Laud. 
The  result  was  as  might  have  been  expected  :  Laud  was 
more  than  a  match  for  the  Jesuit  in  learning,  and  victory 
was  declared  on  the  side  of  truth. 

It  is  impossible  here  to  give  an  abstract  of  Laud's 
admirable  arguments.  An  account  of  the  conference  was 
published  in  1624,  and  a  justification  of  it  published  by 
the  archbishop  himself  in  1637,  in  connexion  with  a 
pamphlet  written  by  Dr.  Francis  White,  entitled,  "  A 
Reply  to  Jesuit  Fisher's  Answer  to  certain  Questions 
propounded  by  his  most  gracious  Majesty  King  James." 

He  published,   A  Treatise   of  Faith,   London,   1600, 


and  St.  Omers,  1614.  A  Challenge  to  Protestants  to 
show  the  Succession  of  their  Pastors,  from  Christ  down, 
1612.  An  Answer  to  Nine  Points  of  Controversy  pro- 
posed by  King  James  I.,  with  the  Censure  of  Mr.  White's 
Keply,  1625,  4to. — in  answer  to  him  were  published,  The 
Piomish  Fisher  caught  in  his  own  Net,  by  Dr.  Featley, 
London,  1624,  4to.  A  Conference  between  Bishop  Laud 
and  Fisher,  ibid.  1639,  by  Laud.  Reply  to  Fisher's 
Answer  to  some  Questions  propounded  by  King  James, 
1624,  by  Francis  White.  Orthodox  Faith  and  the  Way 
to  the  Church  explained,  by  the  same,  1617. 

The  year  of  his  death  is  not  known,  but  he  was  alive 
in  1541. — Dod.    Lawson.    Heylin. 


Heney  Fitz  Simons,  {see  the  Life  of  Usher,)  was  born 
at  Dublin  in  1569.  He  was  educated  first  in  Hart  Hall, 
and  next  at  Christ  Church,  Oxford ;  but  left  the  univer- 
sity on  embracing  popery,  and  went  to  Louvain,  where 
he  entered  into  the  order  of  Jesuits  under  Lessius.  On 
account  of  his  talents,  he  was  sent  by  his  superiors  as  a 
missionary  to  Dublin,  where  he  was  imprisoned  some 
years,  during  which  James  Usher,  then  a  student  of  nine- 
teen, afterwards  archbishop,  undertook  to  dispute  with 
him,  and  continued  to  do  so  till  the  Jesuit  thought  pro- 
per to  decline  the  contest.  On  gaining  his  liberty  he 
went  into  the  Low  Countries,  and  from  thence  to  Rome. 
Some  years  afterwards  he  was  sent  again  to  Ireland, 
where  he  made  many  proselytes ;  and  died  miserably, 
during  the  rebellion,  February  1,  1643-4.  He  wrote — 
1.  A  Catholic  Confutation  of  Rider's  Claim  of  Antiquities, 
8vo.  2.  A  Justification  and  Exposition  of  the  Sacrament 
of  the  Mass,  4to.  3.  Britannomachia  ministrorum  in 
plerisque  et  fidei  fundamentis  et  fidei  articulis  dissiden- 
tium,  4to.  3.  A  Catalogue  of  the  Irish  Saints,  8vo. — 
Wares  Ireland. 

138  FLAVIAN. 


John  Flavel,  a  Nonconformist,  was  born  in  Worces- 
tershire, in  1627,  and  educated  at  University  College, 
Oxford,  where  he  took  the  degree  of  B.A.  In  1650  he 
was  ordained  among  the  presbjterians  at  Salisbury ;  after 
which  he  settled  at  Dartmouth,  in  Devonshire,  but  was 
ejected  in  1662.  He  died  suddenly  at  Exeter,  in  1691. 
His  works,  which  are  held  in  considerable  esteem  by 
Calvinists,  have  been  published,  in  2  vols,  folio,  and  also 
in  6  vols,  8vo. — Calamy. 


Flavian,  a  patriarch  of  Antioch,  in  the  fourth  century, 
of  whom  the  reader  has  already  had  some  account  in  the 
Life  of  St.  Chrysostom,  was  in  all  probability  a  native  of 
Antioch,  The  first  notice  of  him  that  we  possess  presents 
him  to  us  as  an  opponent  of  the  Aetians ;  the  following 
is  the  statement  of  Theodoret,  "  About  this  time  Aetius, 
who  had  added  new  errors  to  the  Arian  doctrines,  was 
ordained  deacon.  But  Flavianus  and  Diodorus,  who 
had  embraced  the  monastical  mode  of  life,  and  who  pub- 
licly defended  the  doctrines  of  the  apostles,  exposed  the 
artifices  of  Leontius  against  religion,  and  showed  how  he 
had  elevated  to  the  rank  of  deacon  a  man  who  had  im- 
bibed the  most  corrupt  principles,  and  who  sought  to 
render  himself  conspicuous  by  his  impiety.  They  even 
threatened  to  withdraw  themselves  from  ecclesiastical 
communion  with  him,  and  to  go  to  the  West  in  order  to 
make  known  his  plots.  Leontius  was  terrified  at  these 
threats,  and  forbade  Aetius  from  performing  the  duties 
of  the  ministry;  but  in  other  respects  he  continued  to 
patronize  him.  Although  Flavianus  and  Diodorus  were 
not  elevated  to  the  rank  of  the  priesthood,  but  were  merely 

FLAA'IAN.  139 

laymen,  yet  by  night  and  by  day  they  exhorted  all  men 
to  be  zealous  in  religion.  They  were  the  first  who  divided 
the  choir  and  taught  them  to  sing  the  psalms  of  David 
responsively.  This  custom,  which  they  thus  originated 
in  Antioch,  spread  eveiy  where,  even  to  the  veiy  ends  of 
the  habitable  world.  These  two  men  used  to  assemble 
with  the  people  around  the  tombs  of  the  martyrs,  to  sing 
throughout  the  whole  night  the  praises  of  God.  When 
Leontius,  then  bishop,  who  was  an  Arian,  became  ac- 
quainted with  this  proceeding  he  did  not  dare  to  prohibit 
it ;  for  he  perceived  that  these  men  were  held  in  the 
highest  estimation  by  the  multitude  on  account  of  their 
virtues.  He  requested  them  in  a  mild  and  specious 
manner  to  perform  this  service  in  the  church.  They 
obeyed  this  injunction,  although  they  perceived  his  evil 
motives,  and  willingly  assembled  in  the  church  with  those 
who  shared  in  their  love,  in  order  to  sing  to  the  praise  of 
the  Lord." 

His  conduct  with  respect  to  the  Messalians  is  related 
by  the  same  historian : — "  About  the  same  time  the  her- 
esy of  the  Messahans  sprang  up.  Those  who  have  ren- 
dered their  name  into  Greek  call  them  Euchites.  Besides 
the  above,  they  bear  other  appellations.  They  are  some- 
times called  Enthusiasts,  because  they  regard  the  agitat- 
ing influences  of  a  demon  by  whom  they  are  possessed 
as  indications  of  the  presence  of  the  Holy  Ghost.  Those 
who  have  thoroughly  imbibed  this  heresy  shun  all  man- 
ual labour  as  a  vice  ;  they  abandon  themselves  to  sleep, 
and  declare  their  dreams  to  be  prophecies.  The  following 
were  the  leaders  of  this  sect ;  Dadoes,  Sabbas,  Adelphius, 
Hermes,  Symeon,  and  many  others.  They  never  seceded 
from  communion  with  the  Church,  because  they  believed 
that  the  holy  food  there  provided  was  innoxious  although 
useless.  Whereas  Christ  the  Lord,  in  allusion  to  this 
food,  says,  "Whoso  eateth  My  flesh  and  drinketh  My 
blood  shall  live  for  ever."  Their  great  desire  of  conceal- 
ing their  error  leads  them  shamelessly  to  deny  it,  even 

140  FLAVIAN. 

when  convicted  of  it,  and  induces  them  to  condemn  in 
others  the  very  sentiments  which  they  hold  themselves. 
Letoius,  bishop  of  the  Church  of  Melitene,  on  finding 
that  these  errors  were  entertained  in  numerous  monas- 
teries, which  were,  in  reality,  so  many  caverns  of  robbers, 
set  fire  to  them  all  in  the  plentitude  of  his  zeal,  and 
chased  the  wolves  far  away  from  the  sheepfold.  The 
celebrated  Amphilochus  was  the  Bishop  of  the  metropolis 
of  Lycaonia,  and  therefore  ruled  over  the  whole  province  : 
on  being  apprised  of  the  extension  of  this  heresy,  he 
preserved,  by  his  vigilance,  the  flock  committed  to  his 
care  free  from  the  contagion.  The  renowned  Flavian, 
who  was  afterwards  Bishop  of  Antioch,  heariDg  that  these 
sectarians  were  at  Edessa,  and  that  they  disseminated 
their  corrupt  opinions  throughout  the  neighbourhood, 
sent  a  body  of  monks  to  bring  them  to  Antioch.  They 
there  denied  the  fact  of  their  being  infected  with  these 
doctrines,  and  declared  that  their  accusers  calumniated 
them,  and  bore  false  witness  against  them.  Flavian 
requested  Adelphius,  who  was  an  old  man,  to  come  to 
him ;  and,  after  desiring  him  in  a  kindly  manner  to  sit 
down  beside  him,  said  to  him,  "  We,  0  old  man,  who 
have  lived  a  long  time,  must  be  better  acquainted  with 
human  nature  and  with  the  inimical  machinations  of 
demons,  and  must  also  have  learnt  more  respecting  the 
supply  of  divine  grace,  than  the  other  persons  of  the 
assembly,  who,  being  young,  and  not  having  yet  acquired 
accurate  information,  are  not  capable  of  understanding 
spiritual  discourses.  Tell  me,  then,  what  you  mean  by 
saying,  that  the  hostile  spirit  departs  when  the  Holy 
Spirit  comes  with  grace  ?"  The  old  man  being  gained 
over  by  these  words,  disclosed  the  hidden  poison  of  this 
heresy ;  he  said,  that  the  holy  rite  of  baptism  was  of  no 
benefit  to  those  who  received  it,  and  that  perseverance 
in  prayer  alone  could  expel  the  demon  which  dwells 
within  us  ;  *'  because,"  said  he,  "  every  one  who  is  born 
is,  by  nature,  as  much  the  slave  of  the  demons  as  he  is 

FLA.VIAN.  141 

the  descendant  of  the  first  man.  When  the  demons  are 
driven  away  by  the  fervency  of  prayer,  the  most  Holy 
Spirit  visits  us,  and  gives  sensible  and  visible  signs  of 
His  own  presence,  by  freeing  the  body  from  the  perturba- 
tion of  passion,  and  the  soul  from  evil  propensities ;  so 
that,  henceforth,  there  is  no  more  need  of  fasting  for  the 
subjugation  of  the  body,  nor  of  instruction  for  the  res- 
traint and  direction  of  the  soul.  Whoever  has  enjoyed 
this  visitation  is  delivered  from  all  inward  struggles  ;  he 
clearly  foresees  the  future,  and  gazes  with  his  own  eyes 
upon  the  Holy  Trinity."  Flavian,  having  thus  discovered 
the  fetid  fountain-head  of  error,  and  having  detected  the 
evil  streams  which  issued  from  it,  said  to  this  wretched 
old  man,  "  You,  who  have  grown  old  in  sin,  have  con- 
victed yourself  by  your  own  mouth,  without  any  inter- 
position on  my  part.  Your  own  lips  have  borne  witness 
against  you."  The  unsound  principles  of  these  sectarians 
having  been  thus  detected,  they  were  expelled  from  Syria. 
They  went  to  Pamphylia,  and  propagated  their  injurious 
heresy  throughout  the  province. 

When  Antioch  was  suffering  under  persecution  from 
Valens,  the  joint  labours  of  Diodorus  and  Flavian  are 
thus  described  by  Theodoret : — "  Flavian  and  Diodorus 
stationed  themselves  as  bulwarks  to  restrain  the  violence 
of  the  billows  of  persecution.  The  pastor  of  the  city 
having  been  compelled  to  relinquish  his  post,  they  under- 
took the  care  of  the  flock  during  his  absence ;  and  by 
their  courage  and  wisdom  defended  it  from  the  attacks 
of  wolves.  After  having  been  driven  away  from  the  foot 
of  the  mountain,  they  led  the  flock  beside  the  banks  of 
the  neighbouring  stream.  They  did  not,  like  the  captives 
of  Babylon,  hang  up  their  harps  upon  the  willows ;  for 
they  sang  praises  to  their  Creator  in  eveiy  part  of  His 
empire.  But  the  enemy  did  not  long  permit  these  pious 
pastors,  who  preached  the  divinity  of  the  Lord  Christ,  to 
hold  assemblies  in  any  place ;  and  they  were  soon  com- 
pelled  to   lead  the  flock  to  spiritual  pasturage  in  the 

VOL  V.  0 

142  FLAVIAN. 

gymnasium  in  which  the  soldiers  performed  their  exer 
cises.  The  wise  and  courageous  Diodorus  resembled  a 
large  and  limpid  stream  which  furnishes  plentiful  sup- 
plies of  water  to  those  who  dwell  on  its  banks,  and  which 
at  the  same  time  engulphs  adversaries.  He  despised  the 
advantages  of  high  birth,  and  underwent  the  severest 
exertions  in  defence  of  the  faith.  Flavian  was  also  of 
illustrious  birth,  yet  he  considered  that  piety  alone  con- 
stitutes true  nobility.  At  this  period  Flavian  did  not 
preach  in  the  public  assemblies,  but  he  furnished  Dio- 
dorus with  the  subjects  of  his  discourses,  and  supplied 
him  with  Scriptural  arguments,  thus  anointing  him,  as 
it  were,  for  the  conflicts  of  the  spiritual  gymnasium. 
They  thus  jointly  attacked  the  Arian  blasphemy.  In 
their  own  private  dwellings,  as  well  as  in  public  places, 
they  disputed  with  the  Arians,  easily  confuted  their 
sophistical  reasoning,  and  proved  its  futility." 

The  year  of  his  ordination  to  the  priesthood  is  not 
known,  but  his  election  to  the  episcopate  is  thus  described 
by  Theodoret : — "  Flavian,  who  had  sustained  with  Dio- 
dorus so  many  conflicts  in  defence  of  the  Saviour's  flock, 
was  appointed  to  succeed  the  great  Melitius  in  the 
Bishopric  of  Antioch.  Paulinus  endeavoured  to  prove 
that  he  had  himself  a  prior  right  to  this  bishopric.  But 
tne  pnests  rejected  his  pretensions,  saying,  that  as  he 
would  not  receive  the  counsels  of  Melitius,  he  ought  not 
to  obtain  his  episcopal  chair  after  his  death,  but  that  the 
pastoral  office  ought  to  be  bestowed  upon  one  who  had 
distinguished  himself  by  so  many  arduous  labours,  and 
who  had  so  often  defended  the  flock.  This  contention 
greatly  irritated  the  Romans  and  the  Egyptians  against 
the  Eastern  bishops  ;  and  the  consequent  feelings  of 
animosity  did  not  subside  even  after  the  death  of 

"  When  they  had  raised  Evagrius  to  the  episcopal 
chair,  they  still  retained  their  resentment  against  Flavian, 
although  Evagrius  had  been  ordained  against  the  canons 

FLAVIAN.  143 

of  the  Church  ;  for  Paulinus  alone  had  elected  him ; 
thus  transgressing  many  of  the  ecclesiastical  laws.  The 
canons  of  the  Church  do  not  permit  a  bishop,  when  on 
his  death-bed,  to  ordain  his  successor,  but  declare  that 
the  consent  of  all  the  bishops  of  the  province  is  requisite, 
and  that  the  ceremony  of  ordination  is  to  be  performed 
by  three  bishops.  Although  none  of  these  regulations  had 
been  observed  in  the  ordination  of  Evagrius,  the  Romans 
and  Egyptians  entered  into  fellowship  with  him,  and 
endeavoured  to  prejudice  the  emperor  against  Flavian. 
Wearied  by  their  importunity,  the  emperor  at  length  sent 
to  Constantinople  to  summon  Flavian  to  Rome.  Flavian 
excused  himself  on  account  of  its  being  winter,  and 
promised  to  obey  the  emperor's  command  the  ensuing 
spring.  He  then  returned  to  his  native  country.  The 
bishops  of  Rome,  among  whom  was  not  only  the  admi-. 
rable  Damasis,  but  also  Siricius,  who  afterwards  succeeded 
him,  as  well  as  Anastasius,  the  successor  of  Siricius, 
rebuked  the  pious  emperor,  and  told  him,  that  while  he 
repressed  the  attempts  of  those  who  rose  up  against  his 
own  authority,  he  suffered  those  w^ho  insulted  the  laws  of 
Christ  to  exercise  the  authority  which  they  had  usurped. 
The  emperor  therefore  again  sent  to  compel  Flavian  to 
repair  to  Rome.  To  this  mandate  the  wise  bishop  replied 
with  great  boldness  of  speech,  saying,  '  If  any  indivi- 
duals, 0  emperor,  should  accuse  me  of  heterodoxy,  or 
should  say  that  my  life  is  derogatory  to  the  episcopal 
dignity,  I  would  permit  my  accusers  to  be  my  judges, 
and  would  submit  to  whatever  sentence  they  might  pro- 
nounce. But  if  it  be  only  my  right  to  my  episcopal 
chair  and  office  that  they  are  contesting,  I  shall  not  con- 
tend for  my  claims,  but  shall  relinquish  my  seat  to 
whoever  may  be  appointed  to  take  it.  Give,  then,  O 
emperor,  the  Bishopric  of  Antioch  to  whomsoever  you 

"  The  emperor  admired  his  courage  and  wisdom,  and 
sent  to  command  him  to  resume  the  government  of  his 

144  FLAVIAN. 

Church.  Some  time  after  the  emperor  returned  to  Rome, 
and  the  bishops  again  reproached  him  for  not  having 
suppressed  the  tyranny  of  Flavian.  The  emperor  repHed, 
by  asking  what  species  of  tyranny  had  been  exercised  by 
Flavian,  and  declared  his  readiness  to  prohibit  it.  The 
bishops  repljang,  that  they  could  not  litigate  any  point 
against  an  emperor,  he  exhorted  them  to  be  reconciled 
with  each  other,  and  to  terminate  the  foolish  contention. 
For  Paulinus  had  died  long  previously,  and  Evagrius 
had  been  illegally  ordained.  Besides,  the  Eastern 
churches  acknowledged  the  supremacy  of  Flavian ;  all 
the  churches  of  Asia,  of  Pontus,  and  of  Thrace,  were 
united  with  him  in  communion  ;  and  all  the  churches  of 
Illyria  looked  upon  him  as  the  primate  of  the  East. 
The  bishops  of  the  West  were  convinced  by  these  repre- 
sentations, and  promised  to  lay  aside  their  hostility,  and 
to  receive  an  embassy  from  Flavian.  On  hearing  this, 
the  holy  Flavian  sent  some  exemplary  bishops  to  Rome, 
with  some  presbyters  and  deacons  of  Antioch.  The 
principal  man  among  them  was  Acacius,  Bishop  of  Bercea, 
a  city  of  Syria,  whose  fame  was  spread  throughout  the 
world.  On  his  arrival  with  the  others  in  Rome,  he 
terminated  the  long-continued  hostility  which  had  lasted 
seventeen  years,  and  restored  peace  to  the  churches. 
When  the  Egyptians  became  acquainted  with  this  pro- 
ceeding, they  laid  down  their  animosity  and  established 
concord.  The  Church  of  Rome  was  at  this  period 
governed  by  Innocent,  a  man  of  great  sagacity  and  pru- 
dence ;  he  was  the  successor  of  Anastasius.  Theophilus, 
of  whom  mention  has  been  already  made,  was  then  the 
Bishop  of  Alexandria."  - 

The  name  of  Flavian  is  connected  with  one  of  the 
most  interesting  episodes  in  ecclesiastical  histor}'-,  of 
which  a  detailed  account  has  been  already  given  in  the 
life  of  St.  Chrysostom,  to  which  the  reader  is  referred. 
We  shall  only  here  state  that  during  the  course  of  a 
popular  tumult,  in  consequence  of  a  new  tax,  various 


gross  outrages  had  been  committed,  and  the  statues  of 
the  emperor  Theodosius  and  of  his  empress  had  been 
overturned.  Exemplary  vengeance  was  threatened  for 
these  acts  of  sedition ;  but  the  patriarch,  by  repairing  to 
Constantinople,  and  eloquently  interceding  with  the 
emperor  for  forgiveness,  appeased  his  anger,  and  obtained 
the  pardon  of  the  offenders.  The  address  that  he  de- 
livered on  that  occasion  is  said  to  have  been  composed 
by  the  celebrated  Chrysostom.  Flavian  died  in  404.  He 
was  the  author  of  some  Epistles,  noticed  in  the  Codex  of 
Photius ;  and  of  some  Homilies,  of  which  fragments  are 
to  be  found  in  the  first  and  second  Dialogues  of  Theo- 
doret  on  Heretics. — Theodoret.    Cave. 


William  Fleetwood  was  bom  in  the  tower  of  London, 
where  his  father  resided,  in  1656.  He  was  educated  at 
Eton,  whence  he  was  elected  to  King's  College,  Cam- 
bridge. On  entering  into  orders  he  became  chaplain  to 
William  and  Mary,  vice-provost  of  Eton,  fellow  of  the 
college,  canon  residentiary  of  St.  Paul's,  and  rector  of 
St.  Austin's,  London.  A  little  before  the  death  of  Wil- 
liam, he  was  nominated  to  a  canonry  of  Windsor,  on 
which  he  resigned  his  city  living  to  reside  near  Eton.  In 
1706  he  was  made  Bishop  of  St.  Asaph,  and,  in  1714, 
translated  to  Ely.  His  preface  to  his  sermons,  on  the 
deaths  of  Mary,  of  the  Duke  of  Gloucester,  and  of  Wil- 
liam, and  on  the  accession  of  Anne,  gave  such  offence 
to  the  ministry,  that  the  book  was  burnt  publicly,  12th 
of  May,  1712  ;  but  it  was  the  more  universally  read,  and 
even  appeared  in  the  Spectator,  No.  384.  Besides  these, 
Bishop  Fleetwood  published  Inscriptionum  Antiquarum 
Sylloge,  8vo,  1691.  A  translation  of  Jurieu's  Method  of 
Devotion,  1692,  the  27th  edition  of  which  appeared  in 
1750.  An  Essay  an  Miracles,  8vo,  1701.  The  Reason- 
0  2 


able  Communicant,  1704.  Sixteen  Practical  Discourses 
on  the  Relative  Duties  of  Parents,  &c.  2  vols,  8vo,  1705. 
The  Thirteenth  of  Romans  Vindicated,  1710.  The 
Judgment  of  the  Church  of  England  in  Lay  Baptism 
and  Dissenters'  Baptism,  1712.  The  Life  of  St.  Wene- 
frede,  1713.  Chronicon  Preciosum,  or  Account  of  Eng- 
lish Money,  Price  of  Corn  and  other  Commodities  for 
the  last  six  hundred  years,  1707  ;  besides  smaller  works. 
— Biog.  Brit, 


John  William  Fletcher  was  born  at  Nyon,  in  the 
Pays  de  Yaud,  of  a  respectable  Bernese  family.  He  was 
educated  at  Geneva  for  the  ministry,  but  went  into  the 
military  service  in  Portugal ;  he  soon  afterwards  came  to 
England,  where  he  became  tutor  in  the  family  of  Sir 
Richard  Hill.  He  next  superintended  the  institution  of 
Lady  Huntingdon,  at  Trevecca,  in  Wales  ;  but  quitted 
it,  and  became  vicar  of  Madeley,  in  Shropshire,  where 
he  died  in  1785.  His  works  are  mostly  against  Calvin- 
ism, and  were  printed  in  ten  vols,  8vo. — Gen.  Diet. 


Richard  Fletcher,  who  is  described  as  a  handsome 
Kentish  man,  was  admitted  a  scholar  of  Trinity  College, 
Cambridge,  in  1563,  and  removed  to  Corpus  Christi 
College  in  1569,  where  he  acted  as  tutor.  In  1572  he 
went  to  Oxford  and  was  incorporated  M.A.  In  Septem- 
ber of  that  year,  he  was  instituted  to  the  prebend  of 
Islington  in  the  church  of  St.  Paul,  London,  upon  the 
presentation  of  Matthew  Parker,  gent.,  sOn  of  the  arch- 
bishop, who  probably  had  the  patronage  of  that  turn 
made  over  to  him  by  Bishop  Grindal,  in  order  to  carry 


on  his  father's  scheme  of  annexing  prebends  to  the 
fellowships  he  had  founded.  Accordingly  he  held  this 
with  his  fellowship ;  and  was  made  president  upon  Mr. 
Norgate's  promotion  to  the  mastership  the  year  following, 
but  seems  to  have  left  the  college  soon  after,  with  a  testi- 
monial of  his  learning  and  good  behaviour,  as  well  as  of 
his  having  acquitted  himself  with  credit  in  the  offices  of 
the  college,  in  the  public  schools,  and  in  the  pulpit.  In 
1581  he  proceeded  D.D.  and  became  chaplain  to  the 
queen,  to  whom  he  had  been  recommended  by  Arch- 
bishop Whitgift  for  the  deanery  of  Windsor,  but  she 
chose  rather  to  bestow  on  him  that  of  Peterborough  in 
1583.  In  1585,  the  prebend  of  Sutton-Longa  in  the 
church  of  Lincoln  was  given  to  him,  and  he  was  likewise 
parson  of  Alderkirke  in  that  diocese,  and  was  presented 
by  Sir  Thomas  Cecil  to  the  church  of  Barnack.  Soon 
after  this,  he  was  appointed  to  attend  upon  the  execution 
of  Mary  queen  of  Scots,  at  Fotheringhay  Castle. 

He  is  rather  unfairly  accused  of  having  endeavoured 
at  that  time  to  convert  the  queen  to  protestantism.  His 
address  to  her  is  a  pious  and  even  eloquent  exhortation, 
such  as  might  have  been  addressed  to  any  one  about  to 
undergo  the  extreme  sentence  of  the  law.  It  shocks  our 
feelings  of  delicacy  to  read  of  any  address  at  such  a  time, 
but  as  the  dean  had  to  make  it,  his  allusions  to  the 
queen's  errors  are  not  so  marked  as  the  controversial  spirit 
of  the  age  would  have  rendered  probable.  But  in  utter- 
ing these  words  of  exhortation,  we  are  told  that  the  queen 
three  or  four  times  said  unto  him,  "  Master  dean, 
trouble  not  yourself,  nor  me ;  for  know,  that  I  am 
settled  in  the  ancient,  catholic,  Romish  religion  ;  and  in 
defence  thereof,  by  God's  help,  to  spend  my  blood." 
Then  said  the  dean,  "  Madam,  change  your  opinion,  and 
repent  of  your  former  sins  and  wickedness,  and  settle 
yourself  upon  this  ground,  that  only  in  Christ  Jesu  you 
hope  to  be  saved."  Then  she  answered  again  and  again 
with  great  earnestness,  "  Good  master  dean,  trouble  no 


more  yourself  about  this  matter ;  for  I  was  born  in  this 
religion,  I  have  lived  in  this  religion,  and  I  am  resolved 
to  die  in  this  religion."  Then  said  the  earls,  when  they 
saw  how  uncomfortable  she  was  in  the  hearing  of  master 
dean's  good  exhortation,  "  Madam,  we  will  pray  for  your 
grace  with  master  dean,  if  it  stand  wdth  God's  good  will, 
you  may  have  your  heart  lightened  with  the  true  know- 
ledge of  God's  good  will,  and  His  word,  and  so  die  herein." 
Then  answered  the  queen,  "  If  you  will  pray  for  me,  I 
will  even  from  my  heart  thank  you,  and  think  myself 
greatly  favoured  by  you  ;  but  to  join  in  prayer  with  you, 
my  lords,  after  your  manner,  who  are  not  of  one  and 
the  self- same  religion  with  me,  it  were  a  sin.  I  will 
not."  Camden  relates  it  somewhat  differently;  that 
when  the  earls  said,  they  would  pray  for  her,  she  said 
she  would  give  them  thanks,  if  they  would  pray  with 

Then  the  lords  called  for  master  Dean  again,  and  bade 
him  say  on,  or  speak  what  he  thought  good.  Where- 
upon the  said  master  Dean,  kneeling  on  the  scaffold- 
stairs,  began  his  prayers. 

The  dean  was  in  high  favour  with  queen  Elizabeth, 
and  in  1589  was  advanced  to  the  see  of  Bristol,  from 
which,  in  1592,  he  was  translated  to  that  of  Worcester. 
In  1594,  says  Strype,  "  the  see  of  London  became  void 
also  this  year  in  the  beginning  of  June,  by  the  death  of 
Aylmer.  Fletcher,  Bishop  of  Worcester,  affected  a  trans- 
lation thither ;  chiefly  because  that  city  he  most  delighted 
in,  where  he  had  his  education,  most  common  residence, 
and  where  he  had  many  agreeable  friends,  and  a  con- 
siderable share  in  the  love  and  esteem  of  the  citizens, 
who  desired  that  he  might  be  their  bishop  ;  and  that  he 
might  be  nearer  the  court,  where  his  presence  was  accus- 
tomed much  to  be  ;  and  his  influence  might  be  of  use  to 
serve  the  court :  which  reasons  he  moved  to  the  lord 
treasurer  in  a  letter,  dated  June  29,  as  he  had  solicited 
him   before    in    presence :    '  beseeching    his    honour's 


opinion  and  continuance  of  that  begun  favour  which 
lately  it  had  pleased  his  lordship  to  afford  him  to  her 
majesty.  That  his  education  hereabouts,  [i.  e.  London,] 
and  long  knowledge  of  the  place,  continued  as  well  by 
his  service  in  court,  as  by  sundiy  other  links  of  friend- 
ship with  persons  of  the  city  :  and  that  the  consideration 
of  the  absence  from  that  charge  which  he  had,  did  draw 
him  rather  to  desire  the  improvement  of  his  poor  duty 
and  endeavour  to  the  service  of  God  and  her  majesty  in 
this  see  and  city  of  London,  than  in  any  other  place  of 
the  realm.  And  he  doubted  not  but  it  would  please  God 
to  bless  it  withal.  That  his  lordship  knew,  that  it  was 
something  in  that  function,  where  the  flock  and  the 
pastor  had  desired  one  another.  That  in  many  things, 
beside  the  main  and  principal  matter  of  ecclesiastical 
government  and  oversight  therein,  his  lordship  for  his 
long  experience  knew,  that  there  might  befall  occasions 
concerning  the  state,  where  the  bishop,  being  regarded 
and  beloved  of  them,  might  be  a  good  and  ready  means 
to  give  them  furtherance  and  expedition.  Besides  which, 
the  general  care  and  regard  of  pastoral  charge,  which  he 
trusted  it  would  please  God  to  settle  in  him  for  his  glory 
there,  his  lordship  should  be  assured,  (if  it  so  pleased 
the  same,)  that  no  man,  no,  not  bound  with  the  band  of 
nearest  duty  to  his  lordship,  should  be  more  ready  to 
respect  his  lordship's  honourable,  either  desires  or  direc- 
tions in  that  place.  And  so,  humbly  beseeching  his 
lordship  to  make  him  in  this  occasion  both  favoured  by 
her  majesty  towards  her  own  servant,  and  by  the  rest  of 
his  honourable  lords,  beholden  to  his  lordship,  as  in  time 
past  he  had  been,  he  committed  his  lordship  to  the  good- 
ness of  God.' 

"  The  solicitation  of  this  bishop  (who  was  courtly, 
well-spoken,  and  the  queen's  chaplain)  succeeded  :  but  it 
was  not  before  six  or  seven  months  after  that  his  election 
was  confirmed,  viz:  January  10,  1594.  But  his  satis- 
faction in  his  remove  was  but  short :  for  the  very  next 


month  the  queen's  wonted  favour  to  him  was  turned 
into  great  displeasure  ;  insomuch,  that  she  banished  him 
the  court ;  and  by  her  command  he  was  suspended  from 
his  bishopric,  by  the  sentence  of  the  archbishop. 

"  But  to  relate  this  matter  a  little  more  at  large.  No 
sooner  was  he  Bishop  of  London,  but  he,  being  a 
widower,  married  a  fine  lady  and  widow,  and  (as  we  are 
told)  the  sister  of  Sir  George  Gifford,  one  of  the  queen's 
gentlemen  pensioners.  And  perhaps  that  was  one  of  the 
secret  reasons  of  the  bishop's  endeavours  to  be  translated 
to  London,  to  gratify  this  lady's  desire  to  live  near  the 
court.  This  marriage  (as  the  queen  liked  not  marriage 
at  all  in  the  clergy)  she  thought  so  very  undecent  in  an 
elderly  clergyman,  and  a  bishop,  that  before  had  been 
married,  that  he  fell  under  her  great  displeasure.  And 
she  gave  him  either  a  reprimand  by  her  own  mouth,  or 
sent  a  message  to  him  by  some  other,  not  to  appear  in 
her  presence,  nor  to  come  near  the  court.  The  bishop, 
finding  himself  in  this  bad  condition,  applied  himself  to 
the  lord  treasurer,  by  a  letter  from  Chelsea,  to  declare 
his  case,  and  to  use  his  good  office  for  him  to  the  queen. 
At  the  delivery  whereof,  the  said  lord  used  some  kind 
and  honourable  words  concerning  him  to  the  messenger. 
But  notwithstanding,  a  command  was  soon  despatched 
from  the  queen  to  the  archbishop,  to  suspend  the  said 
bishop  from  the  exercise  of  his  episcopal  function.  And 
on  the  23rd  of  February  the  censure  was  executed  on 
him  by  the  archbishop's  own  mouth ;  for  having  then 
sent  for  the  bishop,  his  grace  acquainted  him  with  the 
heavy  sentence  of  her  majesty,  viz.  to  cease  the  exercise 
of  his  episcopal  and  ecclesiastical  jurisdiction. 

"Which  how  the  good  bishop  resented,  he  himself 
expressed  to  the  said  lord  treasurer,  when  he  certified 
him  thereof  by  his  letter ;  '  That  he  confessed  it  was  the 
more  grievous  and  bitter  unto  him,  by  the  remembrance 
both  of  her  highness'  former  favour  towards  him,  as  also 
for  that  he  was  now  become  unprofitable  for  the  Church 


and  her  highness'  service  :  to  both  which  he  had  so 
wholly  vowed  himself,  and  all  his  possibility.  Professing 
to  his  lordship,  that  he  could  have  wished,  when  he 
heard  it,  he  had  also  heard  (if  justice  would  so  have  per- 
mitted) to  have  been  sequestered  from  his  life  itself.  He 
added,  that  he  knew  how  much  his  lordship's  approba- 
tion and  grave  mediation  might  in  such  cases  avail  with 
her  majesty.  Which  if  it  might  please  him  to  vouchsafe 
him,  [the  Bishop,]  he  should,  he  was  persuaded,  with  the 
whole  ecclesiastical  state,  be  honoured  for  it ;'  [as  though 
the  case  of  the  bishop  touched  in  a  manner  all  the  mar- 
ried clergy ;]  '  and  give  to  himself  matter  of  bond  to  his 
lordship  in  all  Christian  devotion  and  dutiful  obser- 
vance.' This  letter  was  dated  from  Chelsea,  February 
the  24th,  and  subscribed,  '  Your  lordship's  ever  in 
Christ,  the  Bishop  of  London.' 

"  It  was  not  before  six  months  after  that  the  bishop 
Bcems  to  have  been  restored,  as  though  the  suspension 
had  been  for  that  term.  For  the  lord  treasurer  had,  in 
the  month  of  July,  1595,  signified  to  him,  that  the  queen 
was  in  good  measure  reconciled  to  him ;  and  that  she 
■would  give  instruction  and  order  to  the  archbishop  to 
take  off  his  suspension.  And  when  the  said  bishop  had 
acquainted  the  archbishop  therewith,  he  shewed  himself 
very  ready  and  glad  to  repair  to  the  court,  to  wait  the 
queen's  pleasure  to  him  herein.  And  to  his  lordship's 
good  news  he  returned  this  grateful  acknowledgment : 
'  That  to  hear  of  the  least  her  highness'  gracious  inclina- 
tion towards  him,  in  her  princely  clemency,  he  could  not 
sufficiently  express  to  his  good  lordship,  how  greatly  it 
had  recomforted  him,  having  these  six  months  thought 
himself  (as  the  prophet  spake)  free  among  the  dead,  and 
like  unto  him  that  is  in  the  grave ;  made  unprofitable  unto 
God's  and  her  majesty's  service.  That  to  hear  of  it  also, 
as  drawn  on  and  wrought  by  his  lordship's  honourable 
intercession,  and  so  kind  mediation,  it  had  greatly  added 
to  his  joy  and  alacrity.     I  do  therefore,  as  he  proceeded, 

15a  FLEURY. 

give  jour  lordship  my  entirest  thanks,  beseeching  your 
lordship  to  be  persuaded,  that  among  so  many  to  whom 
your  lordship  hath  been  magnus  thepykTrjq,  there  shall  be 
none  found  whose  duty  and  devotion  shall  henceforth 
exceed  his,  who  with  his  hand  and  heart  giveth  your 
lordship  this  testimony  of  love  and  observance. 

"  '  My  lord  of  Canterbury  will  to-morrow  be  at  court, 
and  be  very  mindful  of  me  for  a  good  conclusion.  And 
so,  with  my  prayers  for  your  lordship's  increase  and  con- 
tinuance in  all  God's  blessings,  I  take  my  leave.  From 
Fulham.  Your  lordship's  ever  in  all  duty  and  Christian 

Rich.  London.' 

"  But  though  this  bishop  was  thus  restored  to  the  dis- 
charge of  his  office,  yet  the  queen  would  not  permit  him 
to  come  into  her  presence  for  a  twelvemonth ;  (however 
she  was  humbly  moved  by  his  friends  of  quality  in  that 
behalf ;)  though  for  twenty  years  before  he  commonly  was 
one  that  waited  in  his  place  upon  her  person,  with  favour. 
This  long  absence  from  court  the  bishop  laid  much  to 
heart ;  which  caused  him,  in  the  month  of  January 
following,  to  solicit  the  lord  treasurer,  his  former  friend 
and  mediator,  to  procure  that  grant  from  the  queen,  that 
he  might  see  her  face." 

He  at  last  so  far  regained  the  queen's  favour  as  to 
have  the  honour  of  receiving  a  visit  from  her.  He  died 
suddenly  in  his  chair  at  his  house  in  London,  June  15th, 
K^^Q.—Strype.    Camden.    Master  s  Hist,  of  C.  C.  C. 


Claude  Fleurt  was  born  in  Paris,  1640.  After 
being  at  the  bar  nine  years,  he  took  orders,  and  in  1672 
became  preceptor  to  the  Princess  of  Conti,  and  in  1680 
to  the  Count  de  Vermandois.  Under  Fenelon  he  was 
subpreceptor  to  the  dukes  of  Burgundy,  Anjou,  and  Bern, 

FLORUS.  153 

and  for  his  services  he  was  made  abbot  of  Locdieu,  which 
he  resigned  in  1706,  for  the  lich  prioiy  of  Argenteuil. 
In  1716  he  was  made  confessor  to  Louis  XV.  He  died 
in  1723,  greatly  respected  for  his  learning  and  virtues. 
The  chief  of  his  works  are,  Manners  of  the  Israelites. 
Manners  of  the  Christians.  Ecclesiastical  History,  13 
vols,  4to.  Institution  of  Ecclesiastical  Law.  Treatise 
on  the  Choice  and  Method  of  Studies.  Duties  of  Mas- 
ters and  Servants.  Treatise  on  Public  Law,  2  vols,  12mo. 
Mr.  Dowling  says  of  him  : — "  He  was  a  man  of  piety 
and  sensibility,  and  his  mind  was  well  stored  with  pro- 
fessional learning.  He  was  already  known  by  his  publi- 
cations on  ecclesiastical  subjects  and  polite  literature. 
In  undertaking  his  great  work  his  views  were  modest. 
His  object  was,  he  tells  us,  rather  to  write  a  popular 
account  of  his  subject,  than  a  work  of  research  and  ei*u- 
dition.  But  he  is  a  writer  of  no  ordinary  merit.  He 
expressed  in  an  easy  and  pleasing  manner  the  I'esult  of 
the  inquiries  of  the  great  scholars  of  his  time,  and 
advantageously  introduced  Church-histoiy  to  the  students 
of  modern  literature.  We  find  in  his  writings  no  traces 
of  deep  reflection  or  comprehensive  views,  no  important 
discoveries  or  original  investigations  ;  but  he  produced 
an  instructive  and  entertaining  work.  His  '  Histoire 
Ecclesiastique '  was  edifying,  judicious,  candid ;  and 
favourably  exhibited  the  state  of  ecclesiastical  knowledge 
in  the  Church  of  Rome  at  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth 
century. " — Moreri.    Dowling . 


Drepanius  Florus,  surnamed  the  Master,  a  learned 
deacon  of  the  Church  of  Lyons,  flourished  in  the  ninth 
century.  The  reputation  which  he  had  obtained  occasion- 
ed his  being  selected  by  the  Church  of  Lyons  to  answer 
the   treatise  of   John    Scotus  Erigena,    on   the    subject 

VOL  V.  p 

154  FLOYD. 

of  predestination.      This  answer  was  entitled,  Liber  de 
Prgedestinatione,  contra  Johannis  Scoti  erroneas  Defini- 
tiones,   and  was   published  in   852,  in  the  name  of  the 
whole  Church  of  Lyons.     It  is  in  t]ie  eighth  volume  of 
the  Bibliotheca  Patrum.     He  asserts  a  twofold  predesti- 
nation, or  rather  predestination  under  a  twofold  aspect : 
1.  A  gratuitous  predestination  of  the  elect  to  grace  and 
glory,  and  a  predestination  of  the  reprobate  to  damnation, 
for  their  sins  which  they  commit  by  their  own  free  will  ; 
and  maintains,  that  though  our    free    will   can   choose 
that  which  is  good,  yet  it  never  would  choose,  or  do  it,  if 
it  were  not  assisted  by  the  grace  of  Jesus  Christ.     And 
to  explain  this,  he  makes  use  of  the  comparison  of  a 
sick  man,   of  whom  we  may  say,   that  he  may  recover 
his  health,  although  he  hath  need  of  physic  to  restore  it  ; 
or  of  a  dead  man,  that  he  may  be  raised,   but  by  the 
divine  power.     In  like  manner,  saith  he,  the  free  will 
being  distempered,  and  dead,  by  the  sin  of  the  first  man, 
may  be   revived,  but   not  by  its  own  virtue,  but  by  the 
grace  and  power  of  God,  Who  hath  pity  on  it,  which 
Florus   understands    not   only  of  that  grace,  which   is 
necessary  for  actions,  but  of  that  also  which  is  necessary 
to  seek  conversion  by  prayer,  and  begin  to  do  well. — He 
also  wrote,  Commentarius  in  omnes  S.  Pauli  Epistolas, 
falsely  ascribed  to  the  venerable  Bede,  and  admitted  into 
the  collection  of  his  works  ;  Commentarius  seu  Expositio 
in  Canonem  Missse,  extant  in  the  fifteenth  volume  of  the 
Bibl.  Patr. ;  Poemata,   which  have  appeared  in  different 
collections,  and  are  inserted  in  the  eighth  volume  of  the 
Bibl.  Patr.     The  date  of  his  death  is  not  known. — Cave. 


John  Floyd,  an  English  Jesuit,  was  born  in  Cam- 
bridgeshire. He  went  abroad,  became  a  Jesuit  in  1593, 
and  returned  to  Eni^land  as  a  missionary.    Ho  vfas  after- 

FOGGINI.  155 

wards  banished,  and  was  employed  by  bis  superiors  to 
teach  polite  literature  and  divinity  at  St.  Omer  and  Lou- 
vain.  The  time  of  his  death  is  not  known.  In  his 
written  controversies  with  Chillingworth,  Antonius  de 
Dorainis,  Crashaw,  Sir  Edward  Hobby,  and  other  Pro- 
testants, he  assumed  the  names  of  Daniel  a  Jesu,  Her- 
mannus  Loemelius,  and  Annosus  Fidelis  Verimontanus. 
Under  these  names  he  wrote,  Synopsis  Apostasise  M.  A. 
de  Dominis,  Antw.  1617,  8vo.  Detectio  Hypocrisis  M.  A. 
de  Dominis,  ibid,  1619,  8vo.  The  Church  Conquerant 
over  Human  Wit,  against  Chillingworth,  St  Omer,  1631, 
4to.  The  Total  Sum,  against  the  same,  ibid,  1639,  4to. 
Answer  to  William  Crashaw,  ibid,  1612,  4to.  A  Treatise 
of  Purgatory,  in  answer  to  Sir  Edward  Hobby,  ibid,  1613. 
Answer  to  Francis  White's  Reply  concerning  Nine  Arti- 
cles offered  by  King  James  I.  to  F.  John  Fisher,  ibid, 
J  626. — Alegamhe  de  Script.  Frat.  Jesu.    Dod. 


Pier  Francisco  Foggini,  was  born  in  1713,  at  Flo- 
rence, where,  after  he  had  gone  through  his  principal 
courses  of  study,  his  superiors  appointed  him  their 
librarian.  In  1741  he  published  a  dissertation  De 
primis  Florentinorum  Apostolis,  and  another  against  the 
reveries  of  certain  Protestants.  His  edition  of  Virgil  was 
published  at  Florence  in  1741,  4to.  In  1742  Foggini 
accepted  an  invitation  from  Bottari,  second  librarian  of 
the  Vatican,  to  come  to  Piome,  where  Benedict  XIV.  gave 
him  a  place  in  the  pontifical  academy  of  history.  He 
now  devoted  his  time  to  a  careful  examination  of  the 
most  valuable  MSS.  The  pope  next  appointed  him 
coadjutor  to  Bottari.  In  1750  he  printed  his  Latin 
translation  of  St.  Epiphanius's  commentary  on  the  Can- 
ticles. In  1752  he  published  a  collection  of  passages 
from  the  fathers,  occasioned  by  a  homily  of  the  Arch- 
bishop of  Fermo,   on  the  saying  of  our  Lord  respecting 


the  small  number  of  the  elect.  The  following  year  he 
published  the  opinions  of  Cardinal  Borromeo,  and  others 
on  the  theatre.  In  1754  he  published  the  first  of  eight 
volumes  of  writings  of  the  fathers  on  the  subject  of  grace; 
and  in  1 758  the  Works  of  St.  Prosper,  8vo.  These  were 
followed  by  his  Treatise  on  the  Clergy  of  St.  John  de 
Lateran,  and  in  1760,  by  an  edition  of  the  works  of  St. 
Fulgentius.  The  same  year  pope  Ganganelli  made 
him  chamberlain  of  honour.  He  afterwards  published 
Fastorum  Anni  Romani  Verrio  Flacco  ordinatorum 
Reliqui^,  &c.,  Rome,  1780,  fol.  In  1777  he  pubhshed 
an  appendix  to  the  Byzantine  history.  When  Pius  VI. 
became  pope,  he  promoted  him  to  the  charge  of  the  secret 
chamber,  and  in  1775  he  succeeded  Bottari  as  first 
librarian.    He  died  in  1783. — Dup.  Hist.    Saxd  Onomast. 


Petee  de  Fonseca  was  born  at  Cortisada,  in  1528. 
Becoming  a  Jesuit  he  was  appointed  professor  of  phi- 
losophy in  the  university  of  Coimbra,  and  afterwards  was 
made  professor  of  theology  in  that  of  Evora.  He  was 
the  first  who  publicly  taught  that  doctrine  relative  to  the 
divine  prescience  which  was  denominated  by  the  school- 
men Scientia  media,  and,  being  adopted  by  the  Jesuit 
Louis  Molina,  became  a  subject  of  long  and  furious  con- 
troversy between  his  followers  and  the  Dominicans  and 
Jansenists,  who  adhered  to  the  doctrine  of  St.  Augustine. 
Fonseca  died  at  Lisbon  in  1559.  He  published.  In  Isa- 
gogen  Porphyrii.  Dialectica,  Lib.  VIII. ;  and  Comment, 
in  Metaphys.  &c.,  3  vols,  fol. — Moreri. 


Peter  Claude  Fontenay,  a  Jesuit,  was  born  at  Paris 
in  1683.  He  became  rector  of  the  college  at  Orleans, 
from  whence  he  was  recalled  to  continue  Longueval's 

FORBES.  157 

History  of  the  Gallican  Clmrch,  of  whicli  eight  vokimes 
quarto  were  published.  Fontenav  wrote  three  volumes, 
and  then  died  suddenly  in  1742.— Moren'. 


Patrick  Forbes  was  bom  of  a  noble  family  in  Aber- 
deenshire in  1564.  He  was  educated  at  Aberdeen  and 
St.  Andrew's.  For  a  good  space,  says  Bishop  Keith,  he 
refused  to  enter  into  holy  orders  ;  but  at  last,  when  he 
was  forty-eight  years  old,  viz.  anno  161*2,  he  was  prevailed 
upon, — a  very  singular  accident  having  intervened,  which 
made  him  then  yield,  namely,  the  earnest  obtestation  of 
a  religious  minister  in  the  neighbourhood,  who,  in  a  fit 
of  melancholy,  had  stabbed  himself,  but  sui-vived  to 
lament  his  error.  He  continued  pastor  of  the  village  of 
Keith  in  Strathisla,  and  diocese  of  Murray,  (the  same 
place  where  the  above  misfortune  had  fallen  out,)  until 
the  year  1618,  March  24,  when  he  was  unanimously 
elected  Bishop  of  Aberdeen,  with  the  concurrent  voice  of 
all  ranks,  and  the  recommendation  of  the  king.  In  this 
office  he  behaved  himself  to  the  applause  of  all  men,  and 
died,  much  regretted,  on  the  28th  March,  being  Easter- 
even,  in  the  year  16-35,  aged  71,  and  was  interred  in  the 
south  aisle  of  his  cathedral.  He  wrote  a  Commentary 
upon  the  Book  of  Revelations.  He  was  wont  to  visit  his 
diocese  in  a  very  singular  retinue,  scarce  any  person 
hearing  of  him  until  he  came  into  the  church  on  the 
Lord's  day ;  and  according  as  he  perceived  the  respective 
ministers  to  behave  themselves  he  gave  his  instructions 
to  them.  He  wrote  a  Commentary  on  the  Revelation, 
London,  1613;  and  a  treatise  entitled  Exercitationes 
de  Verbo  Dei,  et  Dissertatio  de  Versionibus  vernaculis. 
He  was  a  great  benefactor  to  Aberdeen  imiversity,  of 
which  he  was  chancellor,  and  he  revived  the  professor- 
ships of  law,  physic,  and  divinity.  He  died  in  1635. — 
Keith.  Burnet. 
p  2 

158  FOKBES. 


The  following  account  is  given  of  this  prelate  by  Bishop 
Keith  in  his  "  Historical  Catalogue."  He  was  the  son 
of  Thomas  Forbes,  of  the  family  of  Corsindae,  by  a  sister 
of  the  famous  Mr.  James  C argil  1,  doctor  of  medicine  at 
Aberdeen,  in  which  city  likewise  this  worthy  person  was 
born,  and  bred  at  school  and  the  university.  About  the 
age  of  twenty  years  he  went  abroad  for  his  improvement, 
visiting  the  several  places  most  noted  for  learning  in 
England,  Germany,  and  Holland.  He  returned  home 
after  five  years,  and  became  minister  first  at  Alford  and 
next  at  Monimusk,  both  in  the  shire  of  Aberdeen.  He 
was  afterwards  one  of  the  ministers  of  Aberdeen,  and 
principal  of  the  Marischal  college  in  that  city  ;  and,  last 
of  all,  he  was  for  some  time  a  minister  in  Edinburgh. 
When  king  Charles  I.  was  in  Scotland,  anno  J  633,  and 
hearing  this  great  man  preach  before  him,  he  had  such 
a  due  regard  for  his  excellent  parts  and  talents  that  Way, 
and  for  his  knowledge  in  all  matters  theological,  that 
when  his  majesty  erected  the  episcopal  see  of  Edinburgh, 
and  consultation  was  held  concerning  a  fit  person  to  be 
promoted  to  this  see,  the  king  was  pleased  to  say,  he  had 
found  a  man  who  deserved  to  have  a  see  erected  for  him, 
meaning  Mr.  Forbes.  His  patent  from  the  king,  to  be 
the  first  Bishop  of  Edinburgh,  bears  date  the  26th  of 
January,  1 634,  and  he  died  that  same  year  on  the  first 
day  of  April  following.  A  person  he  was  endued 
most  eminently  with  all  Christian  virtues,  insomuch, 
that  a  very  worthy  man,  Eobert  Burnet,  Lord  Crimond, 
a  judge  of  the  session,  said  of  our  prelate,  that  he  never 
saw  him  but  he  thought  his  heart  was  in  heaven ;  and 
that  he  was  never  alone  with  him  but  he  felt  within  him- 
self a  commentary  on  these  words  of  the  apostle  :  "  Did 
not  our  hearts  burn  within  us,  while  he  yet  talked  with 
us,  and  opened  to  us  the  Scriptures  ?"     During  the  time 

FORD.  159 

he  was  principal  at  Aberdeen,  he  had  interspersed  several 
things  among  his  academical  prelections,  tending  to 
create  peace  among  the  contending  parties  of  Christianity, 
some  notes  whereof  were  published  above  twenty  years 
after  his  death,  under  the  title  of  "  Considerationes  mo- 
destae  et  pacificae,"  &c.  This  prelate  had  written  elabo- 
rate animadversions  on  the  four  volumes  of  Bellarmine 
which  were  then  published  at  Paris ;  but  these  having 
fallen  to  the  care  of  Dr.  Robert  Baron,  our  prelate's 
fellow  presbyter,  while  at  Aberdeen,  were  lost  with  other 
books  of  this  other  great  man,  when  he  was  forced,  by 
the  then  prevailing  faction,  to  fly  out  of  this  kingdom 
into  England.  Bishop  Forbes  had  been  twenty  years  in 
the  exercise  of  the  holy  ministry  before  he  was  put  into 
the  see  of  Edinburgh,  where  he  only  appeared  long 
enough  to  be  known,  but  not  long  enough  to  do  what 
might  have  been  expected. — Keith. 


Simon  Ford,  a  divine,  was  born  at  East  Ogwell,  in 
Devonshire,  in  1619.  He  was  educated  at  Dorchester 
School;  and  in  1636  admitted  of  Magdalen  Hall,  Oxford. 
In  1641  he  was  in  London  acting  with  the  rebels,  and 
fighting  against  his  Church,  his  king,  and  his  countiy. 
His  reward  was  a  studentship  of  Christ  Church,  Oxford, 
into  which  he  was  intruded  by  the  parliamentary  visitors, 
when  the  dissenters,  having  gained  the  upper  hand,  de- 
prived the  clergy  of  the  Church  of  England  of  their  places 
and  property.  But  they  went  too  far  for  Ford,  who  would 
only  side  with  the  Presbyterians,  and  for  preaching  at 
St.  Maiy's  against  the  oath  of  the  Independents,  called 
the  Engagement,  he  was  expelled  from  the  studentship 
into  which  he  had  been  unjustly  intruded  by  the  Presby- 
terians. He  next  became  lecturer  of  Newington  Green, 
and  in  1651,  vicar  of  St.  Lawrences,  Reading.     In  1659 


he  was  chosen  by  the  corporation  of  Northampton  vicar 
of  All  Saints;  and  in  1665  he  took  the  degree  of  D.D. 
and  was  appointed  chaplain  to  Charles  11.  In  1670  he 
removed  to  London,  and  became  minister  of  Bridewell 
chapel,  and  rector  of  St.  Mary  x\ldermanbury ;  but  finding 
his  health  impaired  by  the  air  of  London,  he  accepted, 
in  1677,  the  rectory  of  Old  Swinford,  near  Stourbridge, 
in  Worcestershire,  where  he  died  in  1699.  His  works 
are,  x\mbitio  sacra.  Conciones  duaB  Latino  habitae  ad 
Academicos,  Oxon.  1650,  4to.  Poemata  Londinensia, 
&c..  Carmen  funebre,  ex  occasione  Northamptonae  con- 
flagratse.  Lend.  1676,  4to.  Christ's  Innocency  pleaded 
against  the  Cry  of  the  Chief  Priests,  Lond.  1656,  4to. 
The  Spirit  of  Bondage. — Wood.    NasJis  Worcestershire. 


James  Fordyce  was  born  in  1720,  at  Aberdeen,  and 
educated  there.  He  was  minister  of  Brechin,  and  after- 
wards of  Alloa,  near  Stirling,  and  in  1762  he  removed  to 
Monkwell  Street,  London,  where  he  was  assistant,  and 
then  successor,  to  Dr.  Lawrence.  He  afterwards  settled 
in  Hampshire,  and  died  at  Bath,  in  179G.  He  wrote. 
Sermons  to  Young  Women,  2  vols.  Address  to  Young 
Men,  2  vols.  Addresses  to  the  Deity.  A  Sermon  on  the 
Eloquence  of  the  Pulpit.  Sermon  on  the  Folly,  Misery, 
and  Infamy  of  Unlawful  Pleasure.  Poems.  Single  Ser- 
mons.   A  Discourse  on  Pain. — Gen.  Biog.  Diet. 


Francis  Foreiro,  or  Forerius,  a  learned  Portuguese 
Dominican  monk,  born  at  Lisbon,  in  1523.  He  was 
sent  by  John  III.  to  study  theology  in  the  university  of 
Paris.     On  his  return  to  Lisbon  the  king  appointed  him 

FORSTER.  161 

his  preacher,  and  prince  Louis  at  the  same  time  entrusted 
to  him  the  education  of  his  son.  Of  all  the  divines  sent 
by  king  Sebastian  to  the  council  of  Trent  in  1561,  Foreiro 
held  the  first  place.  He  offered  to  preach  before  the 
council  in  any  language  they  might  think  proper.  In 
consideration  of  his  vast  erudition  he  was  appointed  a 
member  of  that  council,  February  26,  1562.  He  was 
also  appointed  secretary  to  the  committee  for  examining 
and  condemning  such  publications  as  they  thought  unfit 
to  be  disseminated.  The  fathers  of  the  council  afterwards 
sent  him  on  a  mission  to  Pius  IV.,  who  conferred  upon 
him  the  place  of  confessor  to  his  nephew,  the  cardinal 
Charles  Borromeo.  At  Rome  he  was  also  employed  to 
reform  the  Breviary  and  the  Roman  Missal,  and  to  com- 
pose the  Roman  Catechism.  On  his  return  to  Portugal 
he  was  chosen  prior  of  the  Dominican  convent  at  Lisbon 
in  1568.  He  built  the  convent  of  St.  Paul  in  the  village 
of  Almada,  opposite  Lisbon,  and  there  he  died  in  1581. 
His  principal  work  is,  Isaiae  Prophetse  vetus  et  nova  ex 
Hebraico  Versio,  cum  Commentario,  &c.  Venice,  1568, 
fol.  This  able  work  is  inseited  in  the  fifth  volume  of 
the  Critici  Sacri.— 3/o?-m. 


Nathaniel  Forster  was  born  in  1717,  at  Stadscombe, 
in  the  parish  of  Plimstock,  Devonshire.  He  received  his 
earlier  education  at  the  grammar  school  at  Plymouth, 
whence  he  was  removed  to  Eton,  and  thence  to  Corpus 
Christi,  Oxford.  In  1729  he  became  fellow.  In  1739 
he  took  orders,  and  in  1749  he  obtained  the  rectory  of 
Hethe,  in  Oxfordshire.  In  1750  he  became  domestic 
chaplain  to  the  illustrious  Bishop  Butler.  (See  his  Life.) 
The  bishop  died  in  his  arms  at  Bath,  and  appointed  him 
his  executor.  In  1752  he  was  appointed  chaplain  to 
Dr.  Herring,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury :  in  1754  he  was 

J  02  FOSTER. 

promoted  to  a  prebendal  stall  in  the  church  of  Bristol ; 
and  in  the  autumn  of  the  same  year  the  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury  gave  him  the  valuable  vicarage  of  Rochdale, 
in  Lancashire.  He  was  admitted  fellow  of  the  Royal 
Society  in  1755.  In  1756  he  was  sworn  one  of  the  chap- 
lains to  George  II.,  and  in  1757,  he  was  appointed 
preacher  at  the  Rolls  chapel.  He  died  in  the  same  year 
in  Westminster,  in  the  forty- first  year  of  his  age.  He 
had  great  critical  acumen,  and  possessed  a  knowledge  of 
the  Greek,  Latin,  and  Hebrew  languages,  not  exceeded 
by  any  man  of  his  time.  He  published.  Reflections  on 
the  Natural  Foundation  of  the  high  Antiquity  of  Govern- 
ment, Arts,  and  Sciences,  in  Egypt,  Oxford,  1743.  Pla- 
tonis  Dialogi  Quinque,  ibid.  1745.  Appendix  Liviana, 
ibid.  1745  ;  Popery  destructive  of  the  Evidence  of  Chris- 
tianity. A  Sermon  before  the  University  of  Oxford,  No- 
vember 5,  1746,  ibid.  1746.  A  Dissertation  upon  the 
Account  supposed  to  have  been  given  of  Jesus  Christ  by 
Josephus,  being  an  attempt  to  show  that  this  celebrated 
passage,  some  slight  corruptions  only  excepted,  may 
reasonably  be  esteemed  genuine,  ibid.  1749,  (this  is  highly 
commended  by  Warburton  and  Bryant.)  Biblia  Hebraica, 
sine  punctis,  ibid.  1750,  2  vols,  4to.  Remarks  on  the 
Rev.  Dr.  Stebbing's  Dissertation  on  the  Power  of  States 
to  deny  Civil  Protection  to  the  Marriages  of  Minors,  &c. 
Lend.  1755. — Biog.  Brit. 


James  Foster,  a  dissenting  minister,  was  born  at  Exe- 
ter in  1697.  After  officiating  to  different  congregations 
of  the  independent  denomination,  he  turned  baptist;  and 
in  1724  succeeded  Dr.  Gale  at  the  meeting  in  Barbican 
in  London.  In  1744  he  was  chosen  minister  at  Pinners' 
Hall ;  and  in  1749  received  the  degree  of  doctor  in  divin- 
ity from  Aberdeen.     He  died  in  1752.     Dr.  Foster  was 

FOWLER.  ]63 

an  excellent  preacher,  and  celebrated  as  such  by  Pope  in 
his  Satires.  He  wrote — 1.  A  Defence  of  the  Christian 
Eevelation  against  Tindal,  8vo.  2.  Tracts  on  Heresy. 
3.  Four  volumes  of  Sermons.  4.  An  Account  of  Lord 
Kilmarnock,  whom  he  attended  on  the  scaffold.  5.  Dis- 
courses on  Natural  Religion  and  Social  Virtue,  2  vols, 
4 to.     6.  Funeral  discourses. — Universal  Blog.  Diet. 


Martin  Fotherby  was  born  at  Great  Grimsby,  in 
Lincolnshire,  in  1559.  He  was  educated  at  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge,  of  which  he  became  a  fellow.  He 
was  collated  by  Archbishop  Whitgift  in  1592  to  the  vicar- 
age of  Chiflet,  and  in  1594  to  the  rectoiy  of  St.  Mary-le- 
Bow,  London.  In  1596  he  was  presented  by  queen 
Elizabeth  to  the  eleventh  prebend  of  the  Church  of  Can- 
terbury, and  also  to  the  rectory  of  Chartham.  In  1001 
he  was  collated  by  Archbishop  Whitgift  to  the  rectory  of 
Adisham.  He  became  afterwards  chaplain  to  James  L, 
by  whom  he  was  made  one  of  the  first  fellows  of  Chelsea 
College  in  1010,  and  was  preferred  to  the  Bishopric  of 
Sarum  in  March  1618.  He  died  in  1019.  He  pubhshed 
in  1608,  Four  Sermons,  whereunto  is  added,  an  Answere 
unto  certaine  Objections  of  one  unresolved,  as  concerning 
the  use  of  the  Crosse  in  Baptism.  He  was  also  the 
author  of  Atheomastix,  published  in  1622. — Todd's 
Deans  of  Cariterbunj. 


Christopher  Fowler  was  born  at  Marlborough  in 
1011,  and  educated  at  Magdalen  College,  and  Edmund 
Hall,  Oxford.  He  took  orders,  but  in  1641  declared 
himself  a  Presbyterian,  and  drew  crowds  after  him  by 
the  violence  of  his  appeals  in  the  pulpit.     He  afterwards 

164  FOWLER. 

usurped  the  vicarage  of  St.  Mary's,  Reading,  and  then 
became  fellow  of  Eton,  and  an  able  assistant  to  the 
Berkshire  commissioners  in  the  ejection  of  what  then 
were  called  "  scandalous,  ignorant,  and  insufficient  min- 
isters." At  the  Restoration  he  was  ejected  from  his  pre- 
ferments, and  died  in  1676. — Calamy. 


Edward  Fowler,  a  learned  English  prelate,  was  born 
in  163-2,  at  Westerleigh,  in  Gloucestershire,  where  his 
father  was  minister.  He  was  educated  at  the  College 
school  in  Gloucester,  and  was  removed  to  Corpus  Christi 
College,  Oxford.  Afterwards  removing  to  Cambridge,  he 
took  his  master's  degree  as  a  member  of  Trinity  College, 
and  returning  to  Oxford,  was  incorporated  in  the  same 
degree,  July  5,  1656.  About  the  same  time  he  became 
chaplain  to  Arabella,  Countess  Dowager  of  Kent,  who 
presented  him  to  the  rectory  of  Northill,  in  Bedfordshire. 
As  he  had  been  brought  up  among  the  Puritans,  he  at 
first  objected  to  conformity  with  the  Church,  but  became 
afterwards  one  of  its  greatest  ornaments.  He  was  made 
by  the  primate  Sheldon,  rector  of  Allhallows,  Bread 
Street,  London,  in  1673,  and  two  years  after  he  became 
prebendary  at  Gloucester,  and  in  1681  vicar  of  St.  Giles', 
Cripplegate,  when  he  took  his  degree  of  D.  D.  He 
was  an  able  defender  of  Protestantism,  and  appears  as 
the  second  of  the  London  clergy  who  refused  to  read 
James  II. 's  Declaration  for  liberty  of  conscience,  in  1688. 
He  was  rewarded  for  his  eminent  services  in  the  cause  of 
religion,  and  in  the  promotion  of  the  revolution,  by  being 
made,  in  1691,  Bishop  of  Gloucester.  He  died  at  Chelsea 
in  ]  714.  He  wrote  sermons  and  various  pieces  on  divin- 
ity, the  most  known  and  useful  of  which  is  his  Design  of 
Christianity,  often  printed,  and  defended  by  the  author 
against  John  Bunyan. — Biog.  Brit. 

FOX.  165 


Edward  Fox,  one  of  the  reformers,  was  born  in  the 
16th  century,  at  Dursley,  in  Gloucestershire,  and  educated 
at  Eton,  and  at  King's  College,  Cambridge,  of  which  he 
became  provost  in  1528.  His  abilities  recommended 
him  to  the  notice  of  Wolsey,  by  whom  he  was  sent  as  an 
ambassador  to  Rome,  w^ith  Gardiner,  to  promote  the 
divorce  of  the  king  from  Catharine  of  Arragon.  He  was 
afterwards  sent  on  embassies  to  France  and  Germany. 
It  was  in  conversation  wdth  Fox  and  Gardiner  in  1529, 
that  Cranmer  (see  his  Life,)  suggested  his  method  of  set- 
tling the  question  of  the  king's  divorce,  by  taking  the 
opinion  of  the  most  learned  men  and  universities  in 
Christendom ;  and  he  it  was  who  made  it  known  to  the 
king  as  Cranmer's  suggestion,  when  Gardiner  would  have 
taken  the  credit  of  it  to  himself.  In  the  prosecution  of 
this  plan  he  was  sent  with  Stephen  Gardiner  in  1530  to 
obtain  the  determination  of  the  university  of  Cambridge. 
The  heads  of  the  university,  the  vice-chancellor,  and  the 
afterwards  notorious  Bonner,  were  on  the  king's  side,  but 
the  university  was  divided.  It  was  honourable  to  the 
university  of  Cambridge  that  so  strong  a  resistance  was 
offered  to  the  will  of  a  tyrant  so  powerful  ewerj  where 
else.  There  were  two  great  parties  there  as  every  where 
else,  and  at  this  time  only  two  :  the  conservatives,  who 
feared  all  change,  and  who,  while  admitting  the  corrup- 
tions of  the  Church,  which  no  one  at  that  time  seemed 
to  deny,  feared  a  reformation,  lest  Lutheranism  should 
be  introduced ;  and  the  reforming  party,  who  were  pre- 
pared to  run  all  risks.  The  royal  authority  being  at  this 
time  on  the  side  of  reform,  the  commissioners,  Fox  and 
Gardiner,  the  latter  being  afterwards  the  great  opponent 
of  the  reformation,  at  length,  though  with  difficulty,  car- 
ried their  point,  and  it  was  determined  that,  "  the  king's 
marriage  was  contrary  to  the  law  of  God." 

VOL  V.  Q 

166  FOX. 

In  1531  Fox  became  Archdeacon  of  Leicester,  and  in 
1533,  Archdeacon  of  Dorset.  He  was  a  consummate  poli- 
tician, as  well  as  a  learned  divine,  and  it  was  he  who 
suggested  the  method  of  bringing  the  clergy  of  the  Church 
of  England '^nder  the  royal  power,  which  has  been  ever 
since  a  sore  burden,  too  heavy  for  them  to  bear,  by  ap- 
prizing them  of  the  fact  that  they  had  fallen  into  a  praB- 
munire,  and  by  thus,  through  their  fears,  inducing  them 
to  acknowledge  the  king  as  head  of  the  Church,  while 
they  presented  him  with  an  hundred  thousand  pounds. 
In  1535  he  had  his  reward,  being  preferred  to  the  Bishop- 
ric of  Hereford.  He  is  said  to  have  conduced  to  the 
reformation  as  much  as  Dr.  Cranmer,  being  more  active, 
and  a  better  politician,  while  he  is  styled  by  Godwin, 
vir  egregie  doctus.  A  few  months  after  his  consecration, 
he  was  sent  ambassador  to  the  protestant  princes  in  Ger- 
many, then  assembled  at  Smalcald ;  whom  he  exhorted 
to  unite,  in  point  of  doctrine,  with  the  Church  of  England. 
He  spent  the  winter  at  Wirtemberg,  and  held  several 
conferences  with  some  of  the  German  divines,  endeavour- 
ing to  conclude  a  treaty  w'ith  them  upon  many  articles  of 
religion  :  but  nothing  w^as  effected.  Bishop  Burnet  has 
given  a  particular  account  of  this  negotiation,  in  his 
History  of  the  Reformation.  He  returned  to  England  in 
1536,  and  died  at  London,  May  the  8th,  1538.  He  pub- 
lished a  book,  De  vera  differentia  Regiag  Potestatis  et 
Ecclesiasticae,  et  quae  sit  ipsa  veritas  et  virtus  utriusque. 
Lond.  1534,  and  1538.  It  was  translated  into  English 
by  Henry  Lord  Stafford.  He  also  wrote  annotations 
upon  Mantuan,  the  i^oet-^Godivin.  Fuller.  Buiiiet. 
Strype.    Dod. 


This  fanatic,  who  is  regarded  by  Quakers  as  a  saint, 
and  who  was  in  their  estimation  both  a  prophet  and  a 
worker  of  miracles,  was  born  at  Drayton,  in  Leicestershire, 

FOX.  167 

in  the  month  of  July,  1624.  His  parents  were  members 
of  the  Church  of  England.  His  father  was  a  weaver  by 
trade.  Young  Fox  exhibited  even  in  childhood,  "  a 
gravity  and  stayedness  of  mind,"  which  is  spoken  of  as 
marvellous.  His  godliness  was  considered  to  be  such  that 
his  parents  were  advised  by  some  "to  make  a  priest  of 
him."  But  this  advice  was  not  followed,  for  he  was 
apprenticed  to  a  shoemaker,  who  also  dealt  in  wool  and 
cattle.  In  the  latter  department  of  his  trade  he  took 
delight,  and  it  was  remarked  that  while  George  was  with 
his  master,  his  business  was  peculiarly  prosperous.  The 
tending  of  sheep,  observes  an  eminent  author,  was  a 
just  emblem  of  his  after  ministry  and  service. 

At  nineteen  years  of  age  he  was  much  disgusted  at  the 
conduct  in  an  alehouse  of  some  friends  of  his  who  pro- 
fessed to  be  religious,  after  the  puritan  fashion  of 
religion.  Returning  home,  he  did  not  go  to  bed  that 
night,  but  prayed,  and  cried  earnestly  to  the  Lord  ;  and 
it  seemed  to  him  that  his  supplications  were  answered 
after  this  manner :  Thou  seest  how  young  people  go  toge- 
ther into  vanity,  and  old  people  into  the  earth;  therefore 
thou  must  forsake  all,  both  young  and  old,  and  he  as  a 
stranger  to  them.  This,  which  he  took  to  be  a  divine 
admonition,  made  such  a  powerful  impression  on  his 
mind,  that  he  resolved  to  break  off  all  familiar  fellowship 
and  conversation  with  young  and  old,  and  even  to  leave 
his  relations,  and  live  a  separate  and  retired  life.  On  the 
ninth  of  September,  in  the  year  1643,  he  departed  to 
Lutterworth,  where  he  stayed  some  time,  and  from  thence 
went  to  Northampton,  where  he  also  made  some  stay, 
and  then  passed  to  Newport-Pagnel  in  Buckinghamshire  ; 
and  after  having  remained  a  while  there  he  went  to 
Barnet,  whither  he  came  in  the  month  of  June,  in  the 
year  1644. 

Whilst  he  thus  led  a  solitary  life  he  fasted  often,  and 
read  the  holy  Scriptures  diligently,  so  that  some  professors 
took  notice  of  him,  'and  sought  to  be  acquainted  with 

168  FOX. 

him.  But  he  soon  perceiving  that  thej  did  not  possess 
what  they  professed,  grew  afraid  of  them,  and  shunned 
their  company.  At  this  time  he  fell  into  a  strong  temp- 
tation, almost  to  despair,  and  was  in  mighty  trouble, 
sometimes  keeping  himself  retired  in  his  chamber,  and 
often  walking  solitary  to  wait  upon  the  Lord.  In  this 
state  he  saw  how  Christ  had  been  tempted  ;  but  when  he 
looked  to  his  own  condition,  he  wondered,  and  said.  Was 
I  ever  so  before.  He  began  to  think,  also,  that  he  had 
done  amiss  against  his  relations,  because  he  had  forsaken 
them  ;  and  he  called  to  mind  all  his  former  time,  to 
consider  whether  he  had  wronged  any.  Thus  temptations 
grew  more  and  more ;  and  when  Satan  could  not  effect 
his  design  upon  him  that  way,  he  laid  snares  for  him  to 
draw  him  to  commit  some  sin,  thereby  to  bring  him  to 
despair.  He  was  then  about  twenty  years  of  age,  and 
continued  a  long  while  in  this  condition,  and  would  fain 
have  put  it  from  him  ;  which  made  him  go  to  many  a 
priest  to  look  for  comfort,  but  he  did  not  find  it  from 
them.  In  this  miserable  state  he  went  to  London,  in 
hopes  of  finding  some  relief  among  the  great  professors 
of  that  city.  But  being  come  there,  he  saw  them  much 
darkened  in  their  understandings.  He  had  an  uncle 
there,  one  Pickering,  a  Baptist,  and  those  of  that  persua- 
sion were  tender  then ;  yet  he  could  not  resolve  to  impart 
his  mind  to  them,  or  join  with  them,  because  he  saw  all, 
young  and  old,  where  they  were.  And  though  some  of 
the  best  would  have  had  him  stay  there,  yet  he  was 
fearful,  and  so  returned  homewards  ;  for  having  under- 
stood that  his  parents  and  relations  were  troubled  at  his 
absence,  he  would  rather  go  to  them  again  lest  he  should 
grieve  them.  Now  when  he  was  come  into  Leicestershire 
his  relations  would  have  had  him  married  ;  but  he  pru- 
dently told  them,  he  was  but  a  lad,  and  must  get  wisdom. 
Others  would  have  had  him  in  the  auxiliary  band  among 
the  forces  of  the  parliament,  which  being  entered  now 
into  an  intestine   war  with  the  king,    had,   with   their 

FOX.  169 

forces  this  year,  beaten  not  only  the  king's  army  under 
Prince  Rupert,  but  also  conquered  the  city  of  York.  But 
to  persuade  George  to  enlist  himself  a  soldier,  was  so 
against  his  mind,  that  he  refused  it,  and  went  to  Coven- 
try, where  he  took  a  chamber  for  a  while  at  a  professor's 
house,  where  he  stayed  some  time,  there  being  many 
people  in  that  town  who  endeavoured  to  live  religiously. 
After  some  time  he  went  into  his  own  country  again,  and 
was  there  about  a  year,  in  great  sorrows  and  trouble,  walk- 
ing many  nights  by  himself. 

It  is  said  that  in  1646  he  received  divine  revelations,  to 
the  effect,  that  to  be  bred  at  Oxford  or  Cambridge  was  not 
enough  to  make  a  man  a  minister  of  Christ,  and  that 
God  Who  made  the  world  did  not  dwell  in  temples  made 
with  hands ;  and  in  the  strength  of  these  revelations, 
much  to  the  regret  of  his  friends,  he  abstained  from  public 
worship.  He  went  about  in  a  leathern  garment ;  he 
reduced  his  strength  by  extreme  fasting,  although  in 
fasting  he  was  surpassed  by  a  puritan  woman  whom  he 
saw  in  Lancashire,  who  is  said  to  have  fasted  miracu- 
lously for  twenty-two  days ;  in  the  daytime  he  would  sit 
in  the  hollow  of  trees  ;  in  the  night  he  would  walk 
mournfully  about.  His  troubles  and  temptations  were 
great,  but  they  were  frequently  superseded  by  heavenly 
joys.  In  1647  he  began  to  preach,  though  his  first 
preaching  consisted  chiefly  of  some  few  and  piercing 
words.  In  Lancashire,  Leicestershire,  and  Nottingham- 
shire, he  gathered  disciples,  and  in  the  latter  county  he 
was  the  more  successful,  as  one  Brown  had  received  the 
gift  of  prophecy  and  foretold  many  notable  things  con- 
cerning him.  The  people  of  the  neighbourhood  believed 
the  prophecy.  Meantime  George  Fox  by  his  excessive 
fasting  and  mortification,  "  fell  into  such  a  condition, 
that  he  not  only  looked  like  a  dead  body,  but  unto  many 
who  came  to  see  him  he  seemed  as  if  he  were  really 
dead;  and  many  visited  him  for  about  fourteen  days 
time,  who  wondered  to  see  him  so  much  altered  in  counte 

170  FOX. 

nance."  At  length  his  sorrows  and  troubles  began  to  wear 
away,  "so  that  he  could  have  wept  night  and  day  with 
tears  of  joy  in  brokenness  of  heart."  From  his  own  ac- 
count he  had  at  this  time  a  vision  similar  to  the  rapture  of 
St.  Paul :  his  words  are,  "I  saw  into  that  which  was  with- 
out end,  and  things  which  cannot  be  uttered  ;  and  of  the 
greatness  and  inhniteness  of  the  love  of  God,  which  can- 
not be  expressed  by  words  :  for  I  had  been  brought 
through  the  very  ocean  of  darkness  and  death,  and  through 
and  over  the  power  of  Satan,  by  the  eternal  and  glorious 
power  of  Christ :  even  through  that  darkness  was  I 
brought  which  covered  all  the  world,  and  which  chained 
down  all,  and  which  shut  up  all  in  death.  And  the 
same  eternal  power  of  God,  which  brought  me  through 
those  things,  was  that  which  afterwards  shook  the  nation, 
priests,  professors,  and  people.  Then  could  T  say,  I  had 
been  in  spiritual  Babylon,  Sodom,  Egypt,  and  the  grave ; 
but  by  the  eternal  power  of  God,  I  was  come  out  of  it, 
and  was  brought  over  it,  and  the  power  of  it,  into  the 
power  of  Christ.  And  I  saw  the  harvest  white,  and  the 
seed  of  God  lying  thick  in  the  ground,  as  ever  did  wheat, 
that  was  sown  outwardly,  and  none  to  gather  it :  and  for 
this  I  mourned  with  tears."  Thus  far  are  George  Fox's 
own  words,  of  whom  after  this  a  report  went  abroad,  that 
he  was  a  young  man  that  had  a  discerning  spirit :  where- 
upon many  professors,  priests,  and  people,  came  to  him, 
and  his  ministry  increased,  for  he  having  received  great 
openings,  spoke  to  them  of  the  things  of  God,  and  was 
heard  with  attention  by  many,  who  going  away,  spread 
the  fame  thereof.  Then  came  the  tempter,  and  set  upon 
him  again,  charging  him  that  he  had  sinned  against  the 
Holy  Ghost;  but  he  could  not  tell  in  what;  and  then 
St.  Paul's  condition  came  before  him,  how  after  he  had 
been  taken  up  into  the  third  heavens,  and  seen  things 
not  lawful  to  be  uttered,  a  messenger  of  Satan  was  sent 
to  buffet  him,  that  he  might  not  exalt  himself.  Thus 
George  Fox  got  also  over  that  temptation. 

FOX.  171 

His  success  in  converting  drunkards  and  dtliauchees 
v.-as  so  wonderful  that  bis  followers  attributed  it  to  mira- 
culous interference ;  and  he  himself  professed  to  have 
received  comfort  by  a  voice  from  heaven,  which  came  to 
him  as  he  was  walking  in  the  fields  in  1648,  declaring 
"  Thy  name  is  written  in  the  Lambs  book  of  life,  which 
was  before  the  foundation  of  the  world."  About  the 
same  time,  we  are  informed  that  "  the  Lord  forbad  him 
to  put  off  his  hat  to  any  man,  high  or  low,  and  he  was 
required  to  thou  and  thee  every  man  without  distinction, 
and  not  to  bid  people  good  morrow  or  good  evening : 
neither  might  he  bow  or  scrape  his  leg  to  any  one." 
This  non-compliance  with  the  customs  of  the  world  sub- 
jected him  to  much  petty  persecution. 

The  first  miracle  that  he  is  said  to  have  performed 
was  at  Mansfield- Woodhouse  :  of  this  and  of  some  other 
miracles  he  gives  the  following  account : — "  Coming  to 
Mansfield- Woodhouse,  there  was  a  distracted  woman 
under  a  doctor's  hand,  with  her  hair  loose  all  about  her 
ears.  He  was  about  to  let  her  blood,  she  being  first 
bound,  and  many  people  being  about  her,  holding  her  by 
violence  ;  but  he  could  get  no  blood  from  her.  1  desired 
them  to  unbind  her,  and  let  her  alone,  for  they  could  not 
touch  the  spirit  in  her,  by  which  she  was  tormented.  So 
they  did  unbind  her ;  and  I  was  moved  to  speak  to  her, 
.  and  in  the  name  of  the  Lord  to  bid  her  be  quiet  and 
still ;  and  she  was  so.  The  Lord's  power  settled  her 
mind,  and  she  mended ;  and  afterwards  she  received  the 
truth,  and  continued  in  it  to  her  death.  The  Lord's 
name  was  honoured  ;  to  whom  the  glory  of  all  His  works 
belongs.  Many  great  and  wonderful  things  were  wrought 
by  the  heavenly  power  in  those  days ;  for  the  Lord  made 
bare  his  omnipotent  arm,  and  manifested  His  power  to 
the  astonishment  of  many,  by  the  healing  virtue  whereof 
many  have  been  delivered  from  great  infirmities,  and  the 
devils  were  made  subject  through  His  name  ;  of  which 
particular  instances  might  be  given,  beyond  what  this 

17-2  FOX. 

unbelieving  age  is  able  to  receive  or  bear.  But  blessed 
for  ever  be  the  name  of  the  Lord,  and  everlastingly 
honoured,  and  over  all  exalted  and  magnified  be  the  arm 
of  His  glorious  power,  by  which  He  hath  wrought  glo- 
riously ;  let  the  honour  and  praise  of  all  His  works  be 
ascribed  to  Him  alone." 

In  the  same  year  he  came  to  Twy- Cross,  where  he  spoke 
to  the  excise-men.  "  I  was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  go  to 
them,  and  warn  them  to  take  heed  of  oppressing  the 
poor  ;  and  people  were  much  affected  with  it.  There  was 
in  that  town  a  great  man,  that  had  long  lain  sick,  and  was 
given  over  by  the  physicians ;  and  some  friends  in  the 
town  desired  me  to  go  to  see  him.  I  went  up  to  him  in  his 
chamber,  and  spoke  the  word  of  life  to  him,  and  was 
moved  to  pray  by  him ;  and  the  Lord  w^as  entreated, 
and  restored  him  to  health.  But  when  I  was  come  down 
the  stairs,  into  a  lower  room,  and  was  speaking  to  the 
servants,  and  to  some  people  that  were  there,  a  serving- 
man  of  his  came  raving  out  of  another  room,  with  a 
naked  rapier  in  his  hand,  and  set  it  just  to  my  side.  I 
looked  steadfastly  on  him,  and  said,  '  Alack  for  thee, 
poor  creature !  what  wilt  thou  do  with  thy  carnal  weapon ! 
it  is  no  more  to  me  than  a  straw.'  The  standers-by  were 
much  troubled,  and  he  went  away  in  a  rage,  and  full  of 
wrath.  But  when  the  news  of  it  came  to  his  master,  he 
turned  him  out  of  his  service.  Thus  the  Lord's  power 
preserved  me,  and  raised  up  the  weak  man,  who  after- 
wards was  very  loving  to  Friends  ;  and  when  I  came  to 
that  town  again,  both  he  and  his  wife  came  to  see  me." 

Until  the  year  1650  the  followers  of  George  Fox  were 
called  Professors  of  the  Light  and  Children  of  the  Light, 
but  in  1650  they  received  the  name  they  still  bear.  Fox 
was  at  that  time  imprisoned  by  the  Dissenters  then  in 
power,  and  Gervas  Bennet,  an  Independent,  one  of  the 
justices  who  committed  him,  hearing  that  Fox  bade  him 
and  those  about  him  tremble  at  the  word  of  the  Lord, 
with  some  degree  of  profaneness,  took  occasion  from  the 

FOX.  17H 

saying  to  style  him  and  his  ciisoiples  Quakers,  The  name 
took  with  the  people,  and  Nvas  universally  adopted. 
When  in  prison  at  this  time,  Fox  was  cruelly  treated  by 
the  Puritans,  and  especially  by  a  Puritan  jailer.  P>ut 
the  jailer  had  a  vision,  and  saw  the  day  of  judgment, 
and  George  Fox  in  glory,  and  in  consequence  he  became 
one  of  Foxs  converts.  The  following  miracle  is  related 
by  himself:  *'  While  I  was  yet  in  the  house  of  correction, 
there  came  unto  me  a  trooper,  and  said,  as  he  was  sitting 
in  the  steeple-house,  hearing  the  priest,  exceeding  great 
trouble  came  upon  him ;  and  the  voice  of  the  Lord 
came  to  him  saying,  '  Dost  thou  not  know  that  my 
servant  is  in  prison  ?  Go  to  him  for  direction.'  So  I 
spoke  to  his  condition,  and  his  understanding  was  opened. 
I  told  him,  that  which  showed  him  his  sins,  and  troubled 
him  for  them,  would  show  him  his  salvation  ;  for  He  that 
shows  a  man  his  sin,  is  the  same  that  takes  it  away. 
While  I  w^as  speaking  to  him,  the  Lord's  power  opened 
him,  so  that  he  began  to  have  a  good  understanding  in 
the  Lord's  truth,  and  to  be  sensible  of  God's  mercies ; 
and  began  to  speak  boldly  in  his  quarters  amongst  the 
soldiers,  and  to  others,  concerning  truth,  (for  the  Scrip- 
tures were  very  much  opened  to  him,)  insomuch  that  he 
said,  '  his  colonel  was  as  blind  as  Nebuchadnezzar,  to 
cast  the  servant  of  the  Lord  into  prison.'  Upon  this  his 
colonel  had  a  spite  against  him  ;  and  at  Worcester  fight, 
the  year  aftei',  when  the  two  armies  v.ere  lying  near  one 
another,  two  came  out  from  the  king's  army,  and  chal- 
lenged any  two  of  the  parliament  army  to  fight  with 
them  ;  his  colonel  made  choice  of  him  and  another  to 
answer  the  challenge.  And  when  in  the  encounter  his 
companion  was  slain,  he  drove  both  his  enemies  within 
musket- shot  of  the  town,  v>'ithout  firing  a  pistol  at  them. 
This,  wdien  he  leturned,  he  told  me  with  his  own 
mouth.  But  when  the  fight  was  over,  he  saw  the 
deceit  and  hypocrisy  of  the  puritan  officers  ;  and  being 
sensible  how  wonderfully  the  Lord  had  preserved  him, 

174  FOX. 

and  seeing  also  to  the  end  of  fighting,  he  laid  down  his 

After  enduring  much  persecution  from  the  dissenters 
and  the  rebels  now  in  power,  and  after  a  constant  success, 
notwithstanding  opposition,  we  find  him  in  1652  in  Lin- 
colnshire; and  coming  to  Gainsborough,  where  one  of  his 
friends  had  been  preaching  in  the  market,  he  found  the 
town  and  people  all  in  an  uproar;  the  more,  because  a 
certain  man  had  raised  a  false  accusation,  reporting  that 
George  Fox  had  said  he  was  Christ.  Here,  going  into 
the  house  of  a  friendly  man,  the  people  rushed  in  after 
him,  so  that  the  house  was  soon  filled ;  and  amongst  the 
rest  was  also  this  false  accuser,  who  said  openly  before 
all  the  people,  that  George  Fox  said  he  was  Christ ;  and 
that  he  had  got  witnesses  to  prove  the  same.  George 
Fox  kindled  with  zeal,  stept  upon  the  table,  and  said  to 
the  people,  that  Christ  was  in  them,  except  they  were 
reprobates  ;  and  that  it  was  Christ,  the  eternal  power  of 
God,  that  spoke  in  him  at  that  time  unto  them ;  not  that 
he  was  Christ.  This  gave  general  satisfaction,  except  to 
the  false  accuser  himself,  to  whom  Fox  said,  that  he  was 
a  Judas,  and  that  Judas'  end  should  be  his  ;  and  that 
that  was  the  word  of  the  Lord  through  him  [Fox]  to  him. 
The  minds  of  the  people  coming  thus  to  be  quieted,  they 
departed  peaceably. 

In  1652  Oliver  Cromwell  dissolved  the  parliament. 
"  But  what  is  most  remarkable,''  says  Sewell,  the  his- 
torian of  the  Quakers,  "  George  Fox,  not  long  before, 
being  come  to  Swarthmore,  and  hearing  judge  Fell  and 
justice  Benson  discourse  together  concerning  the  parlia- 
m.ent,  he  told  them,  that  before  that  day  two  weeks  the 
parliament  should  be  broken  up,  and  the  speaker  plucked 
out  of  his  chair.  And  thus  it  really  happened  :  for 
at  the  breaking  up  of  the  parliament,  the  speaker  being 
unwilling  to  come  out  of  his  chair,  said,  that  he  would 
not  come  down  unless  he  were  forced ;  which  made 
general   Harrison  say  to  him,  Sir,  I  will  lend  you  my 

FOX.  175 

hand ;  and  thereupon  taking  him  by  the  hand,  the 
speaker  came  down.  This  agreed  with  what  Fox  had 
predicted.  And  a  fortnight  after,  justice  Benson  told 
judge  Fell,  that  now  he  saw  George  was  a  true  prophet ; 
since  Oliver  had  by  that  time  dissolved  the  parliament." 
In  the  same  year,  being  at  Ulverstone,  he  underwent 
great  persecution.  He  was  apprehended  by  the  consta- 
bles, when  the  following  miracle  occurred.  "  When  they 
had  haled  me  to  the  common-moss  side,  a  multitude  of 
people  following,  the  constables  and  other  officers  gave 
me  some  blows  over  my  back  with  their  willow-rods,  and 
so  thrust  me  among  the  nide  multitude,  who,  having 
furnished  themselves,  some  with  staves,  some  with  hedge- 
stakes,  and  others  with  holm  or  holly-bushes,  fell  upon 
me,  and  beat  me  on  my  head,  arms,  and  shoulders,  till 
they  had  deprived  me  of  sense  ;  so  that  I  fell  down  upon 
the  wet  common.  When  I  recovered  again,  and  saw 
myself  lying  in  a  watery  common,  and  the  people  stand- 
ing about  me,  I  lay  still  a  little  while  ;  and  the  power  of 
the  Lord  sprang  through  me,  and  the  eternal  refreshings 
refreshed  me,  so  that  I  stood  up  again  in  the  strengthen- 
ing power  of  the  eternal  God;  and  stretching  out  my 
arms  amongst  them,  I  said  with  a  loud  voice,  '  Strike 
again;  here  are  my  arms,  my  head,  and  my  cheeks.' 
There  was  in  the  company  a  mason,  a  professor,  but  a 
rude  fellow ;  he  with  his  walking  iiile-staff  gave  me  a 
blow  with  all  his  might,  just  over  the  back  of  my  hand, 
as  it  was  stretched  out ;  with  which  blow  my  hand  was 
so  bruised,  and  my  arm  so  benumbed,  that  I  could  not 
draw  it  unto  me  again  ;  so  that  some  of  the  people  cried 
out,  '  he  hath  spoiled  his  hand  for  ever  having  the  use  of 
it  any  more.'  But  I  looked  at  it  in  the  love  of  God  (for 
I  was  in  the  love  of  God  to  them  all  that  had  persecuted 
me)  and  after  a  while  the  Lord's  power  sprang  through 
me  again,  and  through  my  hand  and  arm,  so  that  in  a 
moment  T  recovered  strength  in  my  hand  and  arm,  in 
the  sight  of   them  all.      Then  they  began  to  fall    out 

176  FOX. 

among  themselves,  and  some  of  them  came  to  me,  and 
said,  if  I  would  give  them  money,  they  would  secure  me 
from  the  rest." 

We  may  here  record  another  miracle  which  occurred  at 
Swarthmore  :  "  About  this  time  I  was  in  a  fast  for  about 
ten  days,  my  spirit  being  greatly  exercised  on  truth's 
behalf;  for  James  Milner  and  Richard  Myer  went  out 
into  imaginations,  and  a  company  followed  them.  This 
James  Milner  and  some  of  his  company  had  true  open- 
ings at  the  first ;  but  getting  up  into  pride  and  exalta- 
tion of  spirit,  they  ran  out  from  truth.  I  was  sent  for  to 
them,  and  was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  go,  and  show  them 
their  out-goings :  and  they  were  brought  to  see  their 
folly,  and  condemned  it,  and  came  into  the  way  of  truth 
again.  After  some  time  I  went  to  a  meeting  at  Arn- 
Side,  where  Pdchard  Myer  was,  who  had  been  long  lame 
of  one  of  his  arms.  I  was  moved  of  the  Lord  to  say 
unto  him,  amongst  all  the  people,  '  Stand  up  upon  thy 
legs,'  (for  he  was  sitting  down :)  and  he  stood  up,  and 
stretched  out  his  arm  that  had  been  lame  a  long  time, 
and  said,  '  Be  it  known  unto  you,  all  people,  that  this 
day  1  am  healed.'  Yet  his  parents  could  hardly  believe 
it ;  but  after  the  meeting  was  done,  they  had  him  aside, 
took  off  his  doublet,  and  then  saw  it  was  true." 

In  1654  he  was  sent  by  Captain  Drury  a  prisoner  to 
Oliver  Cromwell,  and  made  so  favourable  an  impression 
upon  the  protector's  mind,  to  whom  he  spake  boldly, 
that  he  was  treated  with  kindness,  and  dismissed. 
When  he  quitted  the  usurper's  presence,  Captain  Drurj 
following,  told  him,  that  the  protector  said,  he  was  at 
liberty,  and  might  go  whither  he  would:  yet  he  was 
brought  into  a  great  hall,  where  the  protector's  gentlemen 
were  to  dine ;  and  he  asked.  What  did  they  bring  him 
thither  for?  They  told  him,  it  was  by  the  protector's 
order,  that  he  might  dine  with  them.  But  George  bid 
them  tell  the  protector,  he  would  not  eat  a  bit  of  his 
bread,  nor  drink  a  sup   of  his  drink.    When  Cromwell 

FOX.  177 

heard  this,  he  said,  now  I  see,  there's  a  people  risen,  and 
come  up,  that  I  cannot  win  either  with  gifts,  honours, 
offices,  or  places  ;  but  of  all  other  sects  and  people,  I  can. 
But  it  was  told  him  again,  that  the  Quakers  had  forsaken 
their  own,  and  w^ere  not  likely  to  look  for  such  things 
from  him. 

The  character  thus  given  of  the  Puritans  and  Dissen- 
ters of  his  day,  by  Oliver  Cromwell,  who  was  so  intimately 
acquainted  with  them,  is  not  so  favourable  as  we  should 
have  expected  ;  and  here  we  may  add,  that  from  no  class 
of  persons  did  George  Fox  suffer  so  much  injustice,  and 
such  cruel  treatment,  as  from  the  Presbyterians  and 
Independents.  The  persecuting  spirit  they  exhibited 
against  the  Quakers  was  almost  as  violent  as  that  which 
they  displayed  towards  the  Church,  and  if  we  could  enter 
into  the  details  of  Fox's  life,  we  should  be  employed  in 
recording  a  system  of  intolerance  and  persecution  never 
surpassed  in  the  worst  times  by  the  Church  of  Rome. 
One  dreadful  instance  of  persecution,  too  disgusting  to 
be  transcribed,  is  related  by  Sewell,  in  his  history  of  the 
people  called  Quakers,  page  128.  But  in  spite  of  all  perse- 
cution. Fox's  success  in  the  conversion  of  thieves,  drunk- 
ards and  impure  persons,  was  wonderful.  His  miracles  too 
did  not  cease.  When  in  1655,  he  was  at  Baldock  in  Hert- 
fordshire, "I  asked,"  he  says  "if  there  was  nothing  in  that 
town,  no  profession ;  and  it  was  answered  me,  there  were 
some  Baptists  and  a  Baptist  woman  sick.  John  Rush  of 
Bedfordshire,  went  along  with  me  to  visit  her.  When 
we  came  in,  there  were  many  tender  people  about  her. 
They  told  me  she  was  not  a  woman  for  this  world,  but  if 
I  had  any  thing  to  comfort  her  concerning  the  world  to 
come,  I  might  speak  to  her.  I  was  moved  of  the  Lord 
God  to  speak  to  her ;  and  the  Lord  raised  her  up  again 
to  the  astonishment  of  the  town  and  country.  Her  hus- 
band's name  was  Baldock.  This  Baptist  woman  and  her 
husband  came  to  be  convinced,  and  many  hundreds  of 
people  have  met  at  their  house  since.     Great  meetings 

VOL  V.  K 

178  FOX. 

and  convincements  were  in  those  parts  afterwards  ;  many 
received  the  word  of  life,  and  sat  down  under  the  teaching 
of  Christ,  their  Saviour." 

He  relates  another  miracle  which  took  place  at  Chiches- 
ter. "At  Chichester,"  he  says,  "  many  professors  came 
in,  and  some  jangling  they  made,  but  the  Lord  s  power 
was  over  them.  The  woman  of  the  house  where  the 
meeting  was,  though  convinced  of  truth,  yet  not  keeping 
her  mind  close  to  that  which  convinced  her,  fell  in  love 
with  a  man  of  the  world,  who  was  there  that  time.  When 
I  knew  it,  I  took  her  aside,  and  was  moved  to  speak  to 
her,  and  to  pray  for  her ;  but  a  light  thing  got  up  in  her 
mind,  and  she  slighted  it.  Afterwards  she  married  that 
man,  and  soon  after  went  distracted ;  for  the  man  was 
greatly  in  debt,  and  she  greatly  disappointed.  Then  was 
I  sent  for  to  her,  and  the  Lord  was  entreated,  raised  her 
up  again,  and  settled  her  mind  by  his  power.  Afterwards 
her  husband  died  ;  and  she  acknowledged  the  just  judg- 
ments of  God  were  come  upon  her,  for  slighting  the 
exhortation  and  counsel  I  had  given  her." 

In  1656  he  came  to  London,  and  when  he  was  near 
Hyde  Park,  "he  saw  Oliver  Cromwell  coming  in  his 
coach,  whereupon  he  rode  up  to  the  coach-side,  and  some 
of  his  life-guard  would  have  put  him  away,  but  the  pro- 
tector forbad  them.  Then  riding  by  his  coach-side,  he 
spoke  to  him  about  the  sufferings  of  his  friends  in  the 
nation,  and  shewed  him  how  contrary  this  persecution 
was  to  Christ  and  His  apostles,  and  to  Christianity.  And 
when  they  were  come  to  the  gate  of  St.  James's  Park, 
George  Fox  left  Cromwell,  who  at  parting  desired  him  to 
come  to  his  house.  The  next  day  Mary  Sanders,  after- 
wards Stout,  one  of  Cromwell's  wife's  maids,  came  to 
George  Fox's  lodging,  and  told  him,  That  her  master 
coming  home,  said,  he  would  tell  her  some  good  news : 
and  when  she  asked  him  what  it  was,  he  told  her,  George 
Fox  was  come  to  town.  To  which  she  replied,  that  was 
good   news  indeed.      Not  long  after,   George  Fox  and 

FOX.  179 

Edward  Pyot  went  to  Whitehall,  and  there  spoke  to 
Cromwell  concerning  the  sufferings  of  their  friends,  and 
directed  him  to  the  light  of  Christ,  who  had  enlightened 
every  man  that  cometh  into  the  world.  To  which  Crom- 
well said,  this  was  a  natural  light :  but  they  shewed  him 
the  contrary,  saying,  that  it  was  divine  and  spiritual, 
proceeding  from  Christ,  the  spiritual  and  heavenly  man. 
Moreover,  George  Fox  bad  the  protector  lay  down  his 
crown  at  the  feet  of  Jesus.  And  as  he  was  standing  by 
the  table,  Cromwell  came  and  sat  upon  the  table's-side 
by  him,  and  said,  he  would  be  as  high  as  George  Fox 
was.  But  though  he  continued  to  speak  in  a  light  man- 
ner, yet  afterward  he  was  so  serious,  that  when  he  came 
to  his  wife  and  other  company,  he  said,  that  he  never 
parted  so  from  the  Quakers  before." 

He  afterwards  visited  Scotland,  where  his  success  and 
his  persecutions  were  as  usual,  great ;  as  they  continued 
to  be  on  his  return  to  England.  Although  Fox  had  not 
received  a  good  education,  yet  the  acuteness  of  his  mind 
was  prodigious,  and  was  displayed  in  a  remarkable  man- 
ner in  a  discussion  which  he  had  with  a  Jesuit,  in  1658, 
and  in  a  letter  he  addressed,  "  To  the  heads  and  govern- 
ors of  this  nation,  who  have  put  forth  a  declaration  for 
a  solemn  fasting  and  humiliation,  for  the  persecution, 
(as  you  say,)  of  divers  people  beyond  the  seas,  professing 
the  reformed  religion,  which,  ye  say,  has  been  transmitted 
unto  them  from  their  ancestors."  He  exposes  the  hypo- 
crisy of  the  Puritans  in  censuring  the  Papists  for  perse- 
cuting, when  they  were  worse  persecutors  themselves. 

It  was  not  George  Fox  alone  who  was  grieved  with  the 
said  hypocrisy,  but  others  of  his  friends  also  declared 
against  it.  "A  certain  woman  came  once  into  the  parlia- 
ment with  a  pitcher  in  her  hand,  which  she  breaking 
before  them,  told  them.  So  should  they  be  broken  to 
pieces  ;  which  came  to  pass  not  long  after.  And  because, 
when  the  great  sufferings  of  George  Fox's  friends  were 
laid  before  Oliver  Cromwell,  he  would  not  believe  it,  this 

180  FOX. 

gave  occasion  to  Thomas  Aldam  and  Anthony  Pearson, 

to  go  through  all,  or  most  of  the  jails  in  England,  and 
get  copies  of  their  friend's  commitment  under  the  jailer's 
hands,  to  lay  the  weight  of  the  said  sufferings  upon  Oliver 
Cromwell,  which  was  done;  but  he,  unwilling  to  give 
order  for  their  release,  Thomas  Aldam  took  his  cap  from 
off  his  head,  and  tearing  it  to  pieces,  said  to  him.  So  shall 
thy  government  be  rent  from  thee  and  thy  house." 

At  the  Restoration  George  Fox  writes  thus  :  "  Now 
did  I  see  the  end  of  the  travail  which  I  had  had  in  my 
sore  exercise  at  Reading ;  for  the  everlasting  power  of 
the  Lord  was  over  all,  and  His  blessed  truth,  life,  and 
light  shined  over  the  nation,  and  great  and  glorious 
meetings  we  had,  and  very  quiet ;  and  many  flocked  in 
unto  the  tmth.  Richard  Hubberthorn  had  been  with 
the  king,  who  said,  '  None  should  molest  us,  so  long  as 
we  lived  peaceably,'  and  promised  this  to  us  upon  the 
word  of  a  king,  telling  him  we  might  make  use  of  his 
promise.  Some  Friends  also  were  admitted  into  the 
house  of  lords,  and  had  liberty  to  declare  their  reasons, 
why  they  could  not  pay  tithes,  swear,  nor  go  to  the 
steeple-house  worship,  or  join  with  others  in  worship, 
and  they  lieai'd  them  moderately.  And  there  being 
about  seven  hundred  Friends  in  prison  in  the  nation, 
who  had  been  committed  under  Oliver's  and  Richard's 
government,  upon  contempts  (as  they  call  them,)  when 
the  king  came  in,  he  set  them  all  at  liberty.  There 
seemed  at  that  time  an  inclination  and  intention  in  the 
government  to  grant  Friends  liberty,  because  they  were 
sensible  that  we  had  suffered  as  well  as  they  under  the 
former  powers.  But  still,  when  any  thing  was  going 
forward  in  order  thereunto,  some  dirty  spirits  or  other, 
that  would  seem  to  be  for  us,  threw  something  in  the  way 
to  stop  it.  It  was  said,  there  was  an  instrument  drawn 
up  for  confirming  our  liberty,  and  that  it  only  wanted 
signing ;  when  on  a  sudden  that  wicked  attempt  of  the 
Fifth-monarchy-people  broke  out,  and  put  the  city  and 
nation  in  an  uproar." 

FOX.  181 

His  abhorrence,  on  principle,  of  bloodshedding,  made 
him  view  with  regret  the  punishment  of  the  regicides, 
but  adverting  to  the  Puritans,  he  remarks  that  "  there 
was  a  secret  hand  in  bringing  this  day  upon  that  hypo- 
critical generation  of  professors,  who,  being  got  into 
power,  grew  proud,  haughty,  and  cruel  beyond  others, 
and  persecuted  the  people  of  God  without  pity.  There- 
fore when  friends  were  under  ciiiel  persecutions  and 
sufferings  in  the  Commonwealth's  time,  I  was  moved  of 
the  Lord  to  write  unto  Friends  to  draw  up  their  suffer- 
ings, and  lay  them  before  the  justices  at  their  sessions  ; 
and  if  they  would  not  do  them  justice,  then  to  lay  them 
before  the  judges  at  the  assize ;  and  if  they  would  not 
do  them  justice,  then  to  lay  them  before  the  parliament, 
and  before  the  protector  and  his  council,  that  they  might 
all  see  what  was  done  under  their  government ;  and  if 
they  would  not  do  justice,  then  to  lay  it  before  the  Lord, 
who  would  hear  the  cries  of  the  oppressed,  and  of  the 
widows  and  fatherless  whom  they  had  made  so.  For 
that  which  we  suffered  for,  and  which  our  goods  were 
spoiled  for,  was  for  our  obedience  to  the  Lord  in  His 
power  and  in  His  spirit,  Who  was  able  to  help  and  to 
succour,  and  we  had  no  helper  in  the  earth  but  Him. 
And  he  heard  the  cries  of  his  people,  and  brought  an 
overflowing  scourge  over  the  heads  of  all  our  persecutors, 
which  brought  a  quaking,  and  a  dread,  and  a  fear 
amongst  and  on  them  all :  so  that  those  who  had  nick- 
named us  (who  are  the  children  of  light)  and  in  scorn 
called  us  Quakers,  the  Lord  made  to  quake ;  and  many 
of  them  would  have  been  glad  to  have  hid  themselves 
amongst  us ;  and  some  of  them,  through  the  distress 
that  came  upon  them,  did  at  length  come  to  confess  to 
the  truth.  Oh!  the  daily  reproaches,  revilings,  and 
beatings  we  underwent  amongst  them,  even  in  the  high- 
ways, because  we  could  not  put  off  our  hats  to  them,  and 
for  saying  thou  and  thee  to  them  !  Oh  !  the  havock  and 
spoil  the  priests  made  of  our  goods,  because  we  could  not 

l^U  FOX. 

put  into  their  mouths  and  give  them  tithes ;  besides 
casting  into  prisons,  and  besides  the  great  fines  laid  upon 
us,  because  we  could  not  swear !  But  for  all  these 
things  did  the  Lord  God  plead  with  them.  Yet  some  of 
them  were  so  hardened  in  their  wickedness,  that  when 
they  were  turned  out  of  their  places  and  offices,  they 
said,  '  if  they  had  power,  they  would  do  the  same  again.''' 
In  1669  George  Fox  was  inspired  to  seek  to  the  holy 
estate  of  matrimony,  chiefly  that  it  might  be  seen  that 
marriage  is  honourable  to  all  men.  He  relates  the  cir- 
cumstance thus  :  "  We  came  to  Bristol,  where  I  met 
with  Margaret  Fell,  who  was  come  to  visit  her  daughter 
Yeomans.  I  had  seen  from  the  Lord  a  considerable  time 
before,  that  I  should  take  Margaret  Fell  to  be  my  wife. 
And  when  I  first  mentioned  it  to  her,  she  felt  the  answer 
of  Life  from  God  thereunto.  But  though  the  Lord  had 
opened  this  thing  to  me,  yet  I  had  not  received  a  com- 
mand from  the  Lord  for  the  accomplishing  of  it  then. 
Wherefore  I  let  the  thing  rest,  and  went  on  in  the  work 
and  service  of  the  Lord  as  before,  according  as  the  Lord 
led  me;  travelling  up  and  down  in  this  nation,  and 
through  the  nation  of  Ireland.  But  now  being  at  Bristol, 
and  finding  Margaret  Fell  there,  it  opened  in  me  from 
the  Lord,  that  the  thing  should  be  accomplished.  After 
we  had  discoursed  the  matter  together,  I  told  her,  *  if  she 
also  was  satisfied  with  the  accomplishing  of  it  now,  she 
should  first  send  for  her  children  ;'  which  she  did.  When 
the  rest  of  her  daughters  were  come,  I  asked  both  them 
and  her  sons-in-law,  '  if  they  had  any  thing  against  it,  or 
for  it ;'  and  they  all  severally  expressed  their  satisfaction 
therein.  Then  I  asked  Margaret,  '  if  she  had  fulfilled  and 
performed  her  husband's  will  to  her  children.'  She  replied, 
'  the  children  knew  that.'  Whereupon  I  asked  them, 
'  whether,  if  their  mother  married,  they  should  not  lose 
by  it  ?'  And  I  asked  Margaret,  '  whether  she  had  done 
any  thing  in  lieu  of  it,  which  might  answer  it  to  the 
children  ?'     The  children  said,  '  she  had  answered  it  to 

FOX.  183 

them,  and  desired  me  to  speak  no  more  of  it.'  I  told 
them,  '  I  was  plain,  and  would  have  all  things  done 
plainly  ;  for  I  sought  not  any  outward  advantage  to  my- 
self.' So  after  I  had  thus  acquainted  the  children  with 
it,  our  intention  of  marriage  was  laid  before  Friends, 
both  privately  and  publicly,  to  the  full  satisfaction  of 
Friends,  many  of  whom  gave  testimony  thereunto  that 
it  was  of  God,  Afterwards,  a  meeting  being  appointed 
on  purpose  for  the  accomplishing  thereof,  in  the  public 
meeting-house  at  Broad-Mead  in  Bristol,  we  took  each 
other  in  marriage,  the  Lord  joining  us  together  in  the 
honourable  marriage,  in  the  everlasting  covenant  and 
immortal  Seed  of  life.  In  the  sense  v,'hereof,  living  and 
weighty  testimonials  w^ere  borne  thereunto  by  Friends,  in 
the  movings  of  the  heavenly  power  which  united  us 
together.  Then  was  a  certificate,  relating  both  the  pro- 
ceedings and  the  marriage,  openly  read,  and  signed  by 
the  relations,  and  by  most  of  the  ancient  Friends  of 
that  city,  besides  many  others  from  divers  parts  of  the 

"  We  stayed  about  a  week  in  Bristol,  and  then  went 
together  to  Oldstone ;  where  taking  leave  of  each  other 
in  the  Lord,  we  parted,  betaking  ourselves  to  our  several 
services,  Margaret  returning  homewards  to  the  North, 
and  I  passing  on  in  the  work  of  the  Lord,  as  before.  I 
travelled  through  Wiltshire,  Berkshire,  Oxfordshire,  and 
Buckinghamshire,  and  so  to  London,  visiting  Friends  ; 
in  all  which  counties  I  had  many  large  and  precious 

Margaret  Fell  was  the  widow  of  judge  Fell,  who  had 
been  a  protector  of  Fox. 

In  1671  he  went  to  America,  and  being  in  Carolina, 
he  met  Captain  Batts,  who  had  been  governor  of  Roan 
Oak.  "  He  asked  me,"  says  Fox,  "  about  a  woman  in 
Cumberland,  who,  he  said,  he  was  told,  had  been  healed 
by  our  prayers,  and  laying  on  of  hands,  after  she  had 
been  long  sick,   and  given  over  by  the  physicians  ;  and 

184  FOX. 

he  desired  to  know  the  certainty  of  it.  I  told  him  we 
did  not  glory  in  such  things,  but  many  such  things  had 
been  done  by  the  power  of  Christ." 

His  success  in  America  was  great,  and  he  wrought  a 
miracle  upon  a  woman  that  lived  at  Anamessy,  "  who 
had  been  many  years  in  trouble  of  mind,  and  sometimes 
would  sit  moping  near  two  months  together,  and  hardly 
speak  or  mind  any  thing.  When  T  heard  of  her,  I  was 
moved  of  the  Lord  to  go  to  her,  and  tell  her,  '  that  salva- 
tion was  come  to  her  house.'  After  I  had  spoken  the 
word  of  life  to  her,  and  entreated  the  Lord  for  her,  she 
mended,  went  up  and  down  with  us  to  meetings,  and  is 
since  well ;  blessed  be  the  Lord  !  " 

In  1673  he  returned  to  England,  and  in  1674  was 
much  gratified  at  Newport  Pagnel,  where,  amongst 
others,  "  came  a  woman,  and  brought  her  daughter,  for 
me  to  see  how  well  she  was ;  putting  me  in  mind,  '  that 
when  I  was  there  before,  she  had  brought  her  to  me, 
much  troubled  with  the  disease  called  the  king's  evil, 
and  had  then  desired  me  to  pray  for  her  ;'  which  1  did, 
and  she  grew  well  upon  it,  praised  be  the  Lord  !" 

In  1677  he  went  with  Penn,  Barclay,  and  Keith,  to 
Holland.  It  is  well  known  that  the  Quakers  w^ere 
favoured  by  the  Princess  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  the 
queen  of  Bohemia,  and  aunt  of  George  I. 

There  is  not  much  of  interest  to  record  of  the  con- 
cluding years  of  Fox's  life.  Notwithstanding  the  favours 
shown  to  him  and  his  followers  by  the  king's  government 
at  first,  yet  they  were  often  imprisoned  for  refusing  to 
pay  tithes,  or  for  declining  to  take  the  oath  of  allegiance. 
In  1 684  he  again  visited  the  continent,  where  he  did  not 
remain  long ;  and  his  health  becoming  impaired  by  in- 
cessant toil,  imprisonment,  and  suffering,  he  lived  more 
retired  till  the  year  1691,  when,  on  returning  home  from 
preaching  in  Grace-church  street,  he  was  taken  ill.  His 
distemper  increasing,  and  perhaps  perceiving  that  his 
end  was  at  hand,  he  recommended  the  spreading  of  books 

FOX.  185 

(containing  the  doctrine  of  truth)  to  some  of  his  friends, 
that  came  to  him  after  having  being  sent  for.  And  to 
some  others  who  came  to  visit  him  in  his  illness,  he  said, 
All  is  well,  the  seed  of  God  reigns  over  all,  and  over 
death  itself.  And  though  (continued  he)  I  am  vs'eak  in 
body,  yet  the  power  of  God  is  over  all,  and  the  seed  reigns 
over  all  disorderly  spirits.  He  used  often,  even  in  his 
preaching,  Avhen  he  spoke  of  Christ,  to  call  Him  the 
seed  ;  wherefore  those  that  w^ere  with  him,  very  well 
knew  what  he  meant  when  he  spoke  of  the  seed.  Thus 
he  lay  in  a  heavenly  frame  of  mind,  and  his  spirit  being 
wholly  exercised  towards  the  Lord,  he  grew  weaker  and 
v.-eaker  in  body,  until  on  the  third  day  of  the  week,  and 
of  his  sickness  also,  he  piously  departed  this  life.  About 
four  or  five  hours  before,  being  asked  how  he  did,  he 
answered,  Don't  heed,  the  power  of  the  Lord  is  above 
all  sickness  and  death ;  the  seed  reigns,  blessed  be  the 
Lord.  And  thus  triumphing  over  death,  he  departed 
from  hence  in  peace,  and  slept  sweetly  on  the  loth  of 
the  month  anciently  called  January,  (for  being  as  a 
door  of  entrance  into  the  new  year)  about  ten  o'clock  at 
night,  in  the  67th  year  of  his  age.  His  body  was  buried 
near  Bunhill-fields,  on  the  16th  of  the  said  month,  the 
corps  being  accompanied  by  great  numbers  of  his  friends, 
and  of  other  people  also  :  for  though  he  had  had  many 
enemies,  yet  he  had  made  himself  also  beloved  of  many. 
Such  is  the  history  of  the  founder  of  one  of  the  most 
eminent  of  the  protestant  orders  or  denominations.  His 
history  is  given  at  some  length,  because  there  are  some 
persons  in  the  present  day  who  profess  to  believe,  or  not 
to  discredit  the  miracles  of  Romish  saints,  and  who 
accuse  Protestants  of  being  unable  to  work  similar 
miracles.  The  miracles  of  George  Fox  are  as  worthy  of 
credit  as  those  of  Francis  of  Assisi,  with  whose  life  the 
one  now  given  may  be  compared. — Fox's  Journal.  SeicelVs 
History  of  the  People  called  Quakers. 

186  FOX. 

FOX,    JOHN. 

Of  the  personal  history  of  the  writer  whose  name  is 
so  well  known  by  his  "  Book  of  Martyrs,"  only  a  very 
imperfect  account  can  be  given.  The  biographies  of  him 
which  have  hitherto  been  written  are  uniformly  grounded 
on  a  Memoir,  which  was  first  published  in  1641,  more 
than  half  a  century  after  his  death,  and  put  forth  as  the 
work  of  his  son  Samuel,  who  had  also  been  dead  many 
years.  This  memoir,  however,  is  so  clearly  spurious,  and 
in  so  many  things  erroneous,  that  no  dependance  can  be 
placed  on  it.  The  following  particulars,  though  scanty 
and  imperfect,  are,  it  is  believed,  for  the  most  part  cor- 
rect ;  though  some  of  them  must  be  rather  supposed  and 
assumed,  on  grounds  which  it  would  be  tedious  and  un- 
seasonable here  to  state,  than  considered  as  facts  which 
are  certainly  and  undeniably  true. 

John  Fox  was  born  at  Boston  in  Lincolnshire,  of 
parents  not  above  the  middle  class,  in  the  year  1516. 
He  is  said  to  have  lost  his  father  in  his  childhood,  and 
to  have  been  put  to  school  by  his  step-father,  Richard 
Melton.  After  this,  by  the  patronage  of  one  whose 
daughter  he  subsequently  married,  and  who  seems  to 
have  borne  the  name  of  Randall,  Fox  was  sent  to  Oxford, 
at  about  the  age  of  seventeen.  The  common  account,  of 
his  having  been  at  first,  or  at  any  time,  a  member  of 
Brazen-Nose  College,  appears  to  be  a  mistake,  arising 
from  his  having  long  afterwards  thankfully  acknowledged 
in  a  dedication  to  Mr.  Harding,  the  head  of  Brazen-Nose 
College,  prefixed  to  one  of  his  works,  that  it  was  owing  to 
the  kind  suggestion  of  that  gentleman  that  he  had  been 
originally  sent  to  Oxford.  It  was  natural  to  suppose  that 
he  had  become  a  member  of  the  college  over  which  his 
patron  presided  ;  but  the  truth  seems  to  be,  that  he  was 
entered  at  Magdalen  College,  in  the  year  1533.    He  took 

FOX.  187 

his  degree  of  B.A.  in  1538,  and  of  M.A.  in  1548,  in 
which  year  he  also  obtained  a  fellowship.  The  same 
popular  account  relates  that  he  was  expelled  from  this 
fellowship  ;  but  it  is  justly  to  be  doubted ;  for  there  are 
documents  still  existing  in  his  own  hand  writing,  which 
shew  that  though  he  and  some  other  young  men  of  the 
college,  had  got  into  very  serious  trouble  for  making  a 
jest  of  the  ceremonies  then  used  in  the  performance  of 
divine  service  in  the  chapel,  yet  he  expected  to  stay,  and 
had  almost  staid,  at  the  college,  as  long  as  he  could  be 
allowed  to  do  without  taking  orders.  This  he  had  re- 
solved not  to  do  ;  and  he  seems  to  have  been  anxiously 
canvassing  among  his  friends  for  employment  as  a  tutor 
or  schoolmaster  ;  with  what  success  does  not  appear. 

According  to  Wood,  Fox  resigned  his  fellowship  about 
the  22nd  July,  1545  ;  and  in  the  destitution  thus  occa- 
sioned, it  is  said  that  during  a  great  part  of  the  time  he 
received  help  from  his  step-father,  and  from  the  father  of 
his  wife,  and  that  part  of  the  time  he  was  employed  as 
tutor  in  the  Lucy  family  at  Charlecote.  As  to  his  step- 
father, if  he  had  any,  the  thing  is  not  impossible  ;  and 
that  he  should  be  assisted  by  the  father  of  her  who  after- 
wards became  his  wife,  is  highly  probable,  for  reasons 
already  stated,  though  he  was  not  then  married.  The 
statement  too,  that  he  was  employed  as  tutor  in  the  Lucy 
family,  (though  not  all  the  errors  connected  with  that 
statement  in  the  common  biographies  of  Fox,)  receives 
perhaps  some  colour  from  the  fact  that  he  was  married 
to  Agnes  Rondull  (or  Randall)  at  Charlecote,  on  the  3rd 
of  Febmary,  1547,  meaning,  it  may  be  presumed,  what 
in  our  present  mode  of  dating  would  be  called  ]  548. 

This  fact  is  attested  by  the  parish  register,  and  if  we 
suppose  that  he  gave  up  his  tutorship  on  his  marriage, 
or  married  when  his  services  as  a  tutor  were  no  longer 
required,  and  came  to  London,  it  may  help  to  settle  the 
date  of  the  next  well  authenticated  and  important,  though 
obscure,   fact  in   Fox's  history.     It  is  beyond  all  doubt 

188  FOX. 

that  at  some  time  or  other  he  was  employed  as  tutor  lo 
the  fatherless  children  of  the  late  Earl  of  Surrey.  That 
unfortunate  young  nobleman,  with  his  father  the  Duke 
of  Norfolk,  had  been  arrested  and  imprisoned  on  a  charge 
of  high  treason,  on  the  12th  of  December,  1546.  The 
father  narrowly  escaped,  owing  to  the  death  of  Henry 
VIII.  on  the  28th  of  January,  the  very  morning  fixed  for 
his  execution ;  but  the  son's  trial  being  hurried  through, 
he  had  already  fallen  a  victim  to  the  fears  and  shameless 
zeal  of  his  enemies. 

By  what  introduction,  at  what  time,  to  what  extent, 
and  for  what  period,  the  two  little  sons  of  the  Earl,  one 
in  his  eleventh,  the  other  in  his  eighth  or  ninth  year, 
at  the  time  of  their  father's  execution,  came  to  be  placed 
under  Fox's  tutorage,  does  not  clearly  appear ;  but  the 
fact  is  attested  by  letters  written  long  after,  by  Thomas 
Duke  of  Norfolk,  (the  elder  of  the  two)  which  are  still 
extant,  and  are  not  the  only  proofs  which  he  gave  of  his 
attachment  to  his  "  right  loving  schoolmaster." 

The  children  of  the  unfortunate  earl  appear  to  have 
been  left  with  their  mother,  and  under  the  care  of  Lord 
Wentworth,  until  April,  1548  ;  and  about  that  time  to 
have  been  transferred  to  the  Duchess  of  Richmond.  Be- 
tween Fox  and  the  former  guardians  there  does  not  seem 
to  have  been  any  connexion ;  but  we  incidentally  learn 
from  Fox  himself,  that  he  was  "  dwelling  in  the  house  of 
the  noble  lady  the  Duchess  of  Richmond,"  just  about 
the  time  when  the  children  were  committed  to  her  care. 
Perhaps  he  came  with  them ;  but  if  he  was  married  at 
Charlecote  only  in  the  preceding  February,  it  seems  most 
natural  to  suppose  that  it  was  not  until  he  was  at  the 
Duchess  of  Richmond's  that  he  exercised  this  tutorship. 

It  is  worth  while  to  mention  the  qircumstance,  by  means 
of  which  the  date  of  Fox's  dwelling  at  the  Duchess  of 
Richmond's  is  fixed  ;  because  it  is  one  which  undoubtedly 
exercised  a  great  influence  over  his  future  life.  He  then 
and  there  became  acquainted  with  one  of  the  fiercest  and 

FOX.  189 

foulest  spirits  of  the  age,  who  boasted,  after  an  inten^al  of 
ten  years,  that  during  all  that  time  John  Fox  had  been 
his  "Achates";  and  who  had,  no  doubt,  all  that  while 
cherished  in  his  weaker  brother  that  bitterness  of  spirit, 
and  that  habit  of  filthy  talking  and  profane  jesting 
unrivalled  in  his  own  productions,  and  too  conspicuous 
in  the  works  of  both.  Fox  tells  us  that  while  he  was 
dwelling  at  the  house  of  the  duchess,  John  Bale  was  also 
there,  "  recognizing  his  Centuries."  Now  Bale's  Cen- 
turies were  "  completed  and  printed"  by  the  end  of  July, 
1548.  It  is  worth  while  to  add  Fox's  testimony  that 
Bale  was  "  recognizing"  his  work  by  a  book  borrowed  of 
Master  John  Cheke,  because  it  helps  to  shew  that  by  this 
time,  the  future  martyrologist  was  among  those  who  were 
among  the  most  active  and  forward  in  what  they  repre- 
sented as  the  work  of  reformation.  This  is  further  evi- 
denced by  the  fact  that  he  appears  to  have  been  ordained 
deacon  by  Bishop  Pddley,  on  the  24th  of  June,  1550. 

It  seems  clear,  however,  that  by  the  time  when  Fox 
was  ordained,  he  was  no  longer  domesticated  with  the 
Duchess  of  Richmond,  for  he  is  described  in  the  bishop's 
register  as,  "  Mr.  John  Fox,  M.  A.,  living  with  the 
Duchess  of  Suffolk,  born  at  Boston." 

From  this  time  we  lose  sight  of  Fox  until  after  the 
accession  of  Queen  Mary,  when  he,  like  many  more,  found 
it  expedient  to  quit  the  country.  The  common  account, 
that  Bishop  Gardiner  was  watching  for  him,  and  that 
the  Duke  of  Norfolk,  the  most  powerful  subject  in  the 
kingdom,  and  the  man  who  had  the  most  influence  with 
Gardiner,  could  not  protect  him,  is  too  absurd  to  require 
any  particular  confutation.  The  fact  that  his  friend 
Cheke,  by  whose  patronage  he  had  probably  been  em- 
ployed as  tutor,  had  been,  to  the  veiy  end  of  her  brief 
reign,  the  clerk  of  the  Lady  Jane  Grey's  council — that 
Bishop  Ridley,  who  had  ordained  him,  was  the  person 
singled  out  to  preach  at  Paul's  Cross,  on  the  first  of  the 
two  Sundays  which  occurred  in  that  period,  and  that  the 

VOL  V.  s 

100  FOX. 

Duchess  of  Suffolk,  under  fear  of  being  called  to  account 
by  Bishop  Gardiner,  was  obliged  to  fly  the  country  with 
imminent  peril  of  her  life,  would  warrant  a  suspicion 
that  Fox,  who  seems  to  have  been  one  of  her  household, 
might  have  been  mixed  up  in  some  such  political  matters, 
(for  as  yet  persecution  for  religion  had  not  begun,)  as 
might  involve  him  in  risk,  and  include  his  name  in 
some  writs  or  warrants  issued  by  the  lord  chancellor  or 
the  council.  Still  more  probable  it  is  that  he  might  be 
in  some  way  implicated  in  the  sedition  of  Sir  Thomas 
Wyatt,  his  admiration  of  whom  Fox  is  at  no  pains  to 
conceal.  And  if  it  were  so,  it  is  not  improbable  that 
the  Duke  of  Norfolk  might  connive  at,  or  assist  his 
escape,  in  consideration  of  past  services  to  his  grand- 
children. In  fact,  it  may  be  doubted  whether  the  queen, 
or  the  chancellor,  or  the  duke,  or  any  body  else,  took  any 
very  strict  and  active  measures  to  keep  those  who  wished 
to  go. 

Fox  however,  for  some  reason  or  other,  certainly  did 
go  ;  and,  as  far  as  appears,  he  went  in  the  spring  of  the 
year  1554.  The  first  landmark  of  his  progress  on  which 
we  can  at  all  rely,  is  in  the  preface  to  his  Chronicon 
Ecclesise,  (a  small  octavo  volume,  the  germ  of  his  Bcok 
of  Martyrs,)  which  is  dated  at  Strasburgh,  31st  August, 
1554,  and  contains  language  which  seems  to  indi(-ate 
that  he  had  then  been  there  at  least  two  months.  This 
is  perhaps  the  only  evidence  that  exists  of  his  having 
been  at  Strasburgh  at  all.  How  long  he  remained  tliere 
does  not  appear ;  but  by  the  3rd  of  December  in  the 
same  year  he  had  joined  those  English  fugitives  who  had 
settled  at  Frankfort  on  the  Mayne.  With  them  he  re- 
mained until  the  31st  August,  1555,  when,  adhering  to 
the  more  violent  party,  in  the  schism  which  took  place  at 
that  time,  he  seceded  with  it ;  or  to  borrow  the  words 
used  by  the  author  of  "  The  Troubles  of  Frankfort,"  in 
recording  the  fact,  "  the  oppressed  Church  departed  from 
Frankfort  to  Basil  and  Geneva,  some  staying  at  Basil,  as 
Maistcr  Fox  with  other." 

FOX.  191 

At  Basil  he  seems  to  have  been  employed  in  correcting 
the  press  for  a  learned  printer  named  Herbst,  or  as  he 
chose  to  call  himself,  in  compliance  with  the  puerile 
fancy  of  the  times,  Oporinus ;  and  in  making  collections 
for  a  greatly  enlarged  reprint  of  the  work  which  he  had 
published  at  Strasburgh.  This,  however,  was  not  finished 
when  Queen  Mary  died  and  her  sister  succeeded  to  the 
throne.  Of  his  family  circumstances  during  this  time 
little  is  recorded,  and  perhaps,  if  John  Knox  had  not 
said  in  one  of  his  letters  to  him,  "  Salute  your  wief 
and  dowghter  hartlie  in  my  name,"  we  should  not  have 
known  that  he  ever  had  a  daughter,  or  any  child  but  the 
two  sons  who  were  as  yet  unborn. 

Fox  therefore  remained  at  Basil  after  most  of  the  Eng- 
lish exiles  had  returned,  in  order  to  complete  his  book ; 
and  in  the  meantime  he  published  a  tract  entitled  "  Ger- 
manise ad  Angliam  Gratulatio,"  which  is  dated  at  Basil, 
20th  January,  1559.  To  this  tract  he  annexed  a  letter 
to  the  Duke  of  Norfolk,  (his  late  pupil,  who  had  been 
restored  in  blood,  and  had  succeeded  his  grandfather  in 
title  and  estate,)  giving  him  a  great  deal  of  good  advice, 
which  was  probably  much  wanted,  and  quite  thrown 

The  new  work,  however,  which  was  a  good  sized  folio, 
bears  the  date  of  August,  1559,  and  it  seems  probable  that 
shortly  after  that  time  Fox  arrived  in  England.  He  was 
kindly  received  and  assisted  by  the  Duke  of  Norfolk ;  and 
on  the  25th  of  January,  1560,  he  received  priest's  orders 
from  Grindal,  Bishop  of  London.  After  this  he  seems 
to  have  retired  into  Norfolk,  where,  at  the  end  of  that 
year,  his  eldest  son  Samuel  was  born.  Perhaps  his  home 
was  there,  while  he  spent  much  of  his  time  in  London, 
superintending  the  printing  of  his  great  work,  the  "  Actes 
and  Monuments  of  the  Church,"  or  as  it  is  more  com- 
monly called,  the  "  Book  of  Martyrs,"  in  English,  It 
was  published  in  the  year  1563,  and  has  been  frequently 
reprinted  since.     It  is  due  to  Fox  to  state  that  he  seems 

192  FOX. 

to  have  been  employed  in  making  the  book  rather  as  a 
compiler,  or  editor,  than  as  an  historian ;  and  that  of  the 
facts  which  he  published,  whether  belonging  to  private 
or  public  history,  he  obviously  and  avowedly  had  little 
personal  knowledge.  He  seems  to  have  placed  implicit 
faith  in  those  who  supplied  him  with  materials,  and  that 
he  was  sometimes  ill  informed  and  misled  is  certain. 
Nor  is  this  to  be  wondered  at,  when  it  is  considered  that 
so  many  of  the  documents  with  which  he  was  furnished 
were  ex  parte  statements  of  persons  who  had  suffered, 
either  in  their  own  persons,  or  in  those  of  their  relations 
or  friends. 

This  is  not  the  place,  however,  to  enter  into  a  criticism 
of  this,  the  only  work  by  which  Fox  is  now  known ;  or 
to  reckon  up  the  various  productions  of  his  pen,  which 
have  been  long  forgotten.  With  regard  to  his  personal 
history,  it  is  remarkable  that  so  little  can  be  added  of  the 
long  period  which  elapsed  after  the  publication  and  im- 
mediate fame  of  his  great  work,  in  1563.  For  more 
than  twenty  years  after  that  time  he  appears  to  have  lived 
in  London,  and  he  was  probably  much  engaged  in  the 
revision  and  the  republications  of  his  Martyrology,  which 
was  three  times  reprinted  in  his  life-time.  Though,  as 
has  been  already  stated,  he  received  priest's  orders  from 
Bishop  Grindal,  it  does  not  seem  certain  that  he  ever 
held  any  cure  of  souls.  He  appears  to  have  obtained  a 
prebend  in  the  Church  of  Salisbury  in  the  year  1563, 
and  it  is  said  that  when  called  on  by  Archbishop  Parker 
to  subscribe,  he  produced  a  Greek  Testament,  saying, 
"  To  this  will  I  subscribe,"  adding  that  he  held  nothing 
but  this  prebend  at  Salisbury,  which  if  they  thought 
proper  to  take  it  from  him,  he  hoped  would  do  them 
much  good.  Perhaps  we  may  be  allowed  to  believe  that 
there  is  not  sufficient  evidence  of  this,  for  it  must  have 
been  either  very  inconvenient  jesting,  or  else  an  attempt 
at  evasion,  by  offering  to  do  what  Papists  and  Socinians 
would  have  done  as  readilv  as  himself.     He  is  said,  how- 

FOX.  193 

ever,  after  this  to  have  accepted  a  stall  at  Durham  in  the 
year  1572  ;  and  to  have  resigned  after  holding  it  twelve 

As  to  his  public  ministry,  perhaps  all  that  is  known  is 
to  be  gathered  from  two  discourses  which  are  printed. 
One  by  his  friend  John  Day,  in  1570,  is  intitled  "A 
Sermon  of  Christ  Crucified,  preached  at  Paul's  Crosse 
the  Friday  before  Easter,  commonly  called  Good  Friday. 
Written  and  dedicated  to  all  such  as  labour  and  be  heavy 
laden  in  conscience,  to  be  read  for  their  spiritual  com- 
fort." The  other  is  a  Sermon  preached  at  AUhallows, 
Lombard  Street,  at  the  christening  of  a  Jew  named 
Nathanael,  on  the  1st  of  April,  1578.  Whether  Fox 
exercised  any  thing  like  a  public  ministry  among  his 
nonconforming  friends  during  this  period  does  not  clearly 
appear,  but  numerous  anecdotes,  traditions,  and  docu- 
ments, attest  that  he  lived  amid  a  circle  who  considered 
him  as  little,  if  at  all,  less  than  an  inspired,  or  super- 
naturally  gifted  teacher.  He  seems  to  have  been  fre- 
quently applied  to  for  advice,  consolation,  and  exorcism  ; 
and  after  his  death,  which  took  place  on  the  1 8th  of 
April,  1587,  his  son  Samuel  set  up  a  monument  in  the 
church  of  St.  Giles,  Cripplegate,  not  only  "  martyrologo 
fidelissimo,"  but  "  thaumaturgo  admirabili,"  whatever 
that  may  mean. 

On  the  whole,  he  seems  to  have  been  a  man  of  kind 
disposition,  very  charitable  to  the  poor,  a  comforter  of 
the  afflicted,  a  great  lover  of  peace,  when  he  could  have 
it  in  his  own  w^ay,  and  perhaps  in  his  elder  years  glad  to 
have  it  in  any  way  that  it  might  be  had  with  a  safe  con- 
science. He  would  perhaps  have  been  unknown  to  fame, 
but  that,  simple,  credulous,  industrious,  and  prone  to 
write,  he  was  a  fit  instrument  for  a  party  to  whose  opini- 
ons he  was  warmly  and  sincerely  attached.  They  made 
him  their  drudge,  and  were  content  to  profit  by  labours 
which  they  had  not  the  justice  to  reward,  or  the  courage 
to  partake. 

194  FOX. 


Richard  Fox  was  of  humble  origin,  and  born  at 
E-opesley,  near  Grantham,  in  Lincolnshire,  about  the 
latter  end  of  the  reign  of  king  Henry  VL  He  was 
educated  at  Magdalen  College,  in  Oxford,  where  he  greatly 
distinguished  himself;  but  the  plague  obliging  him  to 
retire  from  thence,  he  removed  to  Pembroke  Hall  in 
Cambridge.  And  when  he  had  staid  a  competent  time 
there,  he  went  for  further  improvement  to  Paris,  where 
he  studied  divinity  and  the  canon  law.  In  this  place  he 
became  acquainted  with  Morton,  Bishop  of  Ely,  who  had 
fled  thither  during  the  usurpation  of  Richard  III.  And 
Fox  was  introduced,  probably  by  Bishop  Morton,  to 
Henry,  Earl  of  Richmond,  who  was  then  meditating  a 
descent  upon  England,  in  order  to  dethrone  the  Usurper ; 
and,  with  the  rest  of  the  English  who  were  at  Paris, 
he  bound  himself  by  oath  to  take  the  Earl's  part. 
Richmond  accordingly  received  Dr.  Fox  into  secret 
familiarity ;  and  having  applied  to  the  French  king, 
Charles  VIII.  for  assistance  in  his  intended  expedition, 
but  being  called  away  before  he  could  obtain  his  desire, 
he  left  the  farther  prosecution  of  this  matter  to  Dr.  Fox, 
whom  he  thought  the  fittest  man  to  manage  so  important 
an  affair.  Nor  was  he  deceived  in  him ;  for  he  acted 
with  such  industry  and  pn,idence,  that  he  soon  obtained 
men  and  money  from  the  court  of  France.  And  after 
Henry  had  gained  the  battle  of  Bosworth,  and  in  conse- 
quence ascended  the  throne  of  England,  he  appointed 
Dr.  Fox  to  be  one  of  his  privy  counsellors.  About  the 
same  time  Fox  was  collated  to  the  prebend  of  Bishopston, 
in  the  Church  of  Sarum ;  and  in  1486,  to  the  prebend 
of  South  Grantham,  in  the  same  Church. 

In  1487  Dr.  Fox  was  raised  to  the  Bishopric  of  Exeter, 
and  appointed  keeper  of  the  privy  seal.  He  was  also 
made  principal  secretary   of  state,  and  master  of  St. 

FOX.  195 

Crosse,  near  Winchester.  And  the  king  continually  em- 
ployed him,  either  in  matters  of  state  at  home,  or  in 
embassies  of  importance  abroad.  In  1492  he  was  trans- 
lated from  Exeter  to  the  Bishopric  of  Bath  and  Wells  ; 
and  in  1494,  he  was  removed  to  the  see  of  Durham.  He 
was  afterwards  chosen  chancellor  of  the  university  of 
Cambridge,  which  office  he  held  till  1502  ;  and  in  1500 
he  was  translated  to  the  see  of  Winchester. 

Bishop  Fox  continued  to  have  great  weight  and  influ- 
ence in  all  public  affairs,  during  the  whole  reign  of  Henry 
VIL,  who  appointed  him  in  his  will  one  of  his  executors 
and  particularly  recommended  him  to  his  son  and  suc- 
cessor, Henry  VIII.  Lord  Bacon  observes,  that  Bishop 
Fox  was  "  a  wise  man,  and  one  that  could  see  through 
the  present  to  the  future."  And  he  also  says,  that  Car- 
dinal Morton  and  Bishop  Fox  were  "  vigilant  men  and 
secret,  and  such  as  kept  watch  wdth  the  king,  (Henry 
VIL)  almost  upon  all  men  else.  They  had  been  both 
versed  in  his  affairs  before  he  came  to  the  crown,  and 
were  partakers  of  his  adverse  fortune."  But  upon  the 
accession  of  Henry  VIII.,  Bishop  Fox's  credit  greatly 
declined  at  court,  though  he  was  instrumental  in  pro- 
moting the  rise  of  Wolsey,  in  opposition  to  the  Earl  of 
Surrey.  However,  in  1510,  he  was  sent  ambassador  to 
France,  in  conjunction  with  the  Earl  of  Surrey  and  the 
Bishop  of  Durham,  who  concluded  a  treaty  of  alliance 
with  Lewis  XII.  About  the  same  time  a  sharp  dispute 
arose  between  him  and  Archbishop  Warham,  concerning 
the  extent  of  the  jurisdiction  of  the  prerogative  court. 
The  dispute  at  length  grew  so  high,  that  an  appeal  was 
made  to  the  pope  :  but  it  being  referred  back  to  the 
king,  he  determined  it  amicably  in  1513.  This  summer 
he  attended  the  king  in  his  expedition  into  France,  with 
a  large  retinue,  and  was  at  the  taking  of  Terouenne. 
And  shortly  after,  in  conjunction  with  Thomas  Grey, 
Marquis  of  Dorset,  he  concluded  a  new  treaty  with  the 
emperor  Maximilian  against  France.    But  in  1515,  being 

196  FOX. 

no  longer  able  to  bear  the  repeated  mortifications  he 
received  from  Cardinal  Wolsey,  to  whose  rise  he  had 
greatly  contributed,  he  withdrew  in  discontent  to  his  own 

In  1522,  Bishop  Fox  founded  a  free-school  at  Taun- 
ton, in  Somersetshire,  where  he  had  a  fine  manor  as 
Bishop  of  Winchester,  and  he  built  a  convenient  house 
for  the  master.  He  did  also  the  same  at  Grantham, 
near  the  place  of  his  nativity.  He  had  the  misfortune 
to  lose  his  sight  about  ten  years  before  his  decease. 
However,  he  attended  the  parliament  in  1523.  But 
Cardinal  Wolsey,  taking  advantage  of  his  infirmities, 
would  fain  have  persuaded  him  to  resign  his  Bishopric 
to  him,  and  to  be  content  with  a  pension.  The  old 
bishop,  however,  stoutly  rejected  the  advances  and  in- 
sinuations of  the  cardinal  for  this  purpose.  For  he 
directed  the  messenger,  who  came  from  Wolsey  with  this 
proposal,  to  tell  his  master,  "  That  though,  by  reason  of 
his  blindness  he  was  not  able  to  distinguish  white  from 
black,  yet  he  could  discern  between  true  and  false,  right 
and  wrong  ;  and  plainly  enough  saw,  without  eyes,  the 
malice  of  that  ungrateful  man,  which  he  did  not  see 
before.  That  it  behoved  the  cardinal  to  take  care,  not  to 
be  so  blinded  with  ambition,  as  not  to  foresee  his  own 
end.  He  needed  not  trouble  himself  with  the  Bishopric 
of  Winchester,  but  rather  should  mind  the  king's  affairs." 

He  devoted  his  declining  years  to  works  of  charity 
and  munificence.  At  Winchester  he  covered  the  choir 
of  the  cathedral,  the  presbytery,  and  the  aisles  adjoining, 
with  a  vaulted  roof,  and  he  new  glazed  all  the  windows 
in  that  part  of  the  church.  He  likewise  built  a  handsome 
wall  round  the  presbytery,  on  the  top  of  which  he  placed 
in  leaden  coffins  the  bones  of  several  West  Saxon  princes 
and  prelates,  which  had  been  buried  in  different  parts  of 
the  church.  These  bones  were  disturbed  by  the  dissenters 
in  the  civil  wars,  but  were  collected  again  as  well  as 
circumstances  would  permit,  in  1661.     His  great  work, 


however,  was  his  noble  foundation  of  C(jrpus  Christi 
College,  Oxford.  His  first  design  was,  to  erect  in  Oxford 
a  college  or  seminary  for  eight  monks,  members  of  St. 
Swithen's  priory  in  Winchester,  and  professed  of  the 
same,  with  a  few  secular  scholars  ;  for  which  he  obtained 
a  licence  in  mortmain,  dated  March  12th,  1512-13.  But 
he  altered  his  design,  chiefly,  as  it  is  said,  through  the 
persuasions  of  Hugh  Oldham,  Bishop  of  Exeter,  who 
thus  represented  to  him.  "What,  my  lord,  shall  we 
build  houses,  and  provide  livelihoods  for  a  company  of 
buzzing  monks,  whose  end  and  fall  we  ourselves  may  live 
to  see  ?  No,  no,  it  is  more  meet  a  great  deal  that  we 
should  have  care  to  provide  for  the  increase  of  learning, 
and  for  such  as  by  their  learning  shall  do  good  in  the 
Church  and  commonwealth."  To  this  Bishop  Fox  rea- 
dily yielded,  accepting  of  Bishop  Oldham's  kind  assist- 
ance, who  contributed  no  less  than  6000  marks  towards 
the  building  of  this  college.  Having  therefore  purchased 
three  tenements,  called  Corner  Hall,  Nevills  Inn,  and 
Nunhall,  with  some  parcels  of  land  adjoining  ;  and  hav- 
ing obtained  a  new  licence  in  mortmain,  dated  November 
20th,  1516  ;  he  went  on  with  his  new  foundation,  the 
charter  of  which  bore  date  the  first  of  March  following. 
His  last  days  were  spent  in  prayer  and  meditation, 
which  at  length  became  almost  uninterrupted  day  or 
night.  He  died  14th  September,  1528,  and  was  buried 
in  the  beautiful  chantry  he  had  erected  for  that  purpose 
in  Winchester  cathedral. — Gough.    ]Vood.    Godwin. 


This  fanatic,  who  is  worshipped  by  the  Church  of 
Rome  as  a  saint,  was  born  at  Assisi,  in  Umbria,  in  the 
Ecclesiastical  State,  in  the  year  1182.  Assisi  reckoned 
amongst  its  most  opulent  merchants  Peter  Bernadone, 


his  father ;  and  in  early  Hfe  Francis  made  his  father's 
heart  proud,  by  his  uniting  with  a  gay  disposition,  which 
made  him  foremost  in  every  feat  of  arms,  a  devoted 
attention  to  business.  But  he  was  doomed  to  be  dis- 
appointed. In  a  combat  with  the  citizens  of  Perugia, 
Francis  _ was  taken  prisoner;  and  after  a  captivity  of 
twelve  months,  was  released,  only  to  encounter  a  disease, 
which  in  the  dawn  of  manhood  brought  him  within  view 
of  the  gates  of  death.  The  dread  realities  of  a  future 
state  were  forced  upon  his  attention,  and  he  determined 
to  renounce  the  world,  that  he  might  devote  himself  to 
the  one  thing  needful.  His  alms  became  lavish,  his 
devotions  enthusiastic.  On  one  occasion  he  exchanged 
dresses  with  a  tattered  mendicant,  and  pressed  to  his 
bosom  a  wretch  rendered  loathsome  by  leprosy.  There 
was,  on  his  recovery,  an  apparent  relapse.  He  for  a 
short  time  resumed  his  duties  as  a  soldier,  and  Francis 
was  seen  once  more  the  graceful  leader  of  the  civic  revels. 
But  amid  the  revels  he  was  suddenly  conscience-stricken, 
and  vowed  to  live  a  life  of  poverty.  He  declared  that  he 
took  poverty  for  his  wedded  wife,  and  always  spake  of 
himself  as  the  husband  of  poverty,  regarding  the  whole 
Franciscan  order  as  their  offspring. 

But  his  folly  was  soon  reproved.  Worshipping  in  a 
country  church  consecrated  to  the  memory  of  St.  Da- 
mian,  he  seemed  to  hear  a  voice  saying,  "  Francis,  go 
and  prepare  my  house,  which  thou  seest  falling  into 
ruins."  What  was  the  man  pledged  to  poverty  to  do  ? 
He  quietly  went  home,  stole  a  horse  from  his  father's 
stable,  then  went  to  his  father's  warehouse,  and  stole 
from  thence  silks  and  embroideries,  with  which  he  laded 
the  purloined  horse,  and  sold  both  horse  and  goods  at 
the  neighbouring  town  of  Foligno.  Romish  casuists 
admit  that  this  action  was  only  justifiable  by  the  sim- 
plicity of  his  heart ;  but  the  system  must  have  been  bad 
which  had  not  instructed  him  in  the  ten  commandments. 


He  offered  the  money  to  the  officiating  priest  at  St.  Da- 
mian,  who  cautiously  refused  to  take  it.  Francis  cast 
the  money  into  the  mire,  but  vowed  that  the  building 
should  be  his  home  until  the  Divine  behest  had  been 
fulfilled.  His  father  found  him  out,  and  though  Francis 
was  twenty- five  years  old,  gave  him  a  sound  whipping, 
and  put  him  into  prison  in  his  own  house.  Francis  was 
set  at  liberty  by  his  mother  during  his  father's  absence 
from  home.  Francis  returned  to  St.  Damian's,  and  his 
father  following  him  thither,  insisted  that  he  should 
either  return  home,  or  renounce  before  the  bishop  all  his 
share  in  his  inheritance,  and  all  manner  of  expectations 
from  his  family.  The  son  accepted  the  latter  condition 
with  joy,  gave  his  father  whatever  he  had  in  his  pockets, 
told  him  he  was  ready  to  undergo  more  blows  and  chains 
for  the  love  of  Jesus  Christ,  Whose  disciple  he  desired  to 
be,  and  cheerfully  went  with  his  father  before  the  Bishop 
of  Assisi,  to  make  a  legal  renunciation  of  his  inheritance 
in  form.  Being  come  into  his  presence,  Francis,  im- 
patient of  delays,  while  the  instniment  was  drawing  up, 
made  the  renunciation  by  the  following  extravagant  ac- 
tion. He  stripped  himself  of  his  clothes,  and  gave  them 
to  his  father,  saying  cheerfully  and  meekly  :  "  Hitherto, 
I  have  called  you  father  on  earth :  but,  now,  I  say  with 
more  confidence,  Our  Father  Who  art  in  heaven,  in  Whom 
I  place  all  my  hope  and  treasure."  By  the  world,  and  it 
would  seem,  by  his  father  himself,  he  was  regarded  as  a 
madman,  but  the  bishop  viewed  the  enthusiasm  of  the 
youth  with  due  allowance,  and  treated  him  with  kind- 
ness, causing  him  to  be  clothed. 

He  soon  after  renewed  his  vow  of  poverty,  imagin- 
ing himself  warned  to  do  so  by  God.  He  begged  for 
and  laboured  at  the  restoration  of  the  Church  of  St. 
Damian,  and  when  that  was  put  in  good  repair,  he  acted 
in  the  same  manner  for  the  restoration  of  the  neigh- 
bouring church  of  St.   Peter;    and    afterwards   for   the 


Portiuncula.  At  this  time,  like  George  Fox,  (^ee  his  life, ) 
he  pretended  to  the  gifts  of  prophecy  and  miracles.  His 
Romish  biographer  says  that  "  when  he  was  begging 
alms  to  repair  the  church  of  St.  Damian,  he  used  to  say, 
'  Assist  me  to  finish  this  building  ;  here  will  one  day  be 
a  monastery  of  holy  virgins,  by  whose  good  fame  our 
Lord  will  be  glorified  over  the  whole  Church.'  This  was 
verified  in  St.  Clare,  five  years  after,  who  inserted  this 
prophecy  in  her  last  will  and  testament.  Before  this,  a 
man  in  the  Duchy  of  Spoletto,  was  afflicted  with  a 
horrible  running  cancer,  which  had  gnawn  both  his 
mouth  and  cheeks  in  a  hideous  manner ;  having,  without 
receiving  any  benefit,  had  recourse  to  all  remedies  that 
could  be  suggested,  and  made  several  pilgrimages  to 
Rome  for  the  recovery  of  his  health,  he  came  to  Francis, 
and  would  have  thrown  himself  at  his  feet,  but  the  saint 
prevented  him,  and  kissed  his  ulcerous  sore,  which  was 
instantly  healed.  '  I  know^  not,'  says  Bonaventure, 
'  which  I  ought  most  to  admire,  such  a  kiss,  or  such  a 
cure.' "  Francis  devoted  himself,  with  a  benevolence 
which  cannot  be  sufficiently  admired,  to  lepers,  the  leprosy 
having  been  introduced  by  the  crusaders  into  all  the 
countries  bordering  on  the  Mediterranean. 

He  soon  attracted  followers,  and  associating  with  him- 
self Bernard  of  Quintavalle,  and  Peter  of  Catania,  on 
the  16th  of  August,  1209,  laid  the  first  foundation  of  the 
Franciscan  order.  To  these  was  soon  added  another 
fanatic  "named  Egidius.  These  first  joined  Francis  in 
his  cell  at  the  Portiuncula.  The  number  of  his  adher- 
ents soon  increased,  and  he  drew  up,  in  twenty  chapters, 
a  rule  for  his  order.  He  carried  his  rule  to  Rome,  there 
to  obtain  for  it  the  sanction  of  the  pope.  The  reigning 
pope  was  the  celebrated  politician,  Innocent  III.  He 
regarded  Francis  at  first  as  a  fanatic  and  a  madman,  but 
on  reflection  he  saw  how  well  fitted  for  his  pui-poses  such 
a  man  might  be,   and  how  useful  such  an  order,  under 


the  existing  state  of  affairs,  might  become  to  the  papal 
interests,  and,  pretending  that  he  had  a  dream  which 
decided  him  upon  the  subject,  he  in  the  year  1210, 
ordained  Francis  a  deacon,  and  gave  his  approbation  to 
the  iiile  which  he  had  drawn  up.  The  crafty  pontilT, 
however,  unwilling  to  commit  himself  to  the  experiment, 
only  gave  a  verbal  approbation,  which,  however,  was 
sufficient  for  Francis,  who  was  now^  received  as  a  saint, 
and  returned  home  in  triumph.  But  here,  among  his 
triumphs,  w^e  must  record  his  conversion  of  Clara,  or  St. 
Clare.  Born  to  rank  and  fortune,  St.  Clare,  according 
to  the  fanaticism  prevalent  in  that  age,  had  recourse  from 
her  early  years  to  ascetic  practices.  She  heard  of  Francis, 
and  was  captivated  by  the  lustre  of  his  piety,  and  he 
heard  of  her,  conferred  with  her,  and  assisted  by  him 
she  eloped  from  her  friends.  Although  a  saint,  Francis 
was  still  deficient  in  the  moral  sense.  They  fled  to  the 
Portiuncula,  a  church  ^fhich  the  Benedictines  had  now- 
given  to  the  Franciscans.  He  was  in  his  thirtieth,  she 
in  her  nineteenth  year  She  was  welcomed  by  the  monks 
and  attended  by  her  spiritual  guide,  and  took  sanctuary 
in  the  neighbouring  church  of  St.  Paul,  until  arrange- 
ments could  be  made  for  her  reception  in  a  convent. 
Francis,  regardless  of  filial  duty  and  parental  authority, 
induced  her  two  sisters,  Agnes  and  Beatrice,  notwith- 
standing the  agony  and  anger  of  her  father,  to  follow  her 
in  her  flight,  and  to  partake  of  her  seclusion.  The 
church  of  St.  Damian  became  the  convent  of  the  order 
of  poor  sisters  thus  established. 

It  was  at  first  the  design  of  Francis  and  his  associates 
to  study  how  they  might  die  to  the  world,  living  in 
poverty  and  solitude,  and  having  no  communion  with 
God.  But  now^  that  he  had  reached  a  summit  of  renown 
and  influence,  he  imagined  that  he  had  a  further  com- 
mission to  preach  penance  by  word  and  deed.     He  con- 


suited  Silvester  and  Clara,  who  declared  that  it  was 
revealed  to  them  that  the  founder  of  their  order  should 
go,  forth  to  preach.  And  the  Franciscans  became  a 
preaching  order,  though  the  founder  was  as  illiterate  as 
the  founder  of  Quakerism. 

He  persevered  most  consistently  in  his  devotion  to 
poverty,  though  many  of  his  followers  soon  shewed  an 
inclination  to  appropriate  to  themselves  some  of  the  com- 
forts of  life.  He  would  not  permit  even  his  churches  to 
be  richly  decorated :  they  were  to  be  low  and  unadorned. 
He  was  continually  devising  new  methods  of  afflicting 
and  mortifying  his  body.  If  any  part  of  his  rough  habit 
seemed  too  soft  he  sewed  it  with  pack-thread.  Unless 
he  was  sick  he  rarely  eat  anything  that  was  dressed  with 
fire,  and  when  he  did  he  usually  put  ashes  or  water  upon 
it.  He  fasted  rigorously  eight  lents  in  the  year.  In  the 
beginning  of  his  conversion,  finding  himself  assailed 
with  violent  temptation  of  concupiscence,  he  often  cast 
himself  into  ditches  full  of  snow  ;  once,  under  a  more 
grievous  assault  than  ordinary,  he  presently  began  to 
discipline  himself  sharply,  then,  with  great  fervour  of 
spirit,  he  went  out  of  his  cell,  and  rolled  himself  in  the 
snow ;  after  this,  having  made  seven  great  heaps  of  snow, 
he  said  to  himself:  "Imagine  these  were  thy  wife  and 
children  ready  to  die  of  cold,  thou  must  then  take  great 
pains  to  maintain  them  ;"  whereupon  he  set  himself 
again  to  labour  in  the  cold.  By  the  rigour  and  fervour 
wdth  which  he,  on  that  occasion,  subdued  his  domestic 
enemy,  he  obtained  so  complete  a  victory,  that  he  never 
felt  any  more  assaults ;  yet  he  continued  always  most 
wary  in  shunning  every  occasion  of  danger,  and  in  treat- 
ing with  women,  kept  so  strict  a  watch  over  his  eyes,  that 
he  scarce  knew  any  woman  by  sight.  It  was  a  usual 
saying  with  him,  that,  "  by  occasions  the  strong  become 
weak."  To  converse  too  frequently  with  women  and  not 
suffer  by  it,  is  as  hard  as  to  take  fire   into  one's  bosom 


and  not  be  burnt :  "  what  has  a  religious  man  to  do," 
says  he,  "  to  treat  with  women,  unless  it  be  to  hear  their 
confessions,  or  give  them  necessary  spiritual  instructions? 
He  that  thinks  himself  secure,  is  undone ;  the  devil 
finding  somewhat  to  take  hold  on,  though  it  be  but  a 
hair,  raises  a  dreadful  war." 

It  will  be  unnecessary  to  record  the  miracles  he  was 
said  to  have  performed.  They  were  of  a  character 
similar  to  those  we  have  described  in  the  preceding  life 
of  Fox  ;  but  Francis  added  to  the  worship  of  Christ  our 
God,  the  worship  of  the  Virgin  Mary.  In  Romish 
phrase,  he  had  a  singular  devotion  to  her  whom  he  chose 
for  the  patroness  of  his  order,  and  in  whose  honour  he 
fasted  from  the  feast  of  St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul  to  that  of 
the  Romish  festival  of  the  assumption.  After  this  fes- 
tival he  fasted  forty  days  and  prayed  much,  out  of  devo- 
tion to  the  angels,  especially  the  archangel  Michael ; 
at  All  Saints  he  fasted  other  forty  days.  By  the  Romish 
writers  we  are  informed  that  he  was  endowed  with  an 
extraordinary  gift  of  tears ;  his  eyes  seemed  two  foun- 
tains of  tears,  which  were  almost  continually  falling  from 
them,  insomuch  that  at  length  he  almost  lost  his  sight ; 
when  physicians  advised  him  to  repress  his  tears,  for 
otherwise  he  would  be  quite  blind,  Francis  answered  : 
"  Brother  physician,  the  spirit  hath  not  received  the 
benefit  of  light  for  the  flesh,  but  the  flesh  for  the  spirit ; 
we  ought  not  for  love  of  that  sight  which  is  common  to 
us  and  flies,  to  put  an  impediment  to  spiritual  sight  and 
celestial  comfort."  When  the  physician  prescribed  that, 
in  order  to  drain  off  the  humours  by  an  issue,  he  should 
be  burnt  with  a  hot  iron,  Francis  was  very  well  pleased, 
because  it  was  a  painful  operation  and  a  wholesome 
remedy  ;  when  the  surgeon  was  about  to  apply  the  sear- 
ing iron,  Francis  spoke  to  the  fire,  saying :  "  Brother 
fire,  I  beseech  thee,  burn  me  gently,  that  I  may  be  able 
to  endure  thee  :"  he  was  seared  very  deep  from  the  ear 
to  the  eye-brow,  but  seemed  to  feel  no  pain  at  all. 


At  length,  finding  Europe  insufficient  for  his  zeal  for 
the  conversion  of  sinners,  he  resolved  to  preach  to  the 
Mahometans.  With  this  view  he  embarked,  in  the  sixth 
year  after  his  conversion,  for  Syria,  but  straightway  there 
arose  a  tempest,  which  drove  him  upon  the  coast  of  Dal- 
matia,  and  finding  no  convenience  to  pass  on  farther,  he 
was  forced  to  return  back  again  to  Ancona.  Afterward, 
in  1214,  he  set  out  for  Morocco,  to  j^reach  to  the  famous 
Mahometan  king,  Miramolin,  and  went  on  his  way  with 
so  great  fervour  and  desire  of  martyrdom,  that  though 
he  was  very  weak  and  much  spent,  his  companion  was 
not  able  to  hold  pace  with  him.  But  in  Spain  he  was 
detained  by  a  grievous  fit  of  sickness,  and  afterwards  by 
important  business  of  his  order,  and  various  accidents, 
so  that  he  could  not  possibly  go  into  Mauritania.  But 
he  wrought  several  pretended  miracles  in  Spain,  and 
founded  there  some  convents,  after  which  he  returned 
through  Languedoc  into  Italy. 

Ten  years  after  the  first  institution  of  the  order  in 
1219,  Francis  held  near  the  Portiuncula,  the  famous 
general  chapter  called  the  matts,  because  it  was  assembled 
in  booths  in  the  fields.  Five  thousand  friars  met  on 
the  occasion.  The  growing  ambition  of  the  order  showed 
itself  in  their  praying  Francis  to  obtain  from  the  pope 
a  license  to  preach  everywhere,  without  the  leave  of  the 
bishops  of  each  diocese.  Francis  rebuked  them,  and 
would  not  accede  to  the  proposal,  but  employed  the  more 
ambitious  spirits  by  sending  them  on  foreign  missions. 
He  reserved  for  himself  the  mission  to  Syria  and  Egypt, 
in  hopes  of  obtaining  the  crown  of  martyrdom  ;  but  the 
affairs  of  his  order  obliged  him  to  defer  his  departure 
for  some  time. 

Innocent  III.,  as  we  have  seen,  had  approved  of  his 
order  by  word  of  mouth.  Honorius  III.,  who  had  suc- 
ceeded him  in  1219,  had  appointed  Cardinal  Ugolino 
to  the  post  of  protector  of  the  minorite  brethren,  and 
approved  of  their  missions.    Francis  set  sail  with  lUumi- 


natus  of  Reate  and  other  companions  from  Ancona,  and 
having  touched  at  Cyprus,  landed  at  Aeon  or  Ptolemais 
in  Palestine.  The  Christian  army  in  the  sixth  crusade 
lay  at  that  time  before  Damiata  in  Egypt,  and  the  Soldan 
of  Damascus  or  Syria  led  a  numerous  army  to  the  assist- 
ance of  Meledin,  Soldan  of  Eg^-pt  or  Babylon  ;  for  so  he 
was  more  commonly  called,  because  he  resided  at  Babylon 
in  Egypt,  a  city  on  the  Nile,  opposite  the  mins  of  Mem- 
phis ;  Grand  Cairo  rose  out  of  the  ruins  of  this  Babylon. 
Francis,  with  brother  llluminatus,  hastened  to  the  Chris- 
tian army,  and  upon  his  arrival  endeavoured  to  dissuade 
them  from  giving  the  enemy  battle,  foretelling  their 
defeat.  He  was  not  heard,  and  the  Christians  were 
driven  back  into  their  trenches  with  the  loss  of  6000 
men.  However,  they  continued  the  siege,  and  took  the 
city  on  the  5th  of  November  the  same  year.  In  the 
meantime  Francis,  burning  with  zeal  for  the  conversion 
of  the  Saracens,  desired  to  pass  to  their  camp,  fearing 
no  dangers  for  Christ ;  he  was  seized  by  the  scouts  of 
the  infidels,  to  whom  he  cried  out,  "  I  am  a  Christian, 
conduct  me  to  your  master."  Being  brought  before  the 
Soldan  and  asked  by  him  his  errand,  he  said  with  won- 
derful intrepidity  and  fervour,  "  I  am  sent  not  by  men, 
but  by  the  most  high  God,  to  shew  you  and  your  people 
the  way  of  salvation,  by  announcing  to  you  the  tiTith  of 
the  gospel."  The  Soldan  treated  him  with  the  respect 
which  the  Asiatics  are  accustomed  to  shew  to  the  in- 
sane, and  invited  him  to  stay  with  him.  Francis 
replied,  "  if  you  and  your  people  will  listen  to  the  word 
of  God,  I  will  with  joy  stay  with  you  ;  if  yet  you  waver 
between  Christ  and  Mahomet,  cause  a  great  fire  to  be 
kindled,  and  T  will  go  into  it  with  your  Imans,  (or  priests) 
that  you  may  see  which  is  the  true  faith."  The  Soldan 
answered  with  a  smile,  that  he  did  not  believe  any 
of  his  priests  would  be  willing  to  go  into  the  fire,  or  to 



suffer  torments  for  their  religion,  and  that  he  could  not 
accept  his  condition  for  fear  of  a  sedition.  He  offered 
him  many  presents,  which  Francis  refused.  After  some 
days  the  Soldan,  apprehending  lest  some  should  be  con- 
verted by  his  discourse,  and  desert  to  the  Christians, 
sent  him,  escorted  by  a  strong  guard,  to  their  camp  before 
Damiata,  saying  to  him  privately,  "  Pray  for  me,  that 
God  may  make  known  to  me  the  true  religion,  and  con- 
duct me  to  it." 

Francis  returned  by  Palestine  into  Italy,  where  he 
heard  with  joy  that  the  five  missionaries  whom  he  had 
sent  to  preach  to  the  Moors,  had  been  crowned  with 
martyrdom  in  Morocco.  But  he  had  the  affliction  to 
find  that  Elias,  whom  he  had  left  vicar-general  of  his 
order,  had  introduced  several  novelties  and  mitigations, 
and  wore  himself  a  habit  of  finer  stuff  than  the  rest, 
with  a  longer  capuche  or  hood,  and  longer  sleeves. 
Francis  called  such  innovators  bastard  children  of  his 
order,  and  deposed  Elias  from  his  office.  Resigning  the 
generalship  that  year,  1220,  he  caused  the  virtuous  Peter 
of  Cortona,  to  be  chosen  minister-general,  and  after  his 
death,  in  1221,  Elias  to  be  restored.  But  Peter,  and 
after  him  Elias^  out  of  respect  for  Francis,  were  only 
styled  vicars- general  till  his  death.  He  by  the  sole 
weight  of  his  authority  continued  always  to  direct  the 
government  of  his  order  while  he  lived.  In  fact,  this 
was  only  one  way  in  which  to  conceal  from  himself  his 
ambition  and  love  of  power. 

Francis  having  revised  his  rule  and  presented  it  to 
Honorius  III.,  it  was  confirmed  by  a  bull  dated  the  29th 
of  November,  1223. 

In  the  year  1215,  Count  Orlando  of  Cortona  bestowed 
on  Francis  a  secluded  and  agreeable  residence  in  Mount 
Alberno,  a  part  of  the  Apennines,  not  very  far  from 
Capraldoli  and  Val  Umbosa,  and  built  a  church  there 
for  the  friars.     The  solitude  of  the  valley  of  Fabriano 


pleased  Francis  so  much  that  he  frequently  hid  himself 
there.  Bonaventuia,  and  other  legendary  writers  of  his 
life,  assert  that  he  was  frequently  raised  from  the  ground 
in  prayer. 

The  ecstatic  teniiination  of  the  career  of  Francis  is  thus 
described  by  Bonaventura : — "  Francis,  the  servant  and 
truly  faithful  minister  of  Christ  Jesus,  being  in  prayer 
on  Monte  Laverna,  lifting  himself  to  God  by  the  seraphic 
fervour  of  his  desires,  and  transforming  himself  by  the 
movements  of  a  tender  and  affectionate  sympathy  for 
Him  Who,  in  the  excess  of  his  love,  was  willing  to  be 
crucified  for  us,  saw,  as  it  were,  a  seraph,  having  six 
shining  wings  of  fire,  descend  from  heaven.  This  ser- 
aph came  with  a  very  rapid  flight  towards  Francis ;  and 
then  he  beheld  among  the  wings  the  figure  of  a  man 
crucified,  who  had  his  hands  and  feet  extended  and 
attached  to  a  cross.  Two  of  the  wings  covered  the  head, 
two  were  extended  for  flight,  and  two  veiled  the  body. 
Francis  seeing  this  was  greatly  surprised,  and  a  joy  min- 
gled with  sadness  and^rief  filled  his  soul.  The  presence 
of  Christ,  Who  showed  Himself  under  the  figure  of  a 
seraph,  in  a  manner  so  marvellous,  so  familiar,  caused  him 
an  excess  of  pleasure,  but  at  the  grievous  spectacle  of  His 
crucifixion,  his  soul  was  pierced  with  grief  as  by  a  sword. 
He  profoundly  wondered  that  the  infirmity  of  suffering 
should  have  appeared  under  the  figure  of  a  seraph, 
knowing  well  that  it  agreed  not  with  his  condition  of 
immortality ;  and  he  could  not  comprehend  this  vision 
until  God  made  him  understand  interiorly,  that  it  had 
been  presented  to  his  eyes,  to  let  him  know  that  it  was 
not  by  the  martyrdom  of  the  flesh,  but  by  the  quickening 
of  the  soul,  that  he  could  be  entirely  transformed  into 
the  perfect  image  and  resemblance  of  Christ  crucified. 
The  vision  disappearing,  left  in  his  soul  a  seraphic 
ardour,  and  marked  his  body  with  a  figure  conformed  to 
that   of  the   crucified,    as    if   his   bodv,   like   wax,  had 


received  the  impression  of  a  seal;  for  soon  the  marks 
of  the  nails  began  to  appear  in  his  hands  and  feet, 
such  as  he  had  seen  in  the  image  of  the  God-man 
crucified.  His  hands  and  feet  were  pierced  with  nails 
in  the  middle :  the  heads  of  the  nails,  round  and  black 
were  on  the.jjalms  of  the  hands  and  fore  part  of  the  feet. 
The  points  of  the  nails,  which  were  a  little  long,  ayid  ivhich 
appeared  on  the  other  side,  ivere  hent  backwards  on  the  wound 
which  they  made.  He  also  had  on  his  right  side  a  red 
tvoiind,  as  if  he  had  been  pierced  irith  a  lance,  which  often 
shed  sacred  blood  on  his  tunic.'" 

Francis  is  said  to  have  done  all  he  could  to  conceal 
this  singular  favour  of  heaven  from  the  eyes  of  men,  and 
for  this  puqDose  he  ever  after  covered  his  hands  with  his 
habit,  and  wore  shoes  and  stockings.  That  he,  a  fanatic, 
though  a  holy  one,  imagined  that  he  had  these  marks  is 
indubitable,  but  it  can  only  have  been  from  his  assurance 
that  his  disciples  could  know  the  fact,  for  they  could  not 
see  what  he  so  carefully  concealed.  One  of  the  first 
propagators  of  the  story  was  Elias,  an  ambitious  and  not 
trust-worthy  vicar-general  of  the  order  to  whom  allusion 
has  already  been  made.  The  story  was  early  repudiated 
by  the  venerable  Bishop  of  Olmutz,  who  justly  considered 
the  miracle  derogatory  to  the  Christian  religion,  irrational, 
and  unnecessary.  He  was  silenced  by  a  papal  bull  in 
1255,  the  infallible  pope  asserting  that  the  miracle  was 
a  real  one.  In  spite  of  papal  threats,  however,  the 
Dominicans  represented  the  whole  affair  as  an  impos- 
ture, the  invention  of  the  new  order  of  Franciscans  to 
raise  their  credit ;  but  it  is  now  generally  believed  in  the 
Romish  Church  ;  and  if  Ultra-protestants  (see  the  life  of 
George  Fox, J  on  the  one  hand,  lay  claim  to  miraculous 
powers,  we  can  hardly  refuse  the  same  power  to  Roman- 
ists on  the  other,  and  we  must  concede  to  the  la-tter  that 
they  surround  their  wonder-workers  w^ith  more  of  poetic 
circumstance  than  the  former. 


Francis  did  not  long  survive  this  extraordinary  miracle; 
it  was  probably  not  an  imposture,  but  the  effect  of  a  dis- 
ordered imagination  on  his  part.  He  may  have  fancied 
that  the  circumstances  just  narrated  occurred  to  him, 
and  by  such  an  imagination,  his  frame,  already  exhausted 
by  vigils,  fastings,  and  fatigues,  would  be  seriously 
affected.  By  the  narration  of  these  wonderful  events  he 
probably  astonished  the  credulous,  while  there  were  not 
wanting  others,  as  for  example,  Pope  Alexander  the  IV th, 
who,  in  the  spirit  of  an  impostor,  would  encourage  the 
credulity  of  the  weak  and  sustain  a  profitable  falsehood. 
There  are  persons,  not  only  credulous,  but  who  actually 
encourage  themselves  in  their  credulity,  thinking  it 
sinful  even  to  seek  to  ascertain  the  truth  ;  among  Ultra- 
protestants  we  find  persons  believing  the  miracles  of 
George  Fox  and  others,  because  they  were  "  holy  beings ;" 
and  even  among  members  of  the  Church  of  England, 
persons  whose  religion  is  rather  of  the  imagination 
than  the  heart,  try  very  hard  to  believe  the  Romish 

Worn  out,  at  all  events,  Francis  was  at  this  time,  and 
he  retired  to  Assisi.  At  the  convent  of  St.  Damian  he 
found  a  temporary  repose  under  Clara  and  her  poor 
sisters.  For  twelve  months  he  was  incapacitated  for 
exertion,  but  in  the  autumn  he  began  again  to  act  as  an 
itinerant  preacher  throughout  Umbria;  and  it  was  during 
this  time  that  a  woman  of  Bagnarea  brought  an  infant 
to  him  that  it  might  be  healed.  Francis  laid  his  hands 
on  the  child  and  it  recovered  :  that  child  grew  to  be  a 
man,  and  that  man  Bonaventura,  who  proved  his  grati- 
tude by  becoming  the  biographer  of  Francis,  carefully 
recording  all  the  wonderful  circumstances  of  his  life,  and 
working  them  up  into  a  beautiful  fiction. 

As  death  approached  Francis  was  filled  with  horror  : 
but  the  dread  of  death  vanished  by  degrees,  under  his 
habitual  affiance  in  the  Divine  love,  and  under  his  no 


less  habitual  affection  for  those  in  whom  he  recognized 
the  image  of  the  Divine  nature.  Among  these  was  the 
Lady  Jacoba  di  Settesoli.  To  her  he  dictated  a  letter, 
earnestly  requesting  her  immediate  attendance  with  a 
winding-sheet  for  his  body,  with  tapers  for  his  funeral, 
and  with  the  cakes  which  she  had  been  accustomed  to 
provide  for  him  during  an  illness  at  Rome.  The  letter 
was  no  sooner  written  than  it  was  torn  ;  as  he  expressed 
his  conviction  that  Jacoba  would  of  her  own  accord 
come  to  him.  She  did  so.  The  lady  Jacoba  came  and 
comforted  the  friend  from  whom  she  had  received  com- 
fort so  often  herself.  But  their  friendship  had  been  so 
confidential,  that  it  appears  she  was  unknown  to  the 
attendants  of  Francis,  who  regarded  his  words  relating 
to  her  coming  as  a  prophecy,  and  looked  upon  the  whole 
affair  with  the  vague  and  apprehensive  sense  of  some 
awful  mystery.  As  an  eloquent  writer  observes  :  "  With 
no  failure  of  the  reverence  due  to  so  great  a  man,  it  may 
be  reasonably  conjectured  that  he  had  found  in  Jacoba 
that  intense  and  perfect  sympathy  to  which  the  difference 
of  sex  is  essential,  and  which  none  but  the  pure  in 
heart  have  ever  entertained." 

Francis  gave  his  blessing  to  his  attendants,  and  be- 
queathed to  Bernard  the  government  of  the  Franciscan 
society.  He  then  dictated  his  last  will,  in  which  the 
rules  he  had  already  promulgated  were  explained  and 
enforced.  He  recommends  his  religious  brethren  always 
to  honour  the  priests  and  pastors  of  the  Church  as  their 
masters,  faithfully  to  observe  their  rule,  and  to  work  with 
their  hands,  not  out  of  desire  of  gain,  but  for  the  sake  of 
example,  and  to  avoid  idleness.  "If  we  receive  nothing 
for  our  work,"  says  he,  "let  us  have  recourse  to  the 
table  of  the  Lord,  the  begging  of  alms  from  door  to  door." 
He  ordered  that  they  who  knew  not  how  to  work  should 
learn  some  trade.  But  as  even  saints  may  err.  Pope 
Nicholas  III.  declared  that  this  precept  of  manual  labour 


does  not  regard  those  who  are  in  holy  orders  and  are  em- 
ployed in  preaching. 

Francis  died  in  ]  226.  He  was  canonized  by  Gregory 
IX.  in  the  year  1230.  His  order  soon  rose  to  great 
splendour,  and  by  the  zeal  of  its  members,  and  the  ac- 
tivity with  which  they  employed  themselves  in  discover- 
ing and  extirpating  heretics,  and  their  incessant  labours 
to  enforce  implicit  obedience  to  the  Roman  pontiffs,  did 
great  service  at  one  time  to  the  Romish  cause,  although 
they  also  damaged  that  cause  by  their  corruptions  at  a 
later  period. 

Francis  was  the  author  of  Sermones  breves,  Colla- 
tiones  Monasticse,  Testamentum  Fratrum  Mionorum, 
Oantica  Spiritualia,  Admonitiones,  Epistola)  Benedic- 
tiones,  which  were  collected  and  published  at  Paris  in 
1641,  by  John  de  la  Haye,  in  one  volume,  folio. — Bona- 
ventura.  De  Malan.  L' Alcoran  des  Cordeliers.  Edinburgh 


Feancis  de  Borgia,  Grandee  of  Spain,  Duke  of  Gan- 
dia,  and  third  general  of  the  Jesuits,  was  born  at  Gandia, 
a  town  in  the  kingdom  of  Valencia,  in  1510,  of  an  illus- 
trious family.  His  Father  was  John  de  Borgia,  Duke  of 
Gandia.  One  of  his  family  had  become  pope  under  the 
name  of  Calixtus  III. ;  and  he  was  descended,  on  the 
mother's  side,  from  Ferdinand  V.  His  mother,  Johanna 
of  Arragon,  took  great  care  to  give  him  a  religious  educa- 
tion ;  and,  when  he  was  old  enough,  had  him  instructed 
in  the  first  elements  of  the  sciences.  He  was  only  ten 
years  old  when  she  died,  and  two  years  after,  his  father, 
being  obliged  to  quit  Gandia  on  account  of  the  troubles 
which  were  then  beginning  in  Spain,  took  him  to  Sarra- 
gossa,  and  placed  hira  under  the  care  of  his  uncle,  Don 


John  of  Avragon,  who  was  archbishop  of  that  place.  This 
prelate  undertook  to  continue  the  education  of  his  nephew, 
which  he  conducted  with  the  greatest  cave,  Francis  made 
rapid  progress  in  secular  learning,  was  very  successful  in 
all  the  exercises  suitable  to  his  birth,  and,  what  is  more 
rare,  never  neglected  those  pious  duties  to  which  he  had 
always  been  trained.  When  he  was  fifteen,  his  father 
placed  him  at  court  as  page  to  the  Infanta  Catherine, 
sister  to  Charles  V. 

But  when  this  princess  left  Spain  in  1526,  on  her 
marriage  with  the  king  of  Portugal,  the  Duke  of  Gandia, 
who  had  higher  views  for  his  son,  sent  him  back  to  his 
uncle,  in  order  that  he  might  complete  his  education. 
The  young  Don  Francis  had  a  strong  inclination  for  the 
monastic  life ;  but  as  this  was  contrary  to  the  views  of 
his  friends,  he  was  sent  to  the  court  of  Charles  V.  in 
1528.  Although  only  eighteen,  Don  Francis  shewed 
such  great  qualities,  conducted  himself  with  so  much 
wisdom,  prudence,  and  modesty,  and  knew  so  well  how 
to  unite  his  duties  as  a  courtier  with  those  which  he 
owed  to  God,  that  the  emperor  and  his  wife  Isabella 
esteemed  him  highly. 

The  Empress  Isabella,  a  woman  of  great  merit,  to 
testify  her  admiration  of  his  conduct,  caused  him  to 
marry  Eleanor  de  Castro,  a  lady  of  high  birth,  whom 
she  had  brought  with  her  from  Portugal,  and  to  whom 
she  was  much  attached.  The  emperor  also  bestowed 
on  him  several  marks  of  his  favour  ;  he  made  him  master 
of  the  horse  to  the  empress,  and  created  him  Mar- 
quis of  Lombay.  But  his  heart  was  not  coriiipted  by 
this  worldly  greatness,  he  knew  how  to  appreciate  it. 
The  death  of  Maria  Henriquery,  his  grandmother,  and 
of  his  friend  Don  Garcilasso  de  la  Vega,  (a  celebrated 
Spanish  poet,  who  was  killed  suddenly  in  the  flower  of 
his  age,  during  an  expedition  into  Provence,)  and  his 
own  ill  health,  convinced   him  more   than  ever  of  the 


instability  of  human  life  ;  the  death  of  the  Empress 
Isabella,  and  the  part  he  had  to  take  at  her  funeral,  also 
affected  him  greatly.  This  princess  died  during  the  sit- 
ting of  the  states  of  Castille,  in  1539.  Don  Francis,  as 
the  master  of  horse,  and  the  marchioness  his  wife,  were 
ordered  to  attend  the  body  to  Grenada,  the  place  of 
burial.  It  was  the  custom,  that  at  the  moment  of  inhu- 
mation, the  person  who  had  accompanied  the  royal  corpse, 
after  having  opened,  and  looked  into  the  coffin,  should 
swear  that  it  contained  the  remains  committed  to  his 
care.  The  dreadful  state  of  corruption  and  putrefaction 
of  the  countenance,  which,  but  a  short  time  before,  had 
shone  with  beauty  and  majesty,  but  which  now  was 
hardly  to  be  recognized,  made  a  deep  impression  on  Don 
Francis,  and  shewed  in  the  strongest  colours  the  nothing- 
ness of  our  nature.  He  swore  that  it  was  the  corpse  of 
Isabella,  but  he  swore  at  the  same  time  to  leave  the 
service  of  an  earthly  master,  and  devote  himself  to  One 
Who  is  eternal  and  can  never  change.  It  was  then  that 
he  determined  to  enter  a  convent  whenever  his  wife  died. 
But  before  he  accomplished  this  design  he  received  ano- 
ther mark  of  the  emperor's  favour.  He  was  nominated 
viceroy  of  Catalonia,  and  a  knight  of  St.  James.  His 
new  rank  increased  his  opportunities  of  doing  good,  and 
he  availed  himself  of  them.  He  expelled  the  brigands 
who  infested  the  country,  saw  justice  more  equally  dis- 
pensed, founded  new  schools,  and  reformed  the  old  ones, 
and  by  these  means,  as  well  as  by  his  good  example, 
contributed,  as  much  as  lay  in  his  power,  to  the  growth 
of  religion  and  morality  among  his  people. 

It  was  during  the  time  of  his  residence  at  Barcelona, 
as  viceroy,  that  he  first  became  acquainted  with  father 
Araos,  one  of  the  first  of  the  Jesuits,  who  came  there  to 
preach.  He  commenced  a  correspondence  with  Ignatius, 
whose  letters  confirmed  him  in  the  good  opinion  he  had 
formed  of  that  order.     His  father  dying  about  this  time, 

VOL  V,  U 


he  became  Duke  of  Gandia ;  he  begged  the  emperor  s 
permission  to  retire  from  court,  which  was  readily  grant- 
ed, but  on  condition  of  his  returning. 

The  emperor  wished  to  make  Don  Francis  controller 
of  the  household  to  the  Infanta  Maria  of  Portugal,  who 
was  going  to  marry  his  son  Philip,   and  the   Duchess 
Eleanor  was  to  have  been  one  of  her  ladies.     But  the 
infanta  dying,  Don  Francis  was  again  at  liberty,  and  he 
returned  to  Gandia  in  1545.     The  esteem  which  he  had 
for  the  Jesuits  induced  him  to  found  in  this  place  (the 
chief  town  in  his  duchy,)  a  college  for  them,  which  after- 
wards became  a  university,  and  was  the  first  in  which 
they  taught.    About  this  time  his  wife  died,  leaving  eight 
children.    He  felt  his  loss  very  deeply,  and  it  determined 
him  to  accomplish  his  vow  of  becoming  a  monk.     As  he 
had  decided  upon  the  order  of  Jesuits,  he  wrote  to  Igna- 
tius and  obtained  his  consent.     He  was  then  only  thirty- 
six.     He  immediately  began  to  put  his  affairs  in  order, 
and  provide  for  his  children,  occupying  himself  at  the 
same  time  with  studies  suitable  to  the  state  into  which 
he  was   about  to  enter.     As  these  occupations  seemed 
likely  to  detain  him  longer  than  he  wished,  Ignatius 
obtained  from  the  pope  two  bulls,  which  authorized  Don 
Francis  to  remain  in  the  world  four  years  after  his  pro- 
fession :  accordingly  he  took  the  vows.     But  he  did  not 
wait  the  time  fixed  by  the  pope ;  he  went  to  Rome  in 
1550.     Julius  III.,  who  then  filled  the  papal  throne, 
received  him  with  so  much  kindness,  and  showed  so  much 
esteem  for  him,  that,  fearful  of  being  made  a  cardinal, 
Borgia  hastened  back  to  Spain,   and  retired  to  a  hermi- 
tage, near  the  little  town  of  Onata,  in  Biscay.     Here  he 
received  priest's  orders  and  devoted  himself  to  preaching. 
But  an  order  from  Ignatius  brought  him  into  a  larger 
sphere  of  action ;  he  was  sent  to  preach  in  the  principal 
towns  of  Spain  and  Portugal.     This  Don  Francis  did 
with  such  zeal  that  the  fruits  of  his  preaching  appeared 


in  all  the  places  he  visited.  He  also  went  to  the  different 
establishments  of  his  order,  in  the  provinces  of  Spain, 
in  the  quality  of  vicar-general. 

When  Ignatius  died,  in  1556,  father  Francis  excused 
himself  from  going  to  Rome  for  the  election  of  the  new 
general.  He  was  afraid  of  being  himself  elected  to  that 
office ;  and  even  if  that  were  not  done,  it  was  highly 
probable  that  the  pope  would  force  him  to  accept  a  car- 
dinal's hat,  or  some  other  ecclesiastical  dignity. 

Charles  V.  had  lately  retired  to  the  monastery  of  St. 
Just,  and  he  now  sent  for  father  Francis,  asked  his 
advice  on  many  points,  and  gave  him  various  commis- 
sions. The  emperor  was  much,  and  justly,  prejudiced 
against  the  Jesuits,  and  even  tried  to  persuade  Borgia  to 
quit  the  society.  But  he  was  unsuccessful,  and  Francis 
destroyed  these  impressions.  When  Charles  died  he 
nominated  him  one  of  his  executors,  and  Borgia  pro- 
nounced the  funeral  oration  over  that  great  prince. 
Meanwhile  father  Lainey  had  been  elected  general  of  the 
Jesuits,  but  at  the  same  time  he  was  ordered  by  the  pope 
to  accompany  Cardinal  Ferrara  in  his  legation  to  France. 
Salmeron,  his  vicar,  was  also  obliged  to  attend  the  council 
of  Trent,  and  Francis  was  called  to  take  his  place. 

On  the  death  of  Lainey,  in  1565,  Borgia  was  elected 
general,  in  spite  of  his  dislike  of  so  high  an  office. 

The  Jesuits  were  much  advanced  under  his  rule  ;  he 
founded  a  noviciate  at  Rome,  multiplied  and  directed  the 
missions,  paid  much  attention  to  the  method  of  preach- 
ing and  teaching,  upheld  the  institutions,  and  strength- 
ened them  by  new  rules,  and  put  the  finishing  stroke  to 
this  system  of  administration ;  while  at  the  same  time 
he  contributed  greatly  to  the  advancement  of  science  and 

Such  exertions  greatly  tried  his  health,  which  was 
very  feeble;  but,  at  the  desire  of  the  pope,  Pius  V.,  he 
accompanied    Cardinal  Alexandria   on   his   legation   in 


France,  Spain,  and  Portugal,  to  implore  the  assistance 
of  Christian  princes  to  stop  the  progress  of  the  Turks. 
On  his  return,  Borgia  became  dangerously  ill  at  Ferrara, 
and  was  obliged  to  continue  his  journey  in  a  litter. 

Borgia  would  have  been  elevated  to  the  pontificate  on 
the  death  of  Pius  V.,  had  not  the  state  of  his  health 
prevented  it.  Cardinal  Buon  Compagno  was  elected, 
and  took  the  name  of  Gregory  XIII. 

Father  Francis  arrived  at  Rome,  but  never  recovered 
his  health.  He  expired  the  night  of  the  30th  Sept.,  ]  574, 
and  was  buried  by  the  side  of  Ignatius  and  Lainey.  His 
body  was  exhumed  in  1617,  and  conveyed,  by  order  of 
his  grandson.  Cardinal  Duke  of  Lerma,  prime  minister 
of  Philip  III.  of  Spain,  to  the  church  of  the  Jesuits  in 
Madrid,  where  it  became  an  object  of  adoration  to  the 
superstitious  and  ignorant. 

Borgia  was  canonized  by  Clement  IX.,  in  1671.  He 
wrote  several  works  in  Spanish,  which  have  been  tran- 
slated into  Latin  by  Alphonso  Deza. — Lecuy.  Biog. 
Univei  sells . 


Francts  DE  Paula,  founder  of  the  order  of  Minims, 
was  so  named  after  a  town  in  Calabria,  where  he  was 
born,  the  ;i7th  of  May,  1416. 

According  to  the  author  of  the  Chronicles  of  the  Min- 
ims, his  family  was  illustrious,  but  much  reduced  by 
misfortunes  ;  but  the  general  opinion  is,  that  his  parents 
were  of  humble  origin,  and  more  illustrious  by  their  piety 
than  by  their  birth. 

His  father's  name  was  James  Martotille,  or  Martorelle, 
and  his  mother's,  Vienna  of  Fuscaldo.  They  had  been 
married  several  years  without  having  children  ;  at  length, 


a  son  was  born,  and  as  they  falsely  imagined  that  their 
prayers  had  been  heard  through  the  intercession  of  Fran- 
cis of  Assisi,  they  not  only  named  their  child  after  that 
dead  man,  but  determined  he  should  enter  the  Franciscan 

The  child  did  not  oppose  their  wishes  as  he  grew  up ; 
on  the  contrary,  he  manifested  from  his  earliest  years  a 
preference  for  a  life  of  solitude  and  self-deniaL  In  order 
to  acquit  themselves  of  their  vow,  Francis'  parents  took 
him,  when  he  was  twelve  years  old,  to  the  convent  of 
Cordeliers  of  St.  Mark.  He  remained  there  a  year, 
wearing  the  dress  of  the  Franciscans,  and  astonishing 
even  the  monks  by  his  piety.  From  that  time  he  re- 
nounced the  use  of  linen  and  meat,  and  led  as  mortified 
a  life  as  the  most  rigid  ascetic.  When  his  parents  came 
to  take  him  from  this  convent,  he  desired  to  be  permitted 
to  perform  pilgrimages  to  different  shrines,  particularly 
to  that  of  Francis  of  Assisi,  and  to  the  chapel  of  St. 
Marie  des  Anges.  They  conducted  him  to  these  places, 
and  afterwards  took  him  with  them  to  Rome,  to  the 
tombs  of  the  apostles.  They  returned  by  Spoletta,  and 
visited  Mont-Cassin.  What  he  saw  of  the  lives  of  the 
monks  who  lived  there,  still  further  inclined  him  to  a 
solitary  life. 

When  Francis  returned  to  Paula  he  renounced  all  that 
would  have  been  his  inheritance,  and  went  to  live  in  a 
lonely  place  which  belonged  to  his  family.  But  he  found 
even  this  too  public,  for  he  was  frequently  disturbed  by 
people,  who  came  from  the  town,  carious  to  see  so  youth- 
ful an  hermit.  He  therefore  chose  an  habitation  near 
the  sea  side ;  he  made  a  sort  of  grotto  in  the  rock,  and 
there  he  gave  himself  up  to  his  devotions.  He  slept  on 
the  bare  rock,  and  lived  on  herbs,  which  he  gathered 
himself,  or  some  coarse  food  which  was  occasionally 
given  him  by  the  charitable.  When  he  was  only  twenty 
years  of  age,  several  persons,  touched  by  his  extraordinary 


piety,  came  and  put  themselves  under  his  direction.  He 
did  not  think  it  right  to  oppose  their  designs,  and  they 
therefore  constructed  small  cells  near  his  grotto,  and  an 
oratory,  where  a  neighbouring  priest  said  mass.  But  as 
the  number  of  penitents  increased,  Francis  obtained 
permission  from  the  Archbishop  of  Cosence,  to  build  a 
monastery  and  church. 

The  whole  neighbourhood  had  been  so  much  edified 
by  their  piety,  that  every  one  was  eager  to  assist,  and  the 
ladies  not  only  contributed  money,  but  even  worked  with 
their  own  hands.  The  building  was,  consequently,  soon 
completed,  and  in  1436  was  capable  of  containing  a  large 
number  of  persons.  This  was  the  commencement  of  the 
new  order  established  by  Francis,  under  the  title  of 
"  Hermits  of  St.  Francis."  The  founder  wished  humility 
to  be  the  basis  of  this  new  establishment,  and  adopted 
the  word  charity  as  a  devise  for  it.  He  added  to  the 
three  vows  common  to  all  monastic  institutions  a  fourth, 
that  of  a  perpetual  lent  throughout  the  year ;  that  is  to 
say,  those  who  took  this  vow  abstained,  (except  in  case  of 
illness,)  not  only  from  meat,  but  also  from  eggs  and  milk. 
Francis  imposed  still  severer  rules  on  himself.  He  slept 
on  the  ground,  did  not  taste  food  till  after  sunset,  ate  no 
fish,  frequently  had  nothing  but  bread  and  water,  and 
that  only  every  other  day.  Notwithstanding  the  severity 
of  the  rules,  many  more  convents  were  founded  on  this 
plan.  There  w^as  one  at  Paterno,  and  another  at  Spe- 
zano ;  and  others,  not  only  in  Calabria,  but  in  Naples 
and  Sicily. 

The  wonders  which  were  told  of  him,  and  the  mir- 
acles and  predictions  which  were  attributed  to  him, 
reached  the  ears  of  the  pope,  Paul  II.,  who  sent  one 
of  his  chamberlains  to  examine  into  the  truth  of  the 

It  was  not,  however,  till  after  the  death  of  Paul,  that 
Sextus  IV.  confirmed  the  statutes  of  the  new  order  bv  a 


bull,   and  named  Francis  superior  general  in  the  year 
1474.    At  the  same  time  he  granted  permission  to  found 
as  many  colonies  as  were  necessary,  and  confirmed  the 
exemption  allowed  by  the  Archbishop  of  Cosence  to  the 
convents  situated  in  his  diocese.     The  statutes,  with  a 
few  alterations,  were  also  confirmed  by  bulls  of  Innocent 
YIIL,  Alexander  VI.,  and  Julius  II.    Alexander  changed 
the  name  of  the  order  from  Hermits  of  St.  Francis  to  that 
of  Minims,  which  appeared  to  him  to  express  better  the 
humility  these  men  professed.    Louis  XI.  of  France,  who 
was  then  dangerously  ill,  hearing  of  the   extraordinary 
cures  attributed  to  Francis,  thought  he  might  recover  his 
health  by  his  intercession.     He  sent  to  beg  Francis  to 
come  to  him,  promising  great  advantages  to  him  and 
his  order.     Francis  did  not  judge  it  necessary  to  attend 
to  a  desire  which  appeared  to  him  to  be  dictated  by 
love  of  life,  rather  than  by  a  desire  of  salvation.     Louis 
had  recourse  to  the  mediation  of  the  King  of  Naples, 
but  he   was  not   more  successful ;    when,    however,    he 
appealed    to    Sextus   IV.,    and   that   pope   issued    two 
briefs  inviting  Francis   to  satisfy  the  King  of  France, 
he  thought  he  was  no  longer  justified  in  refusing.     He 
set  off,   accompanied  by  his  nephew,  Andrew  dAlesso, 
and  several   of  his  monks.     His  fame  preceded  him  and 
procured    for  him   extraordinary   honours.      In  passing 
through  Naples,    "  he  was,"  says  Commines,    "  visited 
by  the  king  and  his  children ;  at  Kome  by  all  the  car- 
dinals,  and  had  three  private   audiences  of   the  pope, 
being  seated  by  him  in  a  fine  chair,   for  three  or  four 
hours    each  time ;    from  thence  he   went   to  the  king, 
honoured  as  though  he  were  pope."      That  prince,  who 
was   very   fond    of   life,    awaited   his    arrival   with    im- 
patience.     He  sent  the  dauphin  and  the  greatest  lords 
of  his  court  to  Amboise  to  meet  him.     When  Francis 
arrived   at    Plessis-lcs-Tours,    where    Louis   lived,    that 
prince  threw  himself  at  his  feet,  beseeching  him  to  pro^ 


long  his  days.  "  The  pious  hermit,"  continues  Com- 
mines,  "  replied  as  a  wise  man  ought,  and  refused  the 
magnificent  presents  the  king  offered  him."  But  though 
he  could  not  lengthen  his  life,  he  could  teach  him  how 
to  die.  Francis  had  no  less  favour  in  the  courts  of 
Louis'  successors,  Charles  VIII.  and  Louis  XII.  These 
princes  retained  him  and  his  monks  in  France.  Charles 
VIII.  consulted  him  on  all  affairs  of  importance,  and 
wished  him  to  be  sponsor  to  his  son ;  he  had  a  monastery- 
built  for  him  at  Plessis-les-Tours,  and  another  at  Amboise, 
and  loaded  him  with  honour  and  respect.  Other  princes 
showed  great  favour  to  the  Minims ;  Anne  of  Bretagne 
gave  them  her  castle  of  Nigeon  near  Chaillot,  for  a 
monastery.  The  emperor  and  the  king  of  Spain  were 
also  anxious  to  have  some  of  this  order  in  their  domini- 
ons ;  in  Spain  they  were  called  Brothers  of  Victory,  in 
memory  of  the  taking  of  Malaga  from  the  Moors,  which 
event  Francis,  as  it  is  pretended,  had  predicted.  At  Paris 
they  went  by  the  name  of  Bons-Hommes,  either  because 
the  courtiers  treated  Francis  de  bon  homme,  or  because 
the  Minims  had  succeeded,  at  Vincenne,  some  Gram- 
montains,  who  went  by  that  name.  However  that  might 
be,  Francis  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing,  before  his  death, 
his  order  spread  over  Europe.  He  lived  to  a  great  age, 
in  spite  of  the  severities  he  exercised  on  himself.  He 
was  nearly  ninety-two  when  he  fell  ill  at  Plessis-les- 
Tours,  in  1507  ;  he  died  the  2nd  of  April,  which  was 
Good-Friday  that  year.  He  was  canonized  twelve  years 
after  his  death  by  Leo  X.  The  Roman  Catholic  Church 
celebrates  his  feast  on  the  2nd  of  April.  In  1562  the 
Huguenots  exhumed  his  body,  and  after  subjecting  it  to 
all  manner  of  indignities,  burnt  it  with  a  large  crucifix. 
It  is  pretended  that  some  of  his  bones  were  saved  and 
given  to  different  churches.  The  Minims  have  convents 
for  women ;  there  are  two  in  France,  one  at  Abbeville, 
and  one  at  Soisson. — Lecvy.    Biog.  Universelle. 

'  FRANCIS  DE  SALES.  '221 


Francis  de  Sales,  Bishop  of  Geneva,  son  of  Francis 
Comte  de  Sales,  and  of  Frances  de  Sionas,  was  born  in 
the  castle  of  Sales,  (commune  of  Thoreus,)  in  Savoy, 
April  21st,  1567.  His  feeble  and  sickly  constitution  was 
gradually  strengthened  by  his  mother's  care ;  and  having, 
contrary  to  the  expectation  of  every  one,  survived  the 
dangers  of  childhood,  he  grew  tall  and  healthy.  Great 
pains  were  bestowed  on  his  education ;  and  the  qualities 
of  his  mind  and  heart  were  carefully  cultivated ;  the 
examples  of  virtue  set  him  by  his  parents  tended  much 
to  nourish  the  good  seed  which  they  had  sown  in  his 
heart.  All  the  histories  of  Francis  of  Sales  are  full  of 
traits  of  character,  which  shew  a  tender  and  sensitive 
mind.  At  the  age  of  six  he  was  sent  to  the  college  of 
La  Roche,  and  afterwards  to  that  of  Anneci.  He  did 
not  there  lose  any  of  the  religious  feeling  with  which 
his  mother  had  inspired  him ;  he  also  showed  so  great 
an  aptitude  for  secular  learning,  that  his  father  conceived 
the  hope  that  he  would  rise  to  great  distinction,  and 
therefore  sent  him  to  Paris  to  complete  his  studies.  Be- 
fore quitting  his  own  country,  Francis  received  ecclesias- 
tical tonsure.  He  arrived  at  Paris  in  1578,  under  the 
care  of  a  prudent  and  clever  priest,  and  entered  a  Jesuit 
college,  where  he  studied  rhetoric  with  great  success. 
When  he  had  completed  his  course  of  philosophy,  he 
learnt  horsemanship,  fencing,  dancing,  and  other  accom- 
plishments suitable  to  his  rank ;  but  as  he  only  applied 
to  these  exercises  to  please  his  parents,  he  studied  at  the 
same  time  Hebrew,  Greek,  and  positive  theology,  under 
Genebrard  and  Maldonat,  professors  of  great  reputation. 
The  great  piety  which  he  professed  brought  him  into  a 
great  temptation,  which  would  doubtless  have  been  fatal 
to  him,  had  he  not  been  delivered  by  his  trust  in  the 
mercy  of  God.     He  was  only  sixteen  when  he  had  com- 

VOL  V.  X 


pleted  his  studies  ;  his  father,  the  Count  de  Sales,  de- 
sired him  to  visit  the  principal  provinces  in  France,  and 
then  to  return  to  the  paternal  roof.  His  journey  was 
shortened  by  the  civil  war,  which  was  then  desolating  the 
country.  He  arrived,  in  1584,  at  the  chateau  de  Sales, 
but  he  again  left  it  to  study  the  law  at  Padua.  The  first 
care  of  the  young  Francis  was  to  choose  a  confessor,  and 
he  fixed  upon  Antoine  Possevin,  a  Jesuit,  who  seemed  to 
have  a  presentiment  of  the  future  fame  of  his  charge. 

One  day,  when  the  young  student  was  telling  him  of 
his  love  of  theology,  the  venerable  monk  earnestly  en- 
treated him  to  cultivate  this  taste,  "  because,"  he  said, 
"  God  had  destined  him  to  preach  His  word  to  His 
rebellious  people,  and  to  become  the  support  of  the  faith 
in  his  country ;  and  he  therefore  ought  to  endeavour  to 
render  himself  fit  for  so  sublime  a  mission,  for  science 
without  virtue  would  be  insufficient,  or  virtue  without 
science."  He  added,  that  he  knew  by  experience,  in 
voyages  that  he  had  undertaken  by  order  of  the  pope 
into  the  reformed  states,  that  the  ignorance  of  the  clergy 
had  greatly  contributed  to  the  increase  of  what  he  called 
heresy,  among  a  people  fond  of  liberty.  From  this  time 
father  Possevin  directed  the  studies  of  Francis  de  Sales. 
He  explained  to  him  the  works  of  Aquinas,  and  the 
controversial  writings  of  Bellarmine,  which  were  then 
new  works.  He  also  gave  him  lessons  in  eloquence,  in 
which  science  he  was  a  great  proficient ;  but  he  applied 
himself  most  diligently  to  strengthen  his  pupil's  love  of 

In  the  meantime,  the  fellow-students  of  Francis  de 
Sales,  jealous  of  the  preference  which  the  professors 
showed  for  him,  put  his  courage  and  principles  to  proof 
by  frequent  attacks,  but  he  knew  how  to  repulse  them, 
without  disguise.  After  these  victories,  he  applied  him- 
self, with  redoubled  ardour,  to  prayer  and  self-denial,  in 
order  to  fortify  himself  for  any  future  attacks.  His 
anxiety  and  exertion  were  so  great  that  they  brought 


on  a  violent  fever,  followed  by  a  dysentery,  which  was 
nearly  fatal ;  but  he  recovered  by  degrees  and  resumed 
his  studies.  He  took  the  degree  of  doctor  of  civil  and 
canon  law  very  soon  after. 

In  1591  he  began,  by  his  father's  order,  the  tour  of 
Italy.  He  visited  Ferrara  and  Rome,  where  he  paid  less 
attention  to  the  monuments  of  the  departed  greatness  of 
the  former  masters  of  the  world,  than  to  the  churches 
and  catacombs,  which  may  be  considered  to  have  been 
the  cradle  of  the  Western  Church.  The  sight  of  the 
spot  rendered  sacred  by  the  blood  of  martyrs,  excited 
his  feelings,  and  caused  him  to  make  a  resolution  to  shed 
the  last  drop  of  his  blood  in  defence  of  his  faith,  and  in 
the  extirpation  of  error. 

From  Rome  he  went  to  Lorretto  and  Ancona.  During 
his  stay  at  Venice  he  had  the  happiness  of  bringing  back 
a  young  friend  of  his  to  the  paths  of  virtue,  who  pos- 
sessed, in  spite  of  his  former  bad  habits,  many  brilliant 
talents  and  virtues. 

Francis  was  only  six-and-twenty  when  he  returned  to 
his  family,  preceded  by  his  fame,  and  many  means  of 
increasing  it.  As  soon  as  he  had  recovered  from  the 
fatigue  of  his  journey  he  visited  Claude  de  Granier, 
Bishop  of  Geneva,  a  wise  man,  and  a  great  friend  of  his 
father.  This  prelate,  much  embarrassed  by  difficult 
circumstances,  consulted  Francis  de  Sales,  and  the  young 
man  replied  with  so  much  wisdom,  moderation  and 
eloquence,  that  the  bishop,  by  a  kind  of  presentiment, 
considered  him,  from  that  time,  as  his  successor,  and  did 
all  he  could  to  realize  his  hopes.  The  Count  de  Sales 
wished  his  son  to  become  a  senator  of  Chamberi,  and 
therefore  sent  him  to  that  town,  in  order  to  be  there 
received  as  a  lawyer.  He  was  received  with  great  eclat, 
and  it  was  thought  that,  after  such  a  commencement,  he 
would  rise  to  the  highest  dignities  ;  vain  hopes !  Francis 
de  Sales  only  obtained  the  friendship  of  Antoine  Favre, 
afterwards  president  of  the  senate,  and  this  considered 


a  great  deal.  When  he  returned  to  his  parents  he 
informed  his  tutor,  who  never  left  him,  of  his  design  of 
leaving  the  world  and  taking  orders,  and  he  brought  him 
over  to  his  interests.  The  Count  de  Sales  wished  him 
to  marry  a  demoiselle  de  Vergy,  of  one  of  the  most 
illustrious  families  of  the  province.  Francis,  without 
declaring  his  intention,  shewed  so  much  dislike  to  this 
plan,  that  his  father  was  displeased  with  him.  In- 
stead, however,  of  yielding  to  the  wishes  of  his  parents, 
he  employed  the  mediation  of  his  cousin,  Louis  de  Sales, 
monk  of  Geneva,  whose  piety  was  well  known.  He  asked 
for  time  to  speak  to  the  Count  de  Sales.  In  the  mean 
time  the  office  of  provost  of  the  cathedral  became  vacant, 
and  Louis  obtained  this  dignity  from  the  pope,  for  his 
cousin ;  he  went  to  the  Count  de  Sales  with  the  bulls  of 
collation,   and  informed  him  of  his  son's  determination. 

This  unexpected  announcement  greatly  afflicted  both 
his  parents  ;  but  after  some  days  of  reflection  their  piety 
prevailed,  and  they  consented  to  the  most  painful  sacri- 
fice that  could  have  been  demanded  of  them.  Francis 
undertook  the  office  to  which  he  had  been  appointed,  to 
the  satisfaction  of  the  chapter,  and  above  all,  to  the 
bishop,  who  soon  admitted  him  into  the  inferior  orders, 
the  subdiaconate  and  the  diaconate,  in  spite  of  the  oppo- 
sition of  Francis  himself,  who  did  not  wish  to  be  raised 
so  soon,  alleging  his  unworthiness.  While  he  was  a 
deacon  he  preached  several  times  to  a  numerous  audience, 
and  his  sermons  made  a  strong  impression,  even  on  the 
protestants  who  were  present. 

He  was  elevated  to  the  priesthood  in  1593,  after  care- 
ful preparation,  and  became,  to  the  town  of  Anneci  and 
the  neighbourhood,  an  example  of  piety,  meekness,  and 
charity.  He  instituted  about  this  time,  the  Brotherhood 
of  the  Cross,  designed  to  assist  in  instructing  the  poor, 
comforting  and  helping  the  indigent,  visiting  the  prison- 
ers, banishing  lawsuits,  and  other  good  works,  under  the 
superintendence  of  the  clergy.     The  same  year  the  Duke 


of  Savoy  (Charles  Emmanuel  I.)  who  had  already  wished 
to  nominate  him  to  the  senate,  renewed  his  offers ;  his 
parents  joined  their  entreaties ;  but  to  no  purpose. 
Francis  persisted  in  his  refusal.  In  1594  the  Duke  of 
Savoy,  wishing  to  reconcile  Chablais  and  the  districts  of 
Gaillard,  Ternice,  and  Gex,  to  the  Romish  Church,  wrote 
to  the  Bishop  of  Geneva,  begging  him  to  send  mission- 
aries there.  The  bishop  proposed  this  entei-prise  in  an 
assembly  of  his  clergy ;  but  Francis  and  Louis  de  Sales 
would  alone  undertake  it. 

They  set  off  in  spite  of  the  representations  of  their 
friends  and  relations,  and  arrived  at  the  fortress  of 
Alinges,  where  they  were  well  received  by  the  governor, 
the  Baron  d'Hermanea.  This  wise  soldier  gave  them 
valuable  information  concerning  the  manners  of  the  peo- 
ple of  Chablais,  and  advised  to  behave  towards  them 
with  discretion,  gentleness  and  condescension ;  not  to 
tease  them  with  what  was  not  essential;  to  avoid  all 
singularity,  and  all  that  is  inspired  by  zeal  ungoverned 
by  prudence.  Francis  followed  this  advice  the  more  rea- 
dily as  it  was  quite  agreeable  to  his  character.  He  was 
accustomed  to  say  that  "  he  ought  not  to  be  obstinately 
attached  to  things  indifferent,  if  his  brother  regarded 
them  as  important."  The  mission  was  commenced  at 
Thouon,  the  capital  of  the  province,  after  many  difficulties 
thrown  in  their  way  by  the  protestants,  and  in  spite  of 
their  menaces,  by  two  priests,  assisted  by  a  few  Capu- 
chins, and  without  other  arms  than  the  word  of  God. 
For  a  long  time  no  one  would  listen  to  Francis  ;  never- 
theless, he  went  every  day  to  Thouon,  through  the  worst 
weather  and  innumerable  dangers.  The  protestants  in 
the  garrison  of  Alinges  were  less  firm.  They  listened 
to  the  w^ords  of  the  missionaries,  and  were  nearly  all 
persuaded  to  join  the  Romish  Church,  their  example 
being  influential  upon  others.  This  success  in  making 
converts  to  the  Church  of  Rome  was  such,  as  to  bring  in 
congratulations  from  all  sides.  The  Duke  of  Savoy  wrote, 
VOL  v.  Y 


and  the  pope  addressed  a  brief  to  him,  in  1596.  Clement 
VIII.,  who  thought  that  every  thing  must  yield  to  Francis 
de  Sales'  gentleness  and  talents,  desired  him  to  restore 
Theodore  de  Beza  to  the  unity  of  the  Church,  at  any 
price.  Francis  felt  the  importance  of  this  work;  but 
the  Duke  of  Savoy  ordered  him  to  go  to  Turin,  and  he 
obeyed.  The  audiences  he  had  of  this  prince  respecting 
the  re-establishment  of  public  worship  at  Chablais,  pro- 
cured him  his  affection  and  esteem.  On  his  return  to 
Thouon  he  took  possession,  by  virtue  of  the  duke's  letters 
patent,  of  the  church  of  St.  Hyppolite,  which  he  had 
restored,  and  celebrated  mass  there  on  Christmas-day. 

The  account  of  his  conduct,  which  he  transmitted  to 
the  court,  was  highly  approved  of,  while  relations  of  the 
Syndics,  who  had  opposed  him,  only  obtained  reproaches. 
When  the  first  excitement  caused  by  the  inauguration  of 
the  Roman  Catholic  religion,  had  subsided,  he  went 
several  times  to  Geneva  to  see  Theodore  Beza ;  but  he 
did  not  find  him  alone  till  Easter  Tuesday,  1597. 
This  interview  did  not  give  him  much  hope,  as  may  be 
seen  by  his  letter  to  Clement  VIII.,  and  the  answer  of 
that  pontiff.  It  is  said  that  he  saw  Beza  again  three 
times,  but  was  unable  to  convert  him. 

The  plague  breaking  out  at  Annecy  that  same  year, 
Francis  de  Sales,  though  only  just  recovering  from  an 
illness,  did  not  hesitate  to  devote  himself  to  the  care  of 
the  sick,  but  the  Bishop  of  Geneva  ordered  him  to  return 
to  Chablais  and  resume  his  functions  there. 

In  1599  Francis  obtained  from  the  Duke  of  Savoy  a 
sort  of  revocation  of  the  treaty  of  Nyon,  and  the  expul- 
sion of  the  Protestant  ministers  was  the  consequence. 
Thus  Calvinism  was  banished  from  Chablais  and  the 
three  districts,  and  the  Roman  Catholic  became  by  the 
will  of  the  prince  the  established  religion.  Claude  de 
Granier,  Bishop  of  Geneva,  to  shew  his  gratitude  to 
Francis  de  Sales,  made  him  his  coadjutor.  His  friends 
had  great   difticulty   in   [)er.suading   him   to  accept  thif> 


dignity  ;  but  they  at  length  overcame  his  humility,  and 
he  set  off  for  Rome,  accompanied  by  the  bishop's  nephew. 
The  pope  received  him  with  great  kindness,  and  granted 
him  bulls  for  the  coadjutorship  of  Geneva,  with  the  title 
of  Bishop  of  Nicopolis, 

As  soon  as  he  had  fulfilled  his  mission,  and  obtained 
for  the  clergy  in  the  diocese  of  Geneva  a  discharge  from 
those  services  toward  their  bishop,  which  savoured  more 
of  Paganism  than  Christian  liberty,  he  went  to  Turin, 
where  he  was  much  annoyed  by  the  orders  of  St.  Lazarus 
and  St.  Maurice,  who,  in  spite  of  the  pope's  briefs  and 
the  Duke  of  Savoy's  vows,  would  not  give  up  some 
Roman  Catholic  property  in  Chablais,  which  had  been 
granted  to  them  by  Gregory  III.,  while  that  province  was 
filled  with  Calvinists.  The  restitution  of  this  property 
gained  him  all  hearts,  and  did  much  for  the  Roman 
Catholic  religion. 

He  had  no  sooner  entered  his  own  country  than  he 
was  obliged  to  employ  his  talents  for  negociation.  Henry 
IV.  had  invaded  Savoy,  and  the  Swiss  and  Genevan 
soldiers  in  his  pay  were  eager  to  revenge  themselves  on 
the  Romanists  by  ravaging  the  Chablais.  Francis  pre- 
sented a  petition,  to  implore  the  protection  of  the  king 
for  the  Romanists,  and  it  was  granted.  The  Marquis 
de  Vitri  even  offered  to  present  him  to  that  great  mon- 
arch, but  Francis  refused  to  salute  the  conqueror  of  his 
sovereign.  He  nevertheless  profited  by  the  good  will 
which  was  shown  toward  him,  to  make  the  visitation  of 
the  diocese  of  Geneva  and  establish  thirty-five  parishes. 
He  preached.  Lent  1601 ,  at  Annecy,  when  his  father  died. 
A  short  time  after  he  was  deputed  by  the  clergy  of 
Geneva  to  the  court  of  France,  for  the  spiritual  interests 
of  the  district  of  Gex,  which  had  just  been  united  to 
that  kingdom  by  the  treaty  of  Lyons.  He  was  honour- 
ably received  and  appointed  to  preach  in  the  chapel  of 
the  Louvre  during  Lent.  His  discourses  affected  several 
distinguished  Calvinists,  and  he  completed  in  conversa- 


tion  what  he  had,   as  it  were,   sketched  in  the  pulpit. 

The  cardinal  Duperron,  a  good  judge  in  such  matters, 
said,  "  There  is  no  heretic  whom  I  cannot  convince ; 
but  God  has  given  the  talent  of  converting  to  M.  de 
Geneve."  After  Lent,  Henry  wished  him  to  preach  before 
him.  The  coadjutor  of  Geneva  acquitted  himself  so 
well,  that  he  was  pressed  to  pronounce  the  funeral  oration 
of  the  Duke  de  Mercseur,  in  the  metroi)olitan  Church. 
"  He  was  invited  to  all  religious  meetings,"  says  one  of 
his  historians,  "  no  project  of  devotion  was  uncommu- 
nicated  to  him,  nor  any  affair  for  the  glor}"  of  God  under- 
taken without  consulting  him." 

The  king  often  opened  his  mind  to  him,  and  afterwards 
said  that  Francis  had  never  flattered  him. 

In  spite  of  the  purity  of  his  conduct  and  the  upright- 
ness of  his  heart,  some  people  were  wicked  enough 
to  accuse  him  before  Henry  of  wishing  to  renew  the 
conspiracy  of  Biron  ;  but  Henry  refused  to  believe  such 
an  accusation,  and  would  not  even  allow  Francis  to 
justify  himself.  To  avoid  further  imputations,  the  coad- 
jutor of  Geneva  resolved  to  remove  from  court.  He  was 
but  a  few  days  journey  from  Paris  when  he  received 
intelligence  of  the  death  of  Claude  de  Granier.  He 
hastened  onwards  to  the  castle  of  Sales,  where  he  pre- 
pared for  his  episcopal  consecration,  which  he  received 
in  the  church  of  Thoreus,  the  8th  of  December,  1602. 
What  was  most  required  in  the  diocese  of  Geneva,  was 
to  bring  the  canons  into  action.  He  made  regulations 
which  bore  the  impress  of  great  wisdom.  At  his  first 
ordination  he  informed  his  candidates  that  he  would 
willingly  pardon  some  faults ;  but  that  ignorance  would 
always  cause  exclusion  from  holy  orders.  He  visited  the 
Duke  of  Savoy  and  the  Bishop  of  Saluces ;  and  some 
time  after  he  went  to  Gex,  for  the  re-establishment  of  the 
Roman  Catholic  religion. 

The  Calvinists  are  accused  of  having  poisoned  the 
bishop.      Happily  the  physicians    perceived   it  in  time 


and  gave  him  an  antidote ;  his  health  was  restored, 
but  his  constitution  was  greatly  enfeebled.  In  ]  603  he 
reformed  the  abbey  of  Siz,  the  monks  of  which  were  in 
sad  disorder.  While  he  was  occupied  in  this  good  work 
he  removed  to  the  canton  of  Frucighi,  which  had  been 
almost  oversvhelmed  by  landslips  and  avalanches  ;  after 
having  ascertained  the  extent  of  the  damage,  he  solicited 
and  obtained  from  the  Duke  of  Savoy  proportionable 
indemnities.  In  the  Lent  of  1604  he  preached  at  Dijon. 
It  was  at  this  time  that  he  formed  his  friendship  w^th 
the  Baroness  de  Chantal. 

On  his  return  to  his  diocese  he  was  offered,  by  Henry 
IV.,  a  rich  abbey,  and  even  a  cardinal's  hat,  if  he  would 
reside  in  France.  Francis  replied  that  "  God  had  not 
made  him  for  high  rank." 

It  was  about  this  time  that  the  senate  of  Savoy 
sequestered  his  worldly  goods,  because  he  had  opposed 
the  publication  of  monitories  for  purely  civil  affairs.  He 
patiently  supported  this  vexation,  only  saying  that  what 
had  happened  was  most  fortunate,  as  it  reminded  him 
that  a  bishop  ought  to  be  entirely  spiritual.  The 
magistrates  were  soon  ashamed  of  their  intolerance, 
and  the  sequestration  was  taken  off.  Francis,  who 
preached  during  Lent  at  Chamberry,  (1605)  had  no  sooner 
finished  his  course  than  he  went  to  Annecy,  which  was 
besieged  by  the  Duke  de  Nemours,  and  shut  himself  up 
in  the  city  in  spite  of  the  prayers  of  his  flock.  The 
Prince  of  Piedmont  arrived  soon  after  and  raised  the 
siege.  He  commenced,  toward  the  end  of  the  year,  his 
pastoral  visitation,  preceded  by  his  fame,  and  "signalizing 
every  step  by  holiness  and  good  works."  He  corrected 
vice  with  firmness  ;  but  he  used  to  say  that  he  would 
rather  err  from  over-kindness  than  from  over-severity. 
He  continued  his  visitation  the  next  year,  on  foot  without 
baggage,  contented  with  coarse  food  and  sleeping  on  straw. 
In  1606  he,  with  the  president  Favre,  founded  at  Annecy 
an  academy  for  philosophy,  theology,  jurisprudence,  and 
Y  2 


the  belles  lettres,  which  did  much  good.  The  pope,  Paul 
v.,  consulted  Francis  about  the  subjects  which  were  dis- 
cussed in  the  congregation  at  Auxilius.  The  Bishop  of 
Geneva  replied.  "  That  it  was  much  better  to  apply 
oneself  to  making  a  good  use  of  grace,  than  raise  con- 
troversies which  have  always  disturbed  the  peace  of  the 
Church."  It  is  well  known  that  he  highly  disapproved  of 
that  party  spirit,  which  so  often  leads  from  hatred  of 
opinions  to  hatred  of  persons. 

In  1608  a  monk  accused  him  before  the  pope  of  not 
being  sufficiently  strict  in  forbidding  the  use  of  heretical 
books  in  his  diocese.  The  prelate  had  little  difficulty  in 
proving  that  he  did  all  in  his  pow^r  to  prevent  the  circu- 
lation of  bad  works  ;  and  that  the  monk  did  more  harm 
than  good  to  the  Church  by  his  excessive  zeal.  The 
pope  paid  so  little  attention  to  this  accusation  that  he 
addressed  two  breves  to  Francis,  authorizing  him  to 
reform  the  nunnery  of  Priets  d'Orbe,  and  appointing 
him,  together  with  the  Bishop  of  Basle,  to  decide  the 
difference  which  had  long  existed  between  the  courts  of 
Burgogne  and  the  clergy  of  Franche  Comte,  concerning 
some  salt-pits. 

Francis  had  greater  difficulty  in  reforming  the  mo- 
nastery of  St.  Catherine  and  the  abbey  de  Taloire ;  but 
he  at  length  succeeded.  In  1609,  he  went  to  consecrate 
the  Bishop  of  Belley,  Jean  Pierre  Camus,  who  became 
his  great  friend.  Being  sent  for  to  Gex,  to  confer  with 
the  Baron  de  Luy,  governor  of  Burgogne,  he  found  the 
Rhone  had  so  much  overflowed  its  banks,  that  it  was 
impossible  to  cross  it  any  where  except  at  Geneva ;  and 
this  was  a  very  dangerous  road  for  Francis,  on  account 
of  the  hatred  of  the  Genevese  towards  him,  but  he  took 
it  nevertheless.  The  officers  on  guard  asked  his  name 
at  the  gate  of  the  city,  Francis  replied,  "the  Bishop  of 
the  Diocese.'"  They  allowed  him  to  pass  without  re- 
flection, but  when  at  last  they  discovered  that  they  might 
have  made  this  dangerous  enemy  prisoner,  they  wrote  in 


their  impotent  rage  against  his  name  in  the  register  these 
words,  "  Qu  il  y  revienne."  This  journey,  which  pro- 
cured such  advantages  for  the  Roman  Catholic  reHgion, 
appeared  to  the  Duke  of  Savoy  to  be  a  plan  concerted 
between  Francis  and  the  king  of  France,  to  give  the 
Bishop  the  sovereignty  of  Geneva.  It  required  all  the 
prelate's  prudence  to  dissipate  these  suspicions  ;  and  they 
were  constantly  returning  in  the  mistmstful  mind  of 
Charles  Emmanuel.  The  feelings  of  Francis  de  Sales 
received  a  severe  shock  by  the  death  of  his  mother  and 
the  assassination  of  Henry  IV.  This  event  afflicted  him 
much  ;  he  wrote  to  his  friend  Deshayes,  the  27th  May, 
"  Europe  could  not  witness  a  more  lamentable  death 
than  that  of  the  great  Henry  IV.  Who  will  not  ac- 
knowledge with  you  the  instability  and  vanity  of  human 
greatness  ?  This  Prince,  so  great  in  courage,  victories, 
and  triumphs ;  so  great  in  happiness ;  in  a  word,  great 
in  every  sense !  Who  would  not  have  thought  greatness 
was,  as  it  were,  fastened  and  attached  to  him,  and  that 
having  sworn  inviolable  fidelity,  she  would  have  termi- 
nated his  life  by  a  glorious  death,  and  that  such  a  bril- 
liant life  could  not  end  but  with  the  ruin  of  the  East, 
and  destruction  of  heresy  and  Mahometanism." 

On  the  6th  of  June  he  instituted  the  Order  of  the 
Annunciation  of  St.  Mary,  which  was  approved  of  by  the 
pope,  and  which  spread  every  where  with  great  rapidity. 
His  old  friend,  Anthony  Favre,  became  president  of  the 
Senate  of  Chamberry,  and  Francis  had  the  happiness  of 
saving  the  lives  of  two  gentlemen,  accused  of  having 
assassinated  the  Duke  of  Nemours'  secretary ;  and  he 
put  the  college  of  Annecy  into  the  hands  of  the  Barna- 
bites.  He  also  established  a  monastery  at  Thouon,  and 
gave  the  Jesuits  the  colleges  of  La  Roche,  Rumile,  and 

In  1614  he  was  earnestly  praying  for  the  success  of 
the  Christian  arms  against  the  Mahometans,  and  he 
regretted  not  having  assisted  the  emperor  with  money  as 


well  as  prayers.  At  this  epoch  Francis  had  nearly  lost, 
in  the  public  opinion,  the  fruits  of  a  life  of  virtue,  by  a 
hcjrrible  calumny.  But  at  the  end  of  three  years  the 
author  of  it  took  effectual  steps  to  destroy  it.  Although 
the  number  of  conversions  to  Popery,  brought  about  by 
the  Bishop  of  Geneva,  is  reckoned  by  some  at  72,000, 
which  must  be  a  monstrous  exaggeration,  and  though 
there  were  many  distinguished  persons  among  those 
converted,  yet  that  of  the  Constable  Lesdiguieres  maybe, 
perhaps,  regarded  as  the  most  important  and  the  most 
honourable ;  it  cost  Francis  three  years  of  anxiety,  and 
he  was  obliged  to  preach  at  Grenoble  during  two  Lents, 
with  this  object.  In  1618  he  obtained  leave  from  the 
pope  to  have  his  brother,  John  Francis  de  Sales,  conse- 
crated Bishop  of  Chalcedon,  and  Coadjutor  of  Geneva. 
From  that  time  he  gave  up  the  honours  of  the  episcopacy 
to  him,  being  himself  contented  with  sharing  the  most 
laborious  and  painful  duties.  Obliged  soon  afterwards 
to  accompany  the  Cardinal  of  Savoy  to  the  court  of  France, 
whither  he  went  in  order  to  arrange  a  marriage  between 
the  Princess  Christina  and  the  Prince  of  Piedmont,  he 
received  everywhere  a  most  flattering  reception,  with  a 
sweetness  and  humility  which  heightened  his  virtues  ; 
he  preached  in  several  churches  to  large  congregations, 
refused  the  coadjutorship  of  Paris,  which  was  offered  him 
by  Cardinal  Retz,  and  only  accepted  the  office  of  high- 
almoner  to  the  Princess  of  Piedmont,  on  conditions 
which  proved  his  disinterestedness. 

On  his  return  to  Annecy  he  presided  at  a  chapter  of 
the  Feuillants,  and  persuaded  them  to  elect  a  wise  and 
virtuous  general,  who  restored  among- them  the  concord 
which  had  been  banished  by  turbulent  spirits.  He  also 
established  a  reform  of  the  Bernadine  monks  in  1621. 
During  a  visit  to  Turin,  he  persuaded  the  duke  to  recall 
a  lord,  who  had  only  been  banished  by  court  intrigue. 

The  Princess  of  Piedmont  having  presented  him  with 
a  very  fine  diamond,  Francis  only  accepted  it  to  give  to 

FRASSEN.  233 

the  poor ;  he  was  indeed,  as  a  gentleman  of  that  place 
said,  "  more  bishop  to  the  indigent  of  Annecy,  than  to 
Geneva."  A  kind  of  presentiment  of  his  approaching 
end  made  him  redouble  his  good  works ;  at  this  time, 
he  only  lived  for  the  poor  and  with  the  poor.  His  only 
relaxation  was  in  instructing  a  poor  deaf  mute,  to  whom 
he  succeeded  in  teaching  the  great  truths  of  religion,  and 
who,  by  his  care,  showed  extraordinary  intelligence. 
After  Louis  XIII.  had  subdued  the  Calvinists  of  Lan- 
guedoc,  he  made  a  voyage  to  Avignon.  The  Cardinal  of 
Savoy  was  sent  by  his  father,  the  duke,  to  pay  his  res- 
pects to  the  king.  The  Bishop  of  Geneva  was  ordered 
to  accompany  him.  Francis  made  his  will,  preached  for 
the  last  time  in  his  cathedral,  and  set  off  for  Avignon. 
Returning  to  his  diocese,  he  fell  ill  at  Lyons,  and  died 
there,  the  26th  of  December,  1622. 

He  was  the  author  of  several  works,  which  are  collected 
in  two  volumes  folio.  Of  these,  the  best  known  are,  his 
Introduction  to  a  Devout  Life,  and  Philo,  or  a  Treatise 
on  the  Love  of  God. — Labouderie.    MarsolUer. 

FRANCIS  DE  XAViER. — (See  Xcivier. ) 


Wolfgang  Frantzius  was  born  at  Plawen,  in  Voight- 
land,  in  1564.  He  was  professor  of  divinity  at  Wittem- 
berg,  w^here  he  died  in  1620.  He  wrote,  Animalium 
Historia  Sacra;  Tractatus  de  Interpretatione  Sacrarum 
Scripturarum,  4to;  Schola  Sacrificiorum  Patriarch.  Sa- 
cra; Commentar.  in  Leviticum.  &c. ;  and  other  works. — 

FRA- PAOLO. — (See  Sarpi.J 


Claude  Frassen,  a  French    monk,  was  born  at  Pe- 

•234  FRITH. 

ronne,  in  Picardj,  in  16*20.  He  was  doctor  of  the  Sor- 
bonne,  theological  professor  at  Paris,  and  superior  of  the 
Franciscan  convent  there.  He  wrote,  Dissertationes 
Biblicae,  2  vols,  4to ;  S3^stem  of  Philosophy,  2  vols,  4to. 
He  died  in  1711. — Moreri. 


Accepted  Frewen  was  born  in  Kent  in  1 589,  and  edu- 
<3ated  at  Magdalen  College,  Oxford,  of  which  he  became 
fellow  and  president.  He  was  chaplain  to  Charles  I.  in 
1631,  was  made  Dean  of  Gloucester,  and  in  1643,  Bishop 
of  Lichfield  and  Coventry.  He  was  translated  to  York 
at  the  Ptestoration,  and  died  in  1664. — Wood. 

FRITH,    OR    FRTTH,    JOHN. 

John  Frith,  or  Fryth,  was  born  at  Seven-oaks  in 
Kent,  where  his  father  kept  an  inn,  and  was  educated 
at  King's  College,  Cambridge,  where  he  so  greatly  dis- 
tinguished himself,  that  when  Cardinal  Wolsey  had 
formed  his  new  college  at  Oxford,  he  was  appointed  one 
of  the  first  members  of  that  establishment.  About  the 
year  1525  he  became  acquainted  with  Tyndale,  and  by 
him  was  won  over  to  Lutheran  principles.  The  little 
body  of  learned  men  at  Oxford  who  began  to  be  aware  of 
the  necessity  of  reformation  in  the  Church,  was  regarded 
with  no  friendly  eye  by  the  heads  of  the  university. 
Frith  and  others,  therefore,  found  it  necessary  to  retire 
from  the  university,  and  he  took  refuge  upon  the  Con- 
tinent in  1528.  On  his  return  to  England  at  the  end  of 
two  years,  he  was  in  such  a  state  of  destitution,  that  on 
his  attempting  to  pass  through  Reading,  he  was  appre- 
hended and  put  into  the  stocks  as  a  vagabond.  From 
this  disgraceful  situation  he  was  rescued  by  the  school- 

FRITH.  235 

master  of  the  town,  to  whom  he  made  his  case  known  in 
such  elegant  Latin  as  to  prove  himself  what  he  professed 
to  be,  a  scholar.  From  Eeading  he  proceeded  to  London, 
and  here  he  was  engaged  in  controversy  with  the  cele- 
brated Sir  Thomas  More.  Simon  Fish  had  attacked  the 
doctrine  of  purgatory  in  a  work  entitled  the  "  Supplica- 
tion of  Beggars,"  which  purported  to  be  an  address  to 
the  king  from  certain  impotent  mendicants,  who  com- 
plained that  what  the  benevolent  were  induced  to  give 
in  alms  was  diverted  from  the  proper  object,  such  as 
themselves,  by  the  friars,  who  were  able  to  work,  but 
preferred  the  easier  task  of  begging.  Sir  Thomas  pub- 
lished, in  answer  to  this  tract,  "  The  Supplication  of  the 
poor  silly  souls  puling  out  of  Purgatoiy;"  and  to  this 
work  of  the  Chancellor's,  Frith  published  a  reply.  On 
another  occasion  also,  when  Frith,  at  the  request  of  a 
friend,  had  placed  on  paper  his  arguments  against  tran- 
substantiation,  he  found  an  opponent  in  Sir  Thomas 
More,  who  undertook  their  refutation. 

Frith 's  honesty  and  zeal  in  expressing  his  opinions,  led 
at  last  to  his  apprehension.  While  he  was  in  the  tower 
upon  this  charge,  he  was  examined  by  the  king's  command, 
before  Archbishop  Cranmer ;  Brandon,  Duke  of  Suffolk  ; 
Boleyn,  Earl  of  Wiltshire ;  Stokesley,  Bishop  of  London  ; 
Gardner,  Bishop  of  Winchester :  and  the  Chancellor 
Dudley.  The  prisoner  maintained  that  the  dogma  of  tran- 
substantiation  was  not  de  fide ;  at  the  same  time  he  did 
not  condemn  those  who  held  the  doctrine  of  a  corporeal 
presence,  he  only  reprobated  the  prevalent  notions  res- 
pecting propitiatory  masses  and  the  w^orshipping  of  ihe 
sacramental  elements.  He  denied  also  the  Romish  fig- 
ment of  purgatory.  At  length  he  was  brought  before  an 
episcopal  commission  at  St.  Paul's  cathedral,  where  he 
was  once  more,  and  publicly,  interrogated  on  the  subjects 
of  transubstantiation  and  purgatory,  and  many  efforts 
were  made  to  persuade,  or  intimidate  him  to  recant. 
When   he   was   found,  however,  to  remain  unmoved  by 


arguments  or  threatenings,  and  to  persist  in  a  declaration 
that  he  could  not  be  induced  to  believe  that  these  were 
articles  of  Christian  faith,  the  Bishop  of  London  pro- 
nounced sentence  of  condemnation  upon  him,  as  an 
obstinate  heretic,  and  he  was  delivered  over  to  the  secular 
power.  In  pursuance  of  this  sentence  a  writ  was  issued 
for  his  execution,  and  he  was  burnt  at  Smithfield  on  the 
4th  of  July,  1^33,  in  the  prime  of  life,  not  many  days 
after  his  condemnation,  maintaining  his  fortitude  to  the 
last,  and  charitably  extending  his  forgiveness  to  a  bigoted 
popish  priest,  who  endeavoured  to  persuade  the  people 
that  they  ought  no  more  to  pray  for  him  than  for  a  dog. 

He  was  an  eminent  scholar,  and  well  acquainted  with 
the  learned  languages.  His  works  are.  Treatise  of  Pur- 
gatory. Antithesis  between  Christ  and  the  Pope.  Let- 
ters unto  the  faithful  Followers  of  Christ's  Gospel,  writ- 
ten in  the  Tower,  1532.  Mirror,  or  Glass  to  know  thyself, 
written  in  the  Tower,  1532.  Mirror,  or  Looking-glass, 
wherein  you  may  behold  the  Sacrament  of  Baptism. 
Articles,  for  which  he  died,  written  in  Newgate  prison, 
June  23rd,  1533.  Answer  to  Sir  Thomas  More's  Dia- 
logues concerning  Heresies.  Answer  to  John  Fisher, 
Bishop  of  Piochester,  &c.,  all  which  treatises  were  re- 
printed at  London,  1573,  in  folio,  with  the  works  of 
Tyndale  and  Barnes.  He  also  wrote  some  translations. — 
Burnet.    Collier.    Soames. 


Frumentius,  commonly  called  the  Apostle  of  Ethiopia, 
was  a  native  of  Tyre,  whose  history  is  thus  narrated  by 
Socrates : — 

"  Meropius,  a  Tynan  philosopher,  determined  to  visit 
the  country  of  the  Indians,  being  stimulated  to  this  by 
the  example  of  the  philosopher  Metrodorus,  who  had 
previously  travelled  through  that  region,     flaving  taken 


with  him  therefore  two  youths  to  whom  he  was  related, 
who  were  by  no  means  ignorant  of  the  Greek  languages, 
Meropius  arrived  at  that  country  by  ship  ;  and  when  he 
had  inspected  whatever  he  wished,  he  touched  at  a  cer- 
tain i:>lace  which  had  a  safe  harbour,  for  the  purpose  of 
procuring  some  necessaries.     It  so  happened  that  the 
treaty  between  the  Romans  and  Indians  had  been  violated 
a  little  before  his  arrival.     The  Indians  therefore  having 
seized  the  philosopher  and  those  who  sailed  with  him, 
killed  them  all   except   his   two   young   kinsmen;    but 
sparing  them  from  compassion  for  their  tender  age,  they 
sent  them  as  a  gift  to  the  king  of  the  Indians.    He  being 
pleased  ^nth  the  personal  appearance  of  the  youths,  con- 
stituted one  of  them,  whose  name  was  Edesius,    cup- 
bearer at  his  table  ;  to  the  other,  named  Frumentius,  he 
entmsted  the  care  of  the  royal  records.     The  king  dying 
soon  after,  left  them  free,  the  government  devolving  on 
his  wife  and  infant  son ;  and  the  queen  seeing  her  son 
thus  left  in  his  minority,  begged  the  young  men  to  under- 
take the  charge  of  him,  until  he  should  become  of  adult 
age.     They  therefore  accepted  this  commission,  and  en- 
tered on  the  administration  of  the  kingdom  ;  but  the 
chief  authority  was  in  the  hands  of  Frumentius,  who 
began  anxiously  to  enquire  whether  among  the  Roman 
merchants  trafficking  with  that  country,  there  were  any 
Christians  to  be  found  :  and  having  discovered  some,  he 
informed  them  who  he  was,  and  exhorted  them  to  select 
some  appropriate  places  for  the  celebration  of  Christian 
worship.     In  the  course  of  a  little  while  he  built  a  house 
of  prayer ;  and  having  instructed  some  of  the  Indians  in 
the  principles  of  Christianity,   they   were   admitted   to 
participation   in   the   worship.      On   the   young   king's 
reaching    maturity,    Frumentius    resigned   to   him   the 
administration  of  public  affairs,  in  the  management  of 
which  he  had  honourably  acquitted  himself,  and  besought 
permission  to  return  to  his  own  country.     Both  the  king 
and  his  mother  entreated  him  to  remain ;  but  he  being 
VOL.    V.  z 


desirous  of  revisiting  his  native  place,  could  not  be  pre- 
vailed on,  and  consequently  they  both  departed.    Edesius 
hastened  to  Tyre  to  see  his  parents  and  kindred :  but 
Frumentius   arriving  at  Alexandria,  related   his   whole 
story  to  Athanasius  the  bishop,  who  had  but  recently 
been  invested  with  that  dignity;  and  acquainting  him 
with  the  particulars  of  his  residence  abroad,  expressed  a 
hope  that  measures  would  be  taken  to  convert  the  Indians 
to  Christianity.     He  also  begged  him  to  send  a  bishop 
and  clergy  there,  and  by  no  means  to  neglect  those  who 
might  thus  be  brought  to  the  knowledge  of  salvation. 
Athanasius  having  considered  how  this  could  be  most  pro- 
fitably effected,  requested  Frumentius  himself  to  accept 
the  bishopric,  declaring  that  he  could  appoint  no  one  more 
suitable  than  he.      He  was  accordingly  ordained,   and 
again  returning  to  India  with  episcopal  authority,  became 
there  a  preacher  of  the  gospel,  and  built  several  Oratories : 
being  aided  also  by  divine  grace,  he  performed  various 
miracles,  healing  diseases  both  of  the  souls  and  bodies 
of  many.     Rufinus  assures  us  that  he  heard  these  facts 
from  Edesius,   who  was   afterwards  inducted   into   the 
sacred  office  at  Tyre.^'—  Socrates. 


FuLGENTius  was  bom  at  Telepta,  about  the  year  464. 
Gordianus,  a  senator  of  Carthage,  being  forced  to  fly 
into  Italy  for  safety,  during  the  persecution  of  Genser- 
icus,  king  of  the  Vandals,  had  two  children,  who  returned 
into  Africa :  and  they,  being  forced  away  from  Carthage, 
settled  at  Telepta,  a  city  in  the  province  of  Byzacena. 
One  of  them  was  Claudus,  the  father  of  St.  Fulgentius, 
who  dying  unexpectedly,  left  his  young  son  to  the  care  of 
his  widow.  He  was  properly  educated,  and  became  well 
skilled  in  the  Greek  tongue.  As  soon  as  he  was  capable 
of  an  employment,  he  was  made  procurator  or  receiver  of 


the  revenues  of  his  province.  But  this  employment  dis- 
pleased him,  because  of  the  rigour  he  was  forced  to  use, 
for  levying  the  taxes  upon  the  people :  and  therefore, 
notwithstanding  the  tears  and  dissuasives  of  his  mother, 
he  left  the  world,  and  betook  himself  to  a  religious  life. 
The  incursions  of  the  Moors  soon  scattered  the  religious 
of  the  monastery  where  he  was  ;  upon  which  he  retired 
into  the  country  of  Sicca,  thinking  to  find  there  a  place 
of  refuge  :  but  he  was  mistaken ;  for  he  met  with  nothing 
but  stripes  and  imprisonment.  Aftenvards  he  resolved 
to  go  into  Egypt ;  but  was  restrained  from  that  voyage, 
by  Eulalias,  Bishop  of  Syracuse,  because  the  monks  of 
the  East  had  separated  from  the  Catholic  Church.  He 
consulted  also  a  bishop  of  Africa,  who  had  retired  into 
Sicily ;  and  this  bishop  advised  him  to  return  to  his  own 
country,  after  he  had  made  a  journey  to  Rome.  King 
Theodoric  was  then  in  the  city,  when  he  arrived  there, 
which  was  in  the  year  500.  After  he  had  paid  a  visit 
to  the  sepulchres  of  the  apostles,  he  returned  to  his  own 
country,  where  he  built  a  monastery. 

Africa  was  then  under  the  dominion  of  Thrasimond, 
king  of  the  Vandals,  an  Arian,  and  a  cruel  enemy  to  the 
Catholics.  He  had  forbidden  to  ordain  Catholic  bishops 
in  the  room  of  those  that  died  :  nevertheless,  the  bishops 
of  Africa  were  determined  to  neglect  his  orders  in  that 
particular.  Fulgentius  knowing  this,  and  fearing  lest  he 
should  be  ordained,  hid  himself  until  he  understood  the 
consecrations  to  be  over :  but  when  he  appeared,  the  see 
of  Ruspa  was  vacant,  and  he  was  ordained  bishop  of  it, 
though  much  against  his  will,  in  the  year  504.  Though 
become  a  bishop,  he  did  not  change  either  his  habit  or 
manner  of  living,  but  used  the  same  austerities  and 
abstinence  as  before.  He  still  loved  the  monks,  and 
delighted  to  retire  into  a  monastery,  as  often  as  the  busi- 
ness of  his  episcopal  function  allowed  him  time.  After- 
wards he  had  the  same  fate  with  all  the  Catholic  bishops 
of  Africa,  whom  king   Thrasimond  banished   into   the 

•240  FULKE. 

Isle  of  Sardinia.  Though  he  was  not  the  eldest 
among  them,  yet  they  considered  him  as  their  head,  and 
made  use  of  his  pen  and  wit  upon  all  occasions.  So 
great  was  his  reputation,  that  Thrasimond  had  the 
curiosity  to  see  and  hear  him  ;  and  having  sent  for  him 
to  Carthage,  he  proposed  to  him  many  difficulties,  which 
Fulgentius  solved  to  his  satisfaction  :  but  because  he 
confirmed  the  Catholics,  and  converted  many  Arians, 
their  bishop  at  Carthage  prayed  the  king  to  send  him 
back  to  Sardinia.  Thrasimond  dying  in  the  year  523, 
his  son  Hilderic  recalled  the  Catholic  bishops,  whereof 
Fulgentius  was  one.  He  returned,  to  the  great  joy  of 
his  diocese,  led  a  most  exemplary  life,  governed  his  clergy 
well,  and  performed  all  the  offices  of  a  good  bishop.  He 
died  the  last  day  of  the  year  529,  according  to  some,  or 
533,  according  to  others. 

This  account  of  Fulgentius  is  taken  from  Dupin ;  a 
longer  and  very  interesting  history  is  given  of  him  in 
Fleury,  books  30  and  31.  Dupin  analyses  his  works; 
and  an  account  of  them  is  given  also  by  Fleury ;  some 
of  them  are  still  of  value  to  the  practical  divine.  The 
best  edition  of  his  collected  works  is  that  of  Paris, 
4to,  1684. — Dupin. 


Fulgentius  Fereandus,  a  disciple  of  the  preceding, 
with  whom  he  is  frequently  confounded,  lived  in  the 
beginning  of  the  sixth  century.  He  was  the  author  of 
an  Abridgment  of  the  Canons. 


William  Fut-ke  was  born  in  London,  and  educated  at 
St.  John's  College.  Cambridge,  of  which  he  became  fellow 

FULKE.  241 

in  1564.  He  spent  six  years  at  Clifford's  Inn,  but  pre- 
ferred the  study  of  literature  to  that  of  the  law.  He 
took  orders,  but  being  suspected  of  Puritanism,  he  was 
expelled  from  college.  The  Earl  of  Leicester,  however, 
presented  him  in  1571  to  the  living  of  Warley,  in  Essex, 
and  two  years  after  to  Kedington,  in  Suffolk.  He  after- 
wards took  his  degree  of  D.D.  at  Cambridge,  and,  as 
chaplain,  accompanied  the  Earl  of  Lincoln  when  he  went 
as  ambassador  to  France,  and  on  his  return  he  was  made 
master  of  Pembroke  Hall,  and  Margaret  Professor.  He 
died  in  1589. 

His  works  are  very  numerous ;  written  in  Latin  and 
English ;  levelled  chiefly  against  the  papists  ;  and  dedi- 
cated several  of  them  to  Queen  Elizabeth  and  the  Earl 
of  Leicester.  The  most  considerable  of  them  is,  his  Com- 
ment upon  the  Rhemish  Testament,  printed  in  1580,  and 
reprinted  in  1601  with  this  title :  "  The  Text  of  the  New 
Testament  of  Jesus  Christ,  translated  out  of  the  vulgar 
Latin  by  the  Papists  of  the  traitorous  Seminarie  at 
Rhemes.  With  arguments  of  books,  chapters,  and  anno- 
tations, pretending  to  discover  the  corruptions  of  divers 
translations,  and  to  clear  the  controversies  of  these  days. 
Whereunto  is  added  the  translation  out  of  the  original 
Greek,  commonly  used  in  the  Church  of  England :  with 
a  confutation  of  all  such  arguments,  glosses,  and  anno- 
tations, as  contain  manifest  impiety  of  heresy,  treason, 
and  slander  against  the  Catholic  Church  of  God,  and 
the  true  teachers  thereof,  or  the  translations  used  in  the 
Church  of  England.  The  whole  work,  perused  and  en- 
larged in  divers  places  by  the  author's  own  hand  before 
his  death,  with  sundry  quotations  and  authorities  out  of 
Holy  Scriptures,  councils,  fathers,  and  history.  More 
amply  than  in  the  former  edition."  This  work  was  pub- 
lished again  in  1617,  and  1633,  in  folio,  as  it  was  before. 

Mr.  James  Harvey  says  of  this  work  :  "  If  the  young 
student  would  be  taught  to  discover  the  very  sinews  of 
z  2 


Popeiy,  and  be  enabled  to  give  an  effectual  blow  to  that 
complication  of  errors,  I  know  not  a  treatise  more  calcu- 
lated for  the  purpose." — Fuller.     Wood.     Brook.    Stri/pe. 


Thomas  Fuller,  a  divine,  was  born  in  1608,  at  Ald- 
wincle,  in  Northamptonshire,  where  his  father  was  rector. 
He  was  sent  to  Queen's  College,  Cambridge,  where  his 
maternal  uncle,  Davenant,  afterwards  Bishop  of  Salis- 
bury, was  master.  He  then  removed  to  Sydney  College, 
of  which  he  was  chosen  fellow  in  1631.  That  year  he 
obtained  a  prebend  at  Salisbury,  and  was  afterwards 
presented  to  the  living  of  Broad  Windsor,  in  Dorsetshire, 
where  he  married.  Upon  the  loss  of  his  wife,  about 
1641,  he  removed  to  London,  and  became  minister  of 
the  Savoy.  In  1640  he  published  his  "  History  of  the 
Holy  War  :"  it  was  printed  at  Cambridge  in  folio.  On 
the  14th  of  April,  1640,  a  parliament  was  called,  and 
then  also  a  convocation  sat  at  Westminster,  in  King 
Henry  the  Vllth's  chapel,  of  which  Fuller  was  a  mem- 
ber. He  continued  at  the  Savoy  to  the  great  satisfaction 
of  his  people,  and  the  neighbouring  nobility  and  gentry, 
labouring  all  the  while  in  private  and  in  public,  to  serve 
the  king's  interest.  To  this  end,  on  the  anniversary  of 
his  majesty's  inauguration  on  the  27th  of  March,  1 642, 
he  preached  at  Westminster  Abbey,  on  this  text,  2  Sam. 
xix.  30  :  "  Yea,  let  him  take  all,  so  that  my  Lord  the 
King  return  in  peace:"  which  sermon  being  printed, 
gave  great  offence  to  those,  who  were  engaged  in  the 
opposition  to  his  majesty,  and  brought  the  preacher  into 
no  small  danger.  He  soon  found  that  he  was  to  expect 
nothing  less  than  to  be  silenced  and  ejected  by  the  dis- 
senters, now  in  the  ascendant,  as  others  had  been ;  yet 
he  did  not  desist  from  proceeding  in  the  same  course, 
till  he  either  was,  or  thought  himself  unsettled.     This 

FULLER.  243 

appears  from  what  he  says  in  the  preface  to  his  "  Holy 
State,"  which  was  printed  in  foHo  that  same  year  at 

In  April  1643,  he  joined  the  king  at  Oxford,  who  re- 
ceived him  gladly.  As  his  majesty  had  heard  of  his 
extraordinary  abilities  in  the  pulpit,  he  w^as  now  desirous 
of  hearing  them  from  it:  and  accordingly  Mr.  Fuller 
preached  before  his  majesty  at  St.  Marj^'s  Church.  His 
fortune  upon  this  occasion  was  very  singular.  He  had 
before  preached  and  published  a  sermon  in  London,  upon 
the  revolutionary  proceedings  of  those  who  pretended 
zeal  for  the  reformation  of  the  Church,  and  he  was  cen- 
sured as  too  hot  a  royalist ;  and,  now  from  his  sermon 
at  Oxford,  he  was  thought  to  be  too  lukewarm :  which 
can  only  be  accounted  for  from  that  inflexible  principle 
of  moderation  in  himself,  which  he  would  sincerely  have 
inculcated  in  each  party,  as  the  only  means  of  reconciling 
both.  Nevertheless,  he  resolved  to  prove  his  stedfast 
adherence  to  the  royal  cause,  by  openly  trying  his  fortune 
under  the  royal  army  :  and  therefore,  being  recommended 
to  Sir  Ralph  Hopton  in  1643,  he  was  appointed  by  him 
to  be  his  chaplain.  He  was  quite  at  liberty  for  this, 
being  deprived  of  all,  and  having  no  church  to  preach  in. 
And  now  attending  the  army  in  its  march  from  place  to 
place,  he  constantly  exercised  his  duty  as  chaplain ;  yet 
found  proper  intervals  for  his  beloved  studies,  which  he 
employed  chiefly  in  making  historical  collections,  and 
especially  in  gathering  materials  for  his  "Worthies  of 

After  the  loss  of  the  battle  of  Cheriton  Down,  in  1644, 
he  went  with  his  patron,  then  Lord  Hopton,  to  Basing- 
House,  where  he  was  left  with  the  garrison,  and  con- 
tinued there  during  the  siege  which  followed;  and  he 
contributed  not  a  little,  by  his  example  and  exhortations, 
to  the  gallant  and  successful  defence  of  the  fortress.  He 
then  retired  to  Exeter  and  resumed  his  studies;  and 
during  his  residence  there  he  was  appointed  chaplain  to 

244  FULLER. 

the  infant  princess,  Henrietta  Maria,  born  in  that  city  in 
1643.  After  the  surrender  of  Exeter,  in  1646,  he  was 
permitted,  by  Sir  T.  Fairfax,  the  parliament-general,  to 
go  to  London,  where  he  was  chosen  lecturer  of  St.  Cle- 
ment's Church,  near  Lombard  Street,  and  afterwards  of 
St.  Bride's,  Fleet  Street. 

About  the  year  1648,  he  was  presented  to  the  rectory 
of  Waltham  Abbey  in  Essex,  by  the  Earl  of  Carlisle, 
whose  chaplain  he  had  just  before  been  made.  He  spent 
that  and  the  following  year  betwixt  London  and  Waltham, 
employing  some  engravers  to  adorn  with  sculptures,  his 
copious  prospect  or  view  of  the  Holy  Land,  as  from 
Mount  Pisgah;  therefore  called  his  "  Pisgah-sight  of 
Palestine  and  the  confines  thereof,  with  the  history  of  the 
Old  and  New  Testament  acted  thereon,"  which  he  pub- 
lished in  1650.  It  is  a  handsome  folio,  embellished  with 
a  frontispiece  and  many  other  copper-plates,  and  divided 
into  five  books.  As  for  his  "  Worthies  of  England,"  upon 
which  he  had  expended  so  much  labour,  by  the  death  of 
the  king  he  was  disheartened  in  the  further  prosecution 
of  it ;  it  seemed  indeed  as  if  the  proceedings  of  the  parlia- 
ment had  proved  a  contradiction  to  the  title  of  it:  "for 
what  shall  I  write,  says  he,  of  the  Worthies  of  England, 
when  this  horrid  act  will  bring  such  an  infamy  upon  the 
whole  nation,  as  will  ever  cloud  and  darken  all  its  former, 
and  suppress  its  future  rising  glories  ?"  Therefore  he  was 
busy  till  the  year  last  mentioned,  in  getting  out  that 
book  and  others  ;  and  the  next  year  he  rather  employed 
himself  in  publishing  some  particular  lives  of  religious 
reformers,  martyrs,  confessors,  bishops,  doctors,  and  other 
learned  divines,  foreign  and  domestic,  than  in  augment- 
ing his  said  book  of  English  Worthies  in  general.  To 
this  collection,  which  was  done  by  several  hands,  as  he 
tells  us  in  the  preface,  he  gave  the  title  of  Abel  Redi- 
vivus,  and  published  it  at  London  in  4to,  1651. 

And  now,  having  lived  about  twelve  years  a  widower, 
and  being  recommended  by  his  noble  friends  to  an  adr 

FULLER.  245 

vantageous  match,  he  married  a  sister  of  the  Viscount 
Baltinglasse,  about  the  year  ]  654 ;  and  the  next  year 
she  brought  him  a  son,  who,  with  his  half-brother,  sur- 
vived his  father.  In  1656,  he  published  at  London,  in 
folio,  "The  Church  History  of  Britain,  from  the  birth 
of  Jesus  Christ  to  the  year  1648:"  to  which  work  are 
subjoined.  The  History  of  the  University  of  Cambridge 
since  the  Conquest,  and  The  History  of  Waltham  Abbey 
in  Essex,  founded  by  King  Harold.  His  Church  History 
was  animadverted  upon  by  Dr.  Heylin  in  his  Examen 
Historicum,  and  this  drew  from  Fuller  a  reply,  entitled, 
An  Appeal  of  Injured  Innocence,  in  w^hich  he  defended 
himself  with  so  much  moderation  that  the  two  antago- 
nists were  entirely  reconciled. 

The  character  of  his  Church  History  has  been  often 
assailed,  and  the  author  accused  of  inaccuracy  and  parti- 
ality ;  from  these  charges  he  is  vindicated  by  the  able 
editor  of  the  edition  of  the  work  lately  printed  at  the 
university  press  of  Oxford. 

In  1658  the  living  of  Cranford,  in  Middlesex,  was 
bestowed  on  him,  and  he  removed  thither.  The  Restora- 
tion taking  place  in  1660,  he  was  reinstated  in  his  pre- 
bend of  Salisbury;  and  was  soon  after  created  D.D.  at 
Cambridge,  by  royal  mandate;  appointed  chaplain  extra- 
ordinary to  his  majesty,  and  destined  for  the  episcopal 
bench.  This  last  preferment  was  prevented  by  his  death, 
which  took  place  August  J  5th,  1661.  The  year  after  his 
death  was  published  his  principal  literary  work,  The 
Worthies  of  England,  folio  ;  a  production  valuable  alike 
for  the  solid  information  it  affords  relative  to  the  provin- 
cial history  of  the  country,  and  for  the  profusion  of 
biographical  anecdote  and  acute  observation  on  men  and 
manners.  The  great  fault  of  this,  as  well  as  of  the 
former  compositions  of  Dr.  Fuller,  is  an  elaborate  dis- 
play of  quaint  conceit,  owing  perhaps  more  to  the  natural 
disposition  of  the  author  than  to  the  taste  of  the  age  in 
which  he  wrote,  when  however  that  species  of  wit  was 
much  admired. 

246  GAGE. 

Besides  the  works  mentioned  in  the  course  of  this 
memoir,  he  was  the  author  of  several  works  of  a  smaller 
nature  :  as,  1.  Good  Thoughts  in  bad  times.  2.  Good 
Thoughts  in  worse  times ;  these  two  pieces  printed 
separately,  the  former  in  1645,  the  latter  in  1647,  were 
published  together  in  1652.  He  afterwards  published 
in  1660,  3.  Mixt  Contemplation  in  better  times.  4.  An- 
dronicus  ;  or  the  Unfortunate  Politician  ;  London,  1649, 
8vo.  5.  The  Triple  Keconciler  stating  three  controver- 
sies, viz.  "  Whether  ministers  have  an  exclusive  power 
of  barring  communicants  from  the  sacrament :  whether 
any  person  unordained  may  lawfully  preach  :  and  whe* 
ther  the  Lord's  Prayer  ought  not  to  be  used  by  all  Chris- 
tians." 1654,  8vo.  6.  The  Speech  of  Birds,  also  of 
Flowers,  partly  moral,  partly  mystical,  1660,  8vo.  He 
published  also  a  great  many  sermons,  separately  and  in 
volumes. — Life  by  T.  Fuller.  Biog.  Brit.  Peck's  Desi- 


Thomas  Gage  was  born  at  Haling,  in  Surrey.  He 
entered  into  the  Domican  order  in  Spain ;  after  which 
he  was  sent  as  a  missionary  to  the  Philippine  Islands, 
but  instead  of  going  thither,  he  settled  in  Mexico,  from 
whence  he  came  to  England  in  1637,  after  an  absence 
of  twenty-four  years,  during  which  he  had  forgotten  his 
native  language.  On  examining  into  his  domestic  affairs, 
he  found  himself  unnoticed  in  his  father's  will,  forgotten 
by  some  of  his  relations,  and  with  difficulty  acknowledged 
by  others.  After  a  little  time,  not  being  satisfied  with 
respect  to  some  religious  doubts  which  had  entered  his 
mind  while  abroad,  and  disgusted  with  the  great  power 
of  the  Papists,  he  resolved  to  take  another  journey  to 
Italy,  to  "  try  what  better  satisfaction  he  could  find  for 
his  conscience  at  Rome  in  that  religion."    At  Loretto  his 

GALE.  247 

conversion  from  Popery  was  fixed  by  proving  the  fallacy 
of  the  miracles  attributed  to  the  picture  of  our  Lady 
there ;  on  which  he  immediately  returned  home  once 
more,  and  preached  his  recantation  sermon  at  St.  Paul's, 
by  order  of  the  Bishop  of  London.  He  continued  above 
a  year  in  London,  but  soon  deserted  the  Church  of  Eng- 
land, and  joining  the  rebels,  he  received  a  living  from 
them,  probably  that  of  Deal,  in  Kent,  in  the  register  of 
which  church  is  an  entry  of  the  burials  of  Mary,  daughter, 
and  Mary  the  wife  of  "  Thomas  Gage,  parson  of  Deale, 
March  21,  1652;"  and  in  the  title  of  his  work  he  is 
styled,  "  Preacher  of  the  word  of  God  at  Deal."  He 
died  a  little  before  the  Restoration. 

He  published  his  recantation  sermon  in  1642  ;  a  piece 
entitled,  A  Duel  fought  between  a  Jesuit  and  a  Domini- 
can, 4to. ;  and,  Survey  of  the  West  Indies,  folio,  1655, 
translated  into  French  by  order  of  Colbert,  1676. 


John  Gale,  a  dissenting  minister,  was  born  in  Lon- 
don in  1680.  He  studied  at  Leyden,  where,  in  his 
nineteenth  year,  he  obtained  the  degrees  of  master  of 
arts  and  doctor  of  philosophy ;  on  which  occasion  he 
published  his  Thesis.  From  Leyden  he  went  to  Amster- 
dam, where  he  studied  under  Limborch,  and  contracted 
an  acqaintance  with  Le  Clerc.  On  the  publication  of 
Mr.  Wall's  History  of  Infant  Baptism,  he  attempted  an 
answer  to  it,  which,  while  it  evinced  the  presumption  of 
a  young  man  of  twenty-seven,  displayed  some  learning 
and  considerable  talents.  He  was  afterwards  chosen  one 
of  the  ministers  of  the  Baptist  congregation  in  Barbican. 
Dr.  Gale  died  in  1721  ;  and  after  his  death,  four  volumes 
of  his  sermons  were  printed. — Funeral  Sermon  by  Bur- 



Theophilus  Gale,  a  Nonconformist,  was  born  in 
1628,  at  King's  Teignton  in  Devonshire,  where  his  father 
was  vicar.  He  became  a  commoner  of  Magdalen  Col- 
lege, Oxford,  where  he  took  his  degrees  in  arts,  and  was 
elected  to  a  fellowship.  He  apostatized  from  the  Church 
of  England  and  was  chosen  minister  at  Winchester ; 
but  lost  that  situation  and  his  fellowship  at  the  Res- 
toration for  not  complying  with  the  terms  of  subscrip- 
tion. He  then  became  tutor  to  the  sons  of  Lord  Whar- 
ton, and  went  with  them  to  Caen,  and  while  there  con- 
tracted a  friendship  with  Bochart.  In  1665  he  returned 
to  England,  and  officiated  as  assistant  to  Mr.  John  Rowe, 
who  had  a  congregation  in  Holborn.  He  also  conducted 
a  seminary  at  Newington,  where  he  died  in  1677.  He 
published — 1.  The  true  idea  of  Jansenism,  12mo.  2. 
Theophilus,  or  a  discourse  of  the  saints'  amity  with  God 
in  Christ,  8vo.  3.  The  Anatomy  of  Infidelity,  8vo.  4. 
Idea  Theologiag  tarn  contemplativae  quam  activse,  12mo. 
5.  Philosophia  generalis,  8vo.  " The  court  of  the  Gen- 
tiles," in  four  parts,  4to,  in  which  he  traces  all  the  my- 
thology, philosophy,  and  philology  of  the  pagans  to 
revelation. — Calamy. 


John  Vincent  Anthony  Ganganelli,  immortalized  as 
Pope  Clement  XIV.  for  the  suppression  of  the  Jesuits, 
was  the  son  of  a  physician  at  St.  Archangelo,  near  Rimini, 
and  was  born  in  1705.  He  received  his  early  education 
at  Rimini,  and  at  the  age  of  eighteen  entered  into  the 
order  of  minor  conventual  Franciscans  at  Urbino.  He 
studied  philosophy  and  theology  at  Pezaro,  Recanti,  Fano, 
and  Rame ;  and  becoming  at  length  a  teacher,  he  gave 


lectures  in  various  colleges  of  his  order,  and  at  the  age 
of  thirty-five  was  called  by  his  superiors  to  be  theological 
professor  in  the  college  of  St.  Bonaventure  at  Rome.  He 
attracted  the  notice  of  Pope  Benedict  XIV.,  who  made 
him  counsellor,  or  consultor,  of  the  holy  office. 

The  confidence  that  every  one  had  in  the  superior 
knowledge  of  Ganganelli,  obliged  him  to  apply  himself 
to  studies,  which  had  no  connexion  with  bis  employments. 
He  had  thoroughly  to  examine  the  questions  treated  of 
in  the  different  congregations,  those  of  the  council  of 
Trent,  of  the  Index,  of  Rites,  of  the  Government  of  the 
Church,  of  the  Examination  of  Bishops :  "  And  not  to 
decide  at  random,"  used  he  to  say,  "  I  am  so  apprehen- 
sive of  committing  a  mistake,  that  I  spend  three  days 
about  what  would  require  one  only,  whenever  my  advice 
is  asked  on  any  business  of  importance." — More  than 
once  did  the  morning  surprise  him  with  bis  pen  in  his 
hand,  when  he  thought  it  was  only  midnight ;  and  espe- 
cially while  busied  in  the  correction  of  the  oriental  books. 

His  Roman  Catholic  biographer,  Caraccioli,  remarks, 
that  Father  Ganganelli,  giving  himself  up  to  such  pro- 
found studies,  had  no  taste  for  the  direction  of  souls. 
He  gives  proof  of  this  in  a  letter  he  wrote  to  some  nuns, 
who  teased  him  to  undertake  the  care  of  their  consciences. 
There  might  possibly  be  something  of  vanity  in  the  step 
they  took.  More  than  once  have  people  consulted  less 
their  wants,  than  their  self-love,  in  order  to  attach  to 
themselves  a  director,  whose  name  was  famous.  People 
are  weak  enough  to  imagine,  that  the  reputation  of  a  man 
of  talents  is  reflected  back  on  those  he  directs ;  and  to 
persuade  themselves,  that  by  discovering  to  him  their 
defects,  they  partake  of  his  virtues. 

The  refusal  of  Ganganelli  was  expressed  in  these  terms: 
"  Ladies  and  reverend  mothers,  I  have  none  of  the  quali- 
fications requisite  for  being  your  director.  Always  lively 
— sometimes  blunt — often  absent — perpetually  employed, 
I  shall  neither  have  time  nor  patience  to  hear  you.     De- 

VOL.    V.  '2  A. 


tach  therefore  yourselves  from  ine,  I  beseech  you ;  or  I 
will  conclude  with  making  a  general  confession  of  all  my 
imperfections,  which  will  convince  you,  that  I  am  not  the 
guide  you  stand  in  need  of.  The  cardinal-vicar  is  ac- 
quainted with  some  heavenly  souls,  who  will  have  the 
patience  to  weigh  seriously  your  slightest  faults,  and  it  is 
to  him  you  ought  to  address  yourselves.  If  you  love  God 
alone,  you  will  think  your  rule  your  best  director;  and 
your  piety  will  never  be  pure,  till  it  be  divested  of  all 
sensible  affections. — A  truly  religious  soul  belongs  neither 
to  Cephas,  nor  Apollos,  but  to  Jesus  Christ  alone." 

Sometime  after  this  letter,  he  wrote  to  the  Bishop  of 
Perugia,  his  friend,  and  concludes  thus  :  "  The  nuns 
have  at  length  desisted  from  troubling  me,  after  sending 
me  perhaps  twenty  letters.  They  never  would  have 
thought  of  disturbing  my  repose,  had  they  known  how 
much  I  am  in  love  with  my  cell,  my  books,  and  my 
labour.  If  ever  I  quit  these  I  shall  be  unhappy.  I  have 
made  a  sufficient  estimate  of  the  good  things  of  this 
world,  to  know  that  there  is  none  greater,  than  to  dwell 
with  God  and  with  one's  self.  You  ask  me  what  T  am 
doing  ?  I  think,  and  consider  the  thoughts  which  I  have 
hatched,  as  a  little  family  of  my  own,  which  keeps  me 
company,  A  man  is  never  alone,  but  when  he  withdraws 
from  himself,  to  run  into  company.  I  like  neither  noise 
nor  misanthropy.  I  would  rather  laugh  alone  than  be 

In  1759  he  was  raised  to  the  cardinalate  by  Clement 
XIII.,  whom  he  succeeded,  in  May  1769,  under  the 
name  of  Clement  XIV.,  through  the  influence  of  the 
house  of  Bourbon,  managed  by  the  Cardinal  de  Bernis. 
Never  were  the  affairs  of  the  Roman  see  in  a  more 
critical  state.  Portugal  was  on  the  eve  of  choosing  a 
patriarch ;  France,  Spain,  and  Naples,  were  all  medita- 
ting attacks  on  the  papal  authority.  Venice  was  pro- 
posing to  reform  its  religious  communities ;  and  Poland 
thought  of  curtailing  the  privileges  of  the  pope's  nuncio. 


Ganganelli  began  with  conciliatory  measures,  but  void  of 
meanness,  towards  the  discontented  powers ;  and  he  dis- 
continued the  public  reading  of  the  bull  in  Coena  Do- 
mini, which  was  considered  offensive  to  them. 

But  urged  as  he  was  to  suppress  the  Jesuits,  he  took 
four  years  to  deliberate  on  the  measure,  and  the  mode  of 
its  accomplishment.  Clement  XIV.  was  sensible,  as  he 
often  said  himself,  "  that  the  religious  orders  had  degen- 
erated, because  it  is  impossible  that  fervour  should  always 
be  kept  up  to  the  same  degree — that  no  reformation 
lasts  above  a  hundred  years ; — and  that  even  then, 
according  to  the  remark  of  a  famous  writer,  there  are 
seventy  years  for  God,  and  thirty  for  the  world — that 
studies  were  on  the  decline  in  cloisters,  as  well  as  else- 
where— in  a  word,  that  there  were  too  many  convents  of 
religious  communities,  especially  in  country-places,  where 
dissipation  brings  with  it  a  multitude  of  abuses.  He 
however  said,  he  was  at  the  same  time  convinced,  that  the 
total  suppression  of  all  the  religious  orders  could  not  but 
be  prejudicial  both  to  religion  and  to  the  state — that 
monasteries  were  bulwarks  against  ignorance  and  infidel- 
ity— and  that  they  had  supplied  mankind  with  able 
writers,  when  scarce  any  body  else  could  read." 

It  seems  probable  from  this  that  he  contemplated  a 
reformation  of  the  Jesuits,  until  he  found  this  to  be  im- 
practicable. After  four  years  of  deliberation,  the  brief 
for  suppressing  that  order  was  signed.  "This  brief," 
says  his  Roman  Catholic  biographer,  "is  not  one  of 
those  publications  calculated  only  for  a  day,  and  which, 
when  our  curiosity  is  satisfied  with  reading  them  once 
over,  are  forgotten;  but  it  is  a  monument  which  will 
subsist  throughout  generations  to  come,  and  hath  been 
seen  in  different  hghts,  only  because  men  judge  of  it  as 
they  are  affected.  We  identify  ourselves,  without  per- 
ceiving it,  with  the  principles  we  have  imbibed  in  our 
youth — with  the  opinions  of  those  whose  company  we 
keep — with  the  ideas  of  the  bodies,  whose  institute  we 


embrace — for  fear  of  losing  our  credit,  or  of  appearing 
singular:  and  truth  is  no  more  than  a  chimera,  of  which 
we  make  a  jest  with  impunity.  '  In  public,'  said  a  cer- 
tain man  in  place,  '  I  speak  in  favour  of  the  Jesuits  ;  but 
I  am  not  interiorly  a  partisan  of  theirs.' 

"  Notwithstanding  all  the  precautions  the  pope  had 
taken  not  to  be  deceived,  he  still  distrusted  himself: 
and  in  order  to  avoid  all  reproach,  he  communicated  his 
brief  to  some  of  the  most  learned  among  the  theologians 
and  cardinals.  He  carried  his  attention  still  farther,  and 
secretly  sent  it  to  the  potentates  interested  in  the  quarrel 
with  the  Jesuits ;  and  even  to  those,  who  were  indifferent 
with  respect  to  that  dispute,  to  take  their  advice,  and  not 
to  expose  his  own  authority  to  be  called  in  question.  A 
wise  precaution,  which  would  have  saved  Kome  a  deal  of 
vexation  and  trouble,  had  she  always  followed  the  same 
method,  before  she  published  her  decrees ! 

"When  he  had  received  the  answers  of  the  princes,  who 
approved  of  his  resolutions,  and  promised  to  have  them 
executed  according  to  their  form  and  tenor,  he  waited 
still  some  time  longer :  not  that  he  was  intimidated  by 
papers  posted  up,  even  in  his  own  palace,  '  recommending 
the  holy  father  to  the  prayers  of  the  public,  as  being  soon 
to  die,'  but  because  a  thousand  different  objects  presented 
themselves  to  his  mind. 

*'  He  saw  that  he  was  going  to  extinguish  an  order 
fruitful  in  great  men,  and  which  had  produced,  in  every 
climate,  literati,  missionaries,  preachers,  men  of  learning 
and  sanctity — that  he  was  going  to  cause  an  immense 
chasm  both  in  the  pulpits  and  colleges,  which  it  would 
be  very  difficult  to  fill  again.  Lastly,  that  he  was  going 
to  render  himself  odious  to  a  multitude  of  people  in 
power,  who  were  prejudiced  in  favour  of  the  Jesuits,  and 
even  to  some  pious  souls,  who  knowing  nothing  of  them, 
but  their  edifying  exterior,  judged  them  deserving  of  a 
better  fate. 

"  He  saw  at  the  same  time,  that  their  existence  '  had 


caused  disturbances  almost  from  the  very  beginning.' — 
'  That  the  complaints  and  accusations  brought  against 
the  society  increased  more  and  more  every  day.' — '  That 
the  kings  of  France,  Spain,  Portugal,  and  the  two  Sicilies 
had  found  themselves  absolutely  obliged  to  drive  them 
out  of  their  territories,  and  demand  their  abolition.' 
— '  That  a  great  number  of  bishops  and  others,  distin- 
guished for  their  dignity,  learning,  and  religion,  had 
solicited  their  suppression.' — '  That  they  could  no  longer 
produce  those  excellent  and  abundant  fmits,  which  were 
the  design  and  end  of  their  institution.' 

"  These  are  the  very  words  of  the  brief,  without  any 

"He  saw  lastly,  that  they  themselves  had  consented  to 
their  own  annihilation,  when  they  declared,  without  any 
ambiguity,  by  the  mouth  of  their  general,  that  they  rather 
chose  to  subsist  no  longer,  as  a  body,  than  to  undergo 
any  reformation. 

"  This  rash  answer  was  the  more  surprising,  as  they 
knew  that  the  Church  itself  may  be  reformed  in  matters 
regarding  discipline ;  and  they  ought  to  have  remembered 
what  Benedict  XIV.  had  said  in  express  terms  to  their 
general,  Centurioni :  '  It  is  an  article  of  faith  that  I  shall 
have  a  successor,  but  it  is  not  so  that  you  will  have  one-' 

"  So  true  it  is,  that  men  of  the  greatest  sense  are  easily 
blinded  in  their  own  concerns.  The  credit  and  reputa- 
tion which  the  Jesuits  had  so  long  enjoyed,  had  dazzled 
their  eyes.  '  Their  misfortune  was,  that  they  thought 
themselves  necessary,'  said  Cardinal  Stoppani. 

"  At  last  Clement  XIV.  after  having  maturely  weighed 
the  motives  which  determined  him,  with  his  eyes  raised 
up  to  heaven,  signed  the  famous  brief,  which  suppresses 
for  ever  the  Company  of  Jesus.  It  bears  date  the  21st 
of  July,  1773  ;  a  day  which  most  certainly  will  never  be 
forgotten  in  history.  And  indeed  the  title  of  the  brief  is : 
For  an  everlasting  Memorial." 

The  suppression  of  the  Jesuits  was  succeeded  by  an 
2  a2 


immediate  reconciliation  with  the  discontented  courts. 
But  the  suppressor  of  the  Jesuits  had  counted  the  cost, 
and  did  not  expect  long  to  survive.  As  his  end  approach- 
ed, the  fervour  of  his  piety  increased,  and  he  sought 
consolation  in  the  formularies  and  ordinances  of  his 
Church.  His  last  moments  are  thus  described  by  Car- 
accioli :  "In  the  presence  of  the  sacred  college,  the  ex- 
treme-unction was  administered  to  him,  and  he  ceased 
not,  to  the  moment  of  his  death  (which  happened  on  the 
22nd  of  September,  1774,  at  seven  o'clock  in  the  morning,) 
to  testify  his  confidence  in  the  divine  mercy,  and  the 
most  perfect  resignation  to  the  will  of  the  Almighty. 
The  generals  of  the  Augustins,  the  Dominicans,  the 
Conventual  and  Observatin  friars  recited,  according  to 
custom,  the  prayers  for  persons  in  their  agony,  and 
Father  Marzoni  received  his  last  breath. 

"  Scarce  had  he  expired,  when  his  body  turned  black, 
and  appeared  in  a  state  of  putrefaction ;  and,  according 
to  the  report  of  eye-witnesses,  upon  taking  out  his  bow- 
els, marks  of  a  cruel  poison  w^ere  thought  to  be  discovered. 

"  Some  will  not  fail  to  say,  that  the  Jesuits  hastened 
his  death ;  others,  that  this  stroke  came  from  the  hand  of 
some  grandees,  whose  glory  was  eclipsed  by  the  pontifi- 
cate of  Ganganelli  ;  while  judicious  and  disinterested 
people  will  accuse  nobody,  but  leave  this  event  under  the 
dark  cloud  with  which  it  is  at  present  enveloped,  till  time 
hath  cleared  it  up." — Caraccioli. 


Stephen  Gardiner  was  born  at  Bury  St.  Edmunds, 
in  1483.  Of  his  origin  nothing  certain  is  known.  The 
man  who  passed  for  his  father,  occupied  a  menial  situa- 
tion in  the  household  of  Lionel  Woodville,  Bishop  of 
Salisbury,  the  brother  of  Edward  the  IVth's  queen.  It 
was,  however,  commonly  believed  that  the  bishop  himself 


was  young  Gardiner's  father.  These  frequent  transgres- 
sions on  the  part  of  ecclesiastical  dignitaries,  while  the 
law  of  clerical  celibacy  was  enforced  in  our  Church, 
ought  to  be  noted  by  those  who  would  again  impose  this 
burden  upon  us,  and  by  those  who  look  with  too  partial 
an  eye  upon  the  state  of  our  Church  before  the  Reforma- 

He  was  educated  at  Trinity  Hall,  Cambridge,  and  in 
1520  took  the  degree  of  L.L.D.,  having  diligently  ap- 
plied himself  to  the  study  of  the  civil  and  canon  law. 
He  soon  after  became  secretary  to  Cardinal  Wolsey. 
While  Gardiner  was  in  this  employment,  the  draught  of 
a  treaty  of  more  than  common  ability,  prepared  by  him, 
was  submitted  by  Wolsey  to  the  king,  w^ho,  struck  by  its 
masterly  character,  enquired  by  whom  it  was  drawn  up. 
Gardiner  thus  became  known  to  his  sovereign,  and  in 
1528  he  was  sent  by  his  majesty  to  Rome,  to  negociate  the 
affairs  of  his  divorce.  Dr.  Gardiner  had  become  the  master 
of  Trinity  Hall,  and  with  him  was  associated  Dr.  Fox,  of 
King's  College,  in  the  same  university  of  Cambridge. 
How  far  these  heads  of  houses  were  persuaded  of  the 
justice  of  the  cause  in  w^hich  they  were  retained,  it  is 
impossible  to  ascertain ;  but  the  way  to  higher  preferment 
was  open  before  them,  and  in  that  broad  way  they  trod. 
Dr.  Gardiner  conducted  the  business  with  great  boldness 
and  success.  He  obtained  a  commission  determining  the 
matter  of  the  divorce,  directed  to  the  Cardinals  Wolsey 
and  Campegus,  and  for  a  reward  he  received  the  thanks 
of  the  king  and  cardinal,  as  well  as  an  autograph  letter 
from  the  heartless  Anne  Boleyn,  who  contemplated  with 
rapture  the  ruin  of  her  royal  mistress,  and  her  own  ele- 
vation to  the  tyrant's  bed  and  throne.  Dr.  Gardiner  was 
now  recalled  by  the  king,  who  wished  to  employ  him  in 
the  Legantine  court.  On  his  return,  he  was  made  Arch- 
deacon of  Norfolk,  his  patron  being  Nyx,  the  Bishop  of 
Norwich,  and  soon  after  he  was  made  secretary  of  state. 
The  attention  of  Henry,  and  consequently  of  his  ministers, 


was  chiefly  devoted  to  the  subject  of  his  passion  for  Anne 
Boleyn,  and  his  divorce  from  his  pious  queen ;  and  Gar- 
diner and  Fox  having  met  with  Dr.  Cranmer  at  Waltham 
Cross,  and  having  been  struck  with  his  view  of  the  sub- 
ject, they  introduced  that  celebrated  man  to  the  king, 
and  by  him  they  were  soon  supplanted  in  the  royal  favour. 

The  disgrace  of  Wolsey  soon  followed.  Secretary  Gar- 
diner was  intreated  by  the  cardinal  to  interfere  in  his 
favour  with  the  king ;  and  he  did  so  with  success,  as  the 
cardinal  received  a  sum  of  money,  and  was  restored  to 
the  Archbishopric  of  York.  Some  writers  accuse  Dr. 
Gardiner  of  having  been  remiss  on  the  occasion;  it  is 
propable  that  an  ambitious  man  of  the  world,  for  such 
Gardiner  was,  an  aspiring  statesman,  would  not  risk  his 
own  favour  with  the  king  for  his  former  benefactor,  but 
the  result  shews  that  he  did  exert  himself  in  the  cause  of 
the  cardinal.  He  seems  to  have  been  at  least  as  bold  as 
his  rival,  Dr.  Cranmer,  on  a  similar  occasion,  when  the 
like  service  was  required  of  him  by  Cromwell. 

x\s  the  head  of  a  house  in  Cambridge,  Gardiner  was 
appointed  to  procure  a  declaration  from  the  university  in 
favour  of  the  divorce.  It  was  a  difficult  task.  As  an 
indirect  attack  upon  the  papal  supremacy,  the  king's 
cause  was  supported  by  that  little  body  of  learned  men 
who  desired  a  reformation  in  the  Church.  To  these  the 
heads  of  houses  generally,  and  the  majority  of  church- 
men, were  strongly  opposed.  But  it  is  customary  for 
heads  of  houses  in  either  university,  to  set  an  example  of 
obedience  to  the  higher  powers ;  and  Gardiner  succeeded, 
but  not  without  a  great  struggle.  It  will  be  interesting 
to  many  of  our  readers,  to  learn  how  these  matters  were 
conducted  at  Cambridge  at  this  time. 

Fehruary,  1530.  from  Cambridge. 

To  the  King's  Highness. 

"  Pleaseth  it  your  highness  to  be  advertised,  that 
arriving  here  at  Cambridge  upon  Saturday  last  past  at 


noon,  that  same  night  and  Sunday  in  the  morning,  we 
devised  with  the  vice-chancellor,  and  such  other  as  favour- 
eth  your  grace's  cause,  how,  and  in  what  sort  to  compass 
and  obtain  your  grace's  purpose  and  intent,  wherein  we 
assure  your  grace,  we  found  much  towardness,  good-will, 
and  diligence  in  the  vice-chancellor,  and  Dr.  Edmunds  ; 
being  as  studious  to  serve  your  grace  as  we  could  wish  or 
desire :  nevertheless,  there  was  not  so  much  care,  labour, 
study,  and  diligence  employed  on  our  party  by  them, 
ourself,  and  other,  for  attaining  your  grace's  purpose,  but 
there  was  as  much  done  by  others,  for  the  let  and  im- 
peachment of  the  same ;  and  as  we  assembled,  they 
assembled ;  as  we  made  friends,  they  made  friends,  to 
let  that  nothing  should  pass  as  in  the  university's  name, 
v.herein  the  first  day  they  were  superiors ;  for  they  had 
put  in  the  ears  of  them,  by  whose  voices  such  things  do 
pass,  multas  Jahulas,  too  tedious  to  write  unto  your  grace. 

"  Upon  Sunday  at  afternoon  were  assembled,  after  the 
manner  of  the  university,  all  the  doctors,  bachelors  of 
divinity,  and  masters  of  art,  being  in  number  almost  two 
hundred :  in  that  congregation  we  delivered  your  grace's 
letters,  which  were  read  openly  by  the  vice-chancellor. 
And  for  answer  to  be  made  unto  them  first,  the  vice- 
chancellor  calling  apart  the  doctors,  asked  their  advice 
and  opinion ;  whereunto  they  answered  severally  as  their 
affections  led  them,  et  res  erat  in  multa  confusione. 

''Tandem  they  were  content.  Answer  should  be  made 
to  the  question  by  indifferent  men  :  but  then  they  came 
to  exceptions  against  the  Abbot  of  St.  Benet's,  who  seem- 
ed to  come  for  that  purpose ;  and  likewise  against  Dr. 
Reppes  and  Dr.  Crome,  and  also  generally  against  all 
such  as  had  allowed  Dr.  Cranmer's  book ;  inasmuch  as 
they  had  already  declared  their  opinion ;  we  said  there- 
unto, that  by  that  reason  they  might  except  against  all ; 
for  it  was  lightly,  that  in  a  question  so  notable  as  this  is, 
every  man  learned  hath  said  to  his  friend,  as  he  thinketh 
in  it  for  the  time,  but  we  ought  not  to  judge  of  any  man, 


that  he  setteth  more  to  defend  that  which  he  hath  once 
said,  than  truth  afterward  known.  Finally — the  vice- 
chancellor,  because  the  day  was  much  spent  in  those  al- 
tercations, commanding  every  man  to  resort  to  his  seat 
apart,  as  the  manner  is  in  those  assemblies,  willed  every 
man's  mind  to  be  known  secretly,  whether  they  would  be 
content  with  such  an  order,  as  he  had  conceived  for 
answer,  to  be  made  by  the  university  to  your  grace's 
letters,  whereunto  that  night  they  would  in  no  wise  agree. 
And  forasmuch  as  it  was  then  dark  night,  the  vice-chan- 
cellor continued  the  congregation  till  the  next  day  at  one 
of  the  clock ;  at  which  time  the  vice-chancellor  proponed 
a  grace,  after  the  form  herein  enclosed,  and  it  was  first 
denied :  when  it  was  asked  again,  it  was  even  on  both 
parties,  to  be  denied  or  granted ;  and  at  the  last,  by 
the  labour  of  friends,  to  cause  some  to  depart  the  house, 
which  were  against  it,  it  was  obtained  in  such  form,  as 
the  schedule  herein  enclosed  purporteth,  wherein  be  two 
points  which  we  would  have  left  out ;  but  considering,  by 
putting  in  of  them,  we  allured  many,  and  that  indeed 
they  shall  not  hurt  the  determination  for  your  grace's 
part,  we  were  finally  content  therewith. 

"  The  one  point  is  that  where  it  was  first,  the  qiiicquid 
major  pars,  of  them  that  be  named,  decreverit,  should  be 
taken  for  the  determination  of  the  university.  Now^  it 
referred,  ad  duas  partes,  wherein  we  suppose  shall  be  no 
difficulty.  The  other  point  is,  that  your  grace's  question 
shall  be  openly  disputed,  which  we  think  to  be  very  hon- 
ourable ;  and  it  is  agreed  amongst  us,  that  in  that  dispu- 
tation, shall  answer  the  Abbot  of  St.  Benet's,  Dr.  Reppes, 
and  I,  Mr.  Fox,  to  all  such  as  will  object  any  thing,  or 
reason  against  the  conclusion  to  be  sustained  for  your 
grace's  part.  And  because  Mr.  Doctor  Clyss  hath  said, 
that  he  hath  somewhat  to  say  concerning  the  canon  law, 
I,  your  secretary,  shall  be  adjoined  unto  them  for  answer 
to  be  made  therein. 

^'  In  the  schedule,  which  we  send  unto  your  grace  here- 

GARDINER.  '26Q>' 

with,  containing  the  names  of  those  who  shall  determine 
your  grace's  question,  all  marked  with  the  letter  (a),  be 
already  of  your  grace's  opinion,  by  which  we  trust,  and 
with  other  good  means,  to  induce  and  obtain  a  great  part 
of  the  rest.  Thus  we  beseech  Almighty  God  to  preserve 
your  most  noble  and  royal  estate. 

Your  highness' 
Most  humble  subjects  and  servants, 

Stephen  Gardiner, 
Edward  Fox." 

The  labours  of  the  master  of  Trinity  Hall,  in  the  ser- 
vice, not  of  God,  but  of  the  king,  were  rewarded  by 
several  pieces  of  preferment,  and  he  was  consecrated 
Bishop  of  Winchester  in  the  year  1531. 

In  1533  he  sat  with  Dr.  Cranmer,  now  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury,  in  the  court  which  pronounced  the  sentence 
by  which  Queen  Catherine's  marriage  was  pronounced 
null  and  void.  The  same  year  also  he  went  as  ambas- 
sador to  the  French  king  at  Marseilles,  where  he  was 
soon  followed  by  the  notorious  Dr.  Bonner.  He  was 
sent  to  watch  the  interview  between  the  King  of  France 
and  the  pope,  for  it  was  suspected  that  the  latter  designed 
some  mischief  against  England.  Archbishop  Cranmer 
too,  had  at  this  juncture  a  secret  intimation  that  it  was 
intended  to  excommunicate  him,  and  to  lay  his  kingdom 
under  an  interdict,  and  therefore  Gardiner  and  Bonner 
were  commissioned  both  by  the  king  and  the  archbishop 
to  appeal  from  the  pope  to  the  next  general  council. 
Bonner  and  Gardiner  appear  not  to  have  been  on  the 
best  of  terms,  and  there  exists  a  letter  in  Fox's  Acts  and 
Monuments,  which  describes  the  conduct  of  the  latter  as 
very  bad.  But  if  the  letter  is  genuine,  from  our  know- 
ledge of  Bonner's  infamous  character,  and  from  the  style 
in  which  it  is  written,  we  cannot  but  suspect  that  it  is  an 
invention  of  that  very  wicked  man.     It  is  not  probable 


that  the  Bishop  of  Winchester  would  use  the  language 
which  Bonner  puts  into  his  mouth,  if  indeed  by  Bonner 
the  letter  in  Fox  was  written. 

Gardiner  was  not  won  to  Popery  by  his  interview  with 
the  pope,  for  on  his  return  to  England,  he  not  only  with 
the  other  bishops  acknowledged  the  royal  supremacy, 
but  defended  the  Reformation  so  far  in  his  book,  De 
Vera  Obedientia.  To  this  piece  Bonner  supplied  a  preface, 
and  the  fact  that  he  thus  freely  co-operated  with  Gar- 
diner throws  suspicion  on  the  letter  just  alluded  to.  The 
preface  is  coarse  and  sycophantic,  the  pope  is  loaded  with 
abuse,  while  the  king  and  the  Bishop  of  Winchester  are 
immeasurably  extolled.  As  Gardiner  was  more  of  a 
politician  than  a  divine,  the  value  of  the  work  is  not 

Hitherto  Gardiner  had  proceeded  with  the  reforming 
party ;  but  he  was  not  a  man  to  act  a  second  part,  and 
being  led  by  personal  feelings  to  oppose  the  archbishop, 
he  was  soon  at  the  head  of  a  party  against  him.  In  1535 
the  archbishop  began  a  provincial  visitation,  and  sent  a 
monition  to  the  Bishop  of  Winchester  that  he  intended 
to  visit  his  diocese.  The  Bishop  of  Winchester  was  not 
willing  to  yield  canonical  obedience  to  his  grace,  and 
betrayed  the  spirit  of  a  lawyer  rather  than  a  divine,  in 
endeavouring  to  excite  the  odium  of  the  king  against  the 
archbishop  for  retaining  his  ancient  title  Totius  Anglics 
Primas.  He  pretended  to  think  that  this  detracted  from 
the  royal  supremacy.  In  the  following  year  we  find  him 
opposing  the  archbishop  in  convocation,  and  particularly 
in  his  attempt  to  obtain  an  authorised  English  version 
of  Scripture. 

He  was  sent  again  on  an  embassy  to  France,  where  he 
procured  the  removal  of  Reginald  Pole,  then  Dean  of 
Exeter,  from  the  French  dominions.  In  1538  he  went 
in  the  same  capacity  to  the  German  diet  at  Ratisbon, 
where,  his  politics  having  undergone  a  change,  he  was 
suspected  of  holding  a  secret  correspondence  with  the 


On  his  return  to  England  he  was  engaged  with  Cran- 
mer  in  prosecuting  Lambert  for  the  ZuingHan  heresy. 
But  there  is  no  reason  to  suppose  that  in  this  he  acted 
more  cruelly  than  Cranmer,  though  as  a  courtier  and  a 
statesman  he  suggested  to  the  king,  already  willing,  to 
conduct  the  examination  himself. 

It  was  by  the  influence  of  the  Bishop  of  "Winchester, 
now  at  the  head  of  a  party  supporting  the  royal  supre- 
macy and  the  independence  of  the  Church  of  England, 
but  opposed  to  further  innovations,  that  the  act  of  the 
six  articles,  commonly  called  the  bloody  statute,  was 
passed ;  of  this  statute  an  account  is  given  in  the  life  of 
Cranmer.  This  was  a  great  triumph  to  the  conservative 
party,  and  a  sad  affliction  to  the  reformers. 

Soon  after  this  the  Bishop  of  Winchester  incurred 
the  censure  of  protest  ants  by  the  following  circumstance. 
The  bishop  had  preached  at  St.  Paul's  Cross  in  Lent, 
and  led  by  the  gospel  of  the  day,  he  descanted  upon  our 
Lord's  temptation:  "The  devil,"  he  said,  -'upon  that 
mysterious  occasion,  quoting  the  psalmist's  words,  insti- 
gated Jesus  to  cast  himself  down  forwards  :  now  the  great 
enemy  of  souls,  though  still  citing  Scripture,  incites  men 
to  cast  themselves  backwards  :  he  say?.  Go  back  from 
fasting,  go  back  from  praying,  go  back  from  confession, 
go  back  from  penance.  Formerly  the  devil,  envying  man 
the  felicity  of  good  works,  contrived  to  have  pardons 
brought  from  Rome,  a  kind  of  merchandise  which  was 
retailed  by  his  agents  the  friars.  But  now  that  these 
traffickers  and  their  trumpery  are  all  clean  got  rid 
of,  he  hath  raised  up  the  new  teachers,  who  tell  you  that 
there  is  no  need  of  works  ;  only  believe,  and  live  as 
merrily  as  you  list,  you  ^vill  come  to  heaven  at  last." 

On  the  third  Sunday  in  Lent,  Dr.  Barnes  attacked  the 
bishop  in  the  most  indecorous  manner,  and  with  that 
vulgar  buffoonery  for  which  Exeter  Hall  is  still  distin- 
guished. The  bishop  very  naturally  and  properly  com- 
plained to  the  king  of  the  treatment  he  had  received, 

VOL.    V.  2  B 

•^62  GARDINER. 

After  a  conference  between  Barnes  and  the  king,  and  a 
discussion  between  liim  and  the  Bishop  of  Winchester, 
the  king  commanded  Dr.  Barnes  to  preach  one  of  the 
Spital  sermons,  and  to  renounce  such  of  his  opinions  as 
were  deemed  to  be  erroneous.  The  same  injunction  was 
laid  upon  two  other  popular  preachers,  Garret  and  Je- 
rome ;  the  first,  an  Oxford  man,  having  a  cure  in  the 
city,  the  latter  vicar  of  Stepney.  Instead  of  renouncing 
what  the  rulers  of  the  Church  of  England  at  that  time 
deemed  the  errors  of  the  reforming  party,  they  reiterated 
their  assertions,  and  in  the  event  they  were  condemned 
to  the  stake,  to  which  they  were  drawn  with  certain  other 
persons  who  had  erred  in  the  opposite  extreme  :  Roman- 
ists who  had  opposed  the  royal  supremacy,  and  were  on 
that  account  hanged,  drawn,  and  quartered.  Dr.  Barnes 
suffered  with  great  constancy,  and  prayed  for  those  who 
had  caused  his  death,  whoever  they  might  be ;  a  prayer 
in  which  he  included  Bishop  Gardiner.  "  And  Dr.  Ste- 
phen, Bishop  of  Winchester  that  now  is,  if  he  has  sought 
and  wrought  this  my  death,  either  by  word  or  deed,  I 
pray  God  forgive  him."  Whether  ultra-protestant  histori- 
ans go  not  too  far  in  inferring  from  this  that  the  bishop 
was  more  concerned  than  other  members  of  what  would 
now  perhaps  be  styled  a  board  of  heresy,  the  reader  will 
decide.  It  is  certainly  a  proof  that  the  bishop  had  con- 
siderable influence  with  the  king,  since  none  were  safe 
but  those  who  clearly  trod  the  via  media,  in  which  Bishop 
Gardiiier  supposed  that  he  had  hit  the  golden  mean  ; — 
Protestants  were  condemned,  as  we  have  seen,  for  false 
doctrine,  Papists  for  denying  the  supremacy  of  the  king, 
Gardiner,  who  avoided  either  extreme,  supposed  himself 
most  probably  a  true  Catholic,  though  we  know  that  such 
he  was  not. 

That  the  Bishop  of  Winchester  was  not  unpopular 
with  the  churchmen  of  his  day,  may  be  gathered  from 
the  fact  of  his  being  elected  chancellor  of  Cambridge,  in 
1540.     It  was  thought  perhaps  that  such  a  man  was 


most  calculated  to  put  a  stop  to  the  excesses  to  which 
some  of  the  learned  men  of  the  university,  who  desired 
a  reformation,  were  hurrying ;  while  it  was  known  that  if 
attached  to  Romish  doctrines  he  was  equally  zealous  for 
the  royal  supremacy,  and  so  no  Papist.  He  soon  was 
involved  in  a  controversy  with  Sir  John  Cheke  on  the 
proper  method  of  pronouncing  Greek,  and  though  Sir 
John  was  in  the  right,  he  compelled  him  to  he  silent,  by 
that  exercise  of  irresponsible  power,  with  which  the  heads 
of  our  universities  are  properly  invested,  but  which,  as  in 
this  case,  is  not  always  exercised  with  discretion  and 

Bishop  Gardiner,  with  other  prelates,  including  Arch- 
bishop Cranmer,  took  a  disgraceful  part  in  furthering 
the  wishes  of  the  king  for  disannulling  his  marriage  with 
Ann  of  Cleves.  The  pre-contract  between  her  and  the 
Duke  of  Lorrain  was  alleged  by  the  Bishop  of  Winchester. 

But  Gardiner's  craft  as  a  statesman  is  perhaps  more 
conspicuous  in  his  endeavour  to  supersede  the  English 
translation  of  the  bible  in  convocation,  by  proposing  the 
retention  of  a  certain  number  of  Latin  words.  His  object 
was  clearly  that  of  evasion,  and  to  keep  the  people  in 
ignorance.  The  design  of  Gardiner  was  to  check  the 
Reformation.  But  in  his  present  attempt  he  failed.  But 
though  he  failed  in  convocation,  he  succeeded  in  joarlia- 
ment,  where  he  obtained  an  act  by  which  the  English 
bible  was  permitted  only  to  persons  of  certain  prescribed 

The  Bishop  of  Winchester  was  now  the  head  of  the 
anti-reformation  party,  and  the  decided  opponent  of  what 
was  called  the  new  learning — a  strict  conservative.  He 
strongly  enforced  the  six  articles,  under  which  statute  he 
prosecuted  several  persons,  and  at  last  designed  the  ruin 
of  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  Cranmer  himself.  But 
in  all  his  attempts  to  ruin  Cranmer  he  failed.  He  cer- 
tainly seems  to  have  resorted  to  the  most  base  artifices 
in  plotting  against  the  archbishop,  and  he  employed  one 


Dr.  Loudon  in  this  iniquitous  affair,  a  man  who  was 
afterwards  convicted  of  perjury.  By  means  of  intercepted 
letters,  some  from  Gardiner,  and  others  from  this  man, 
Loudon,  the  scheme  was  discovered ;  and  the  king  being 
thoroughly  convinced  of  its  malevolence,  it  was  crushed. 
And  as  to  the  Bishop  of  Winchester,  from  this  time  he 
lost  much  of  that  favour  with  the  king,  which  he  had 
before  enjoyed. 

In  1544  he  was  involved  in  some  danger  through  his 
secretary,  German  Gardiner.  This  young  man,  who 
enjoyed  the  prelate's  confidence,  was  condemned  and 
executed  for  denying  the  royal  supremacy.  The  Bishop 
of  Winchester  was  suspected  by  the  king,  whose  suspicions 
w^ere  encouraged  by  the  reforming  party,  of  entertaining 
opinions  similar  to  those  of  his  secretary,  and  he  only 
saved  himself  by  the  most  abject  submission. 

In  1545,  while  the  Bishop  of  Winchester  was  employed 
in  Flanders,  in  soliciting  a  league  between  the  emperor, 
the  French  king,  and  the  king  of  England,  the  Archbishop 
of  Canterbury  and  the  reformers,  endeavoured  to  procure 
the  abolition  of  certain  superstitions ;  but  the  Bishop  of 
Winchester  was  too  watchful  a  minister  to  be  circum- 
vented, and  he  persuaded  the  king  that  the  success  of 
his  mission  depended  upon  there  being  no  innovations 
in  religion. 

On  his  return  from  Flanders,  the  Bishop  of  Winchester, 
now  the  chief  minister  of  the  crown,  set  on  foot  various 
prosecutions  under  the  bloody  statute,  or  the  statute  of 
six  articles  ;  one  of  these  prosecutions  was  conducted  in 
a  manner  peculiarly  infamous ;  Ann  Askew,  a  lady  of 
family,  and  of  unblemished  life,  was  tortured  on  the 
rack, — Lord  Chancellor  Wriothesley  actually  drawing  the 
rack  himself.  As  this  anecdote  is  barely  related  by  the 
historians  it  is  scarcely  credible;  it  is  therefore  necessary 
to  remark  that  Ann  Askew  was  a  friend  of  the  queen, 
and  Catharine  Parr  was  known  to  be  unfriendly  to  the 
ministry.    It  was  hoped,  therefore,  to  compel  Ann  Askew 


to  implicate  her  mistress.  The  heroic  woman  remained 
firm  to  the  last,  and  was  burnt  for  heresy.  It  is  impossi- 
ble to  acquit  the  Bishop  of  Winchester  of  an  awful  share 
in  this  great  crime,  even  if  we  admit  that  the  cruelty  of 
Wriothesley  urged  him  on  beyond  the  intentions  of  the 
other  ministers.  Bishop  Gardiner  always  expressed, 
and  seems  to  have  had  a  great  respect  for  the  law,  in 
which  he  was  deeply  read,  and  he  knew  that  having 
recourse  to  the  rack  was  contrary  to  the  law.  But  to 
what  courses  will  not  the  ambition  of  statesmen  lead 
them !  The  continuation  of  a  conservative  ministry 
seemed  to  depend  upon  the  queen's  removal,  who  was  a 
decided  reformer,  and  whose  influence  over  the  aged 
king  was  increasing.  By  her  hasty  marriage  after  the 
king's  death  she  was  evidently  not  a  woman  of  a  high 
tone  of  mind,  but  she  took  up  the  opinions  of  the  new 
school ;  and  with  some  pretensions  to  learning,  she  was 
accustomed  to  maintain  them,  as  we  gather,  from  what  she 
afterwards  stated  herself,  half  in  sport  before  the  king. 
Availing  himself  of  an  occasional  indiscretion  on  her  part, 
and  some  irritation  against  her  on  the  part  of  the  king, 
the  Bishop  of  Winchester  had  almost  effected  her  ruin. 
But  the  queen,  who  discovered  the  plot,  was  so  alarmed 
as  to  bring  on  a  violent  and  dangerous  illness,  which  so 
affected  the  king,  that  with  a  little  pnidence  on  the 
queen's  part,  who  was  not  ambitious  of  martyrdom,  a 
reconciliation  ensued.  From  this  time  the  king  took  a 
great  dislike  to  his  conservative  ministers,  and  especially 
to  their  chief,  the  Bishop  of  Winchester,  although  he  had 
not  energy  left  to  replace  them. 

Hence  the  Bishop  of  Winchester,  when  the  king's  will 
was  again  drawn  out,  was  no  longer  mentioned  as  one  of 
the  executors,  and  consequently,  when  in  January,  1547, 
king  Henry  died,  the  power  of  the  Bishop  of  Winchester 

The  reformers  obtained,  with  the  accession  of  Edward' 
the  administration  of  affairs;  and  Archbishop  Cranmer 


endeavoured,  but  in  vain,  to  bring  the  Bishop  of  Win* 
Chester  to  a  concurrence,  or  at  least  an  acquiescence  in 
their  measures.  But  the  bishop  remained  firm  to  his 
principles.  Viewing  the  subject  rather  as  a  politician 
than  a  divine,  he  dreaded  the  movement,  lest  it  should 
involve  the  country  in  trouble  ;  and  we  may  fairly  suppose 
that  as  a  conservative,  he  dreaded  yet  more  the  avarice  of 
the  lay  reformers,  and  even  we  may  say  of  some  among 
the  more  pious  of  the  clergy,  since  Cranmer  enriched  his 
family  by  the  spoils  of  the  Church.  He  saw  the  institu- 
tions of  the  country  to  be  in  danger,  and  the  very  exist- 
ence of  the  established  Church  to  be  in  peril,  and  he 
expressed  himself  resolutely  against  all  innovation,  pro- 
testing against  all  change  during  the  king's  minority. 
However  great  were  the  offences  of  the  Bishop  of  Win- 
chester, and  however  bad  his  character  as  a  divine,  he 
at  this  time  stood  forth  as  a  bold,  courageous,  and  con- 
sistent conservative. 

The  Bishop  of  Winchester  perceived  that  his  whole 
influence  would  depend  on  his  placing  himself  at  the 
head  of  that  large  party,  who  on  religious  grounds  were 
opposed  to  the  movement,  and  he  seized  the  first  oppor- 
tunity which  occurred  of  declaring  his  sentiments.  On 
Ash- Wednesday,  the  celebrated  Dr.  Ridley  preached 
against  the  use  of  images,  as  instruments  of  devotion, 
and  of  holy  water,  as  a  means  of  repelling  devils.  To 
this  sermon  the  Bishop  of  Winchester  replied  in  a  letter, 
such  as  might  be  expected  from  a  man  of  his  distinguished 
powers  of  mind,  but  with  insufficient  arguments,  as  the 
badness  of  the  cause  implies. 

The  popular  feeling  was  now  beginning  in  many  places 
to  show  itself  in  favour  of  the  Reformation,  and  Bishop 
Gardiner,  a  staunch  conservative  of  the  time,  foresaw,  if 
we  may  adapt  to  the  circumstances  modern  phrases, 
whiggery  passing  into  radicalism.  He  was  in  his  own 
diocese  annoyed  by  the  populace,  who  destroyed  the 
images,  and  he  wrote  a  very  powerful  letter  on  the  sub- 


ject  to  the  protector  Somerset.  He  justly  complained  of 
popular  rhymes,  in  which  he  was  himself  lampooned, 
and  the  feast  of  Lent  decried.  His  remonstrances  were 
not  attended  to,  and  he  did  not  perhaps  expect  it  to  be 

In  1547,  a  royal  \isitation  was  appointed  by  the  re- 
forming government ;  the  powers  of  the  visitors  were  very 
extensive,  and  the  jurisdiction  of  the  bishops  was  inhi- 
bited. The  act,  in  itself  tyrannical,  and  contrary  to  the 
canons  of  the  Church  of  England,  was  rendered  still  more 
irregular,  because  the  visitors  before  whom  the  bishops 
were  cited,  w^ere  most  of  them  laymen.  Certain  injunc- 
tions were  delivered  by  the  visitors,  to  which,  in  them- 
selves, there  is  but  little  to  object.  None  were  allowed 
to  preach  but  those  who  had  a  royal  license,  and  the  royal 
license  was  extended  to  those  only  who  held  the  opini- 
ons of  the  reformers ;  a  proceeding  which  w^ould  not  in 
these  days  be  considered  liberal,  especially  in  a  party  con- 
tending for  liberty.  The  last  part  of  the  bidding  prayer, 
differing  from  what  is  at  present  used,  runs  thus  :  "  You 
shall  pray  for  them  that  are  departed  out  of  this  world  in 
the  faith  of  Christ,  that  they  with  us,  and  we  with  them, 
at  the  day  of  judgment,  may  rest  both  in  body  and  soul." 

To  the  visitation,  the  Bishop  of  Winchester  objected, 
as  unnecessary  and  inexpedient;  to  the  injunctions  he 
was  opposed  on  other  grounds ;  and  he  also  found  fault 
with  the  doctrine  of  some  of  the  homilies,  lately  published 
under  the  auspices  of  the  archbishop.  It  was  a  great 
object  with  the  government  to  secure,  at  least,  the  silence 
of  such  a  man  as  the  Bishop  of  Winchester;  and  Sir  John 
God  salve,  one  of  the  visitors,  and  a  personal  friend  of  his 
lordship,  ventured  to  urge  him  to  be  discreet,  lest  he 
should  ruin  himself  and  lose  his  bishopric.  To  this  the 
prelate  returned  a  noble  answer,  one  of  the  most  striking 
letters  in  our  language,  to  which  even  Burnet,  the  most 
bitter  of  historians,  when  speaking  of  parties  differing 
from  him  in  sentiment,  accords  the  meed  of  his  praise. 


This  was  indeed  the  golden  period  of  Dr.  Gardiner's  life. 
He  maintained  his  principles  with  firmness  and  dignity. 
He  asked  for  and  obtained  permission  to  detail  his  objec- 
tions to  the  proposed  measures  before  the  council,  but  he 
did  not  leave  the  country  before  he  had  given  orders  for 
the  respectful  reception  of  the  visitors ;  and  to  the  clergy 
who  consulted  him,  he  counselled  obedience  to  the  in- 
junctions likely  to  be  imposed.  After  arguing  before  the 
council,  he  was  required  to  state  his  intentions  respecting 
the  injunctions,  and  when  he  said  that  he  would  receive 
them  so  far  as  the  laws  of  God  and  the  king  should  bind 
him,  the  answer  was  represented  as  evasive.  He  then 
offered  to  spend  the  three  weeks  which  would  elapse 
before  the  visitation  of  his  own  diocese  at  Oxford,  and 
after  a  disputation  there  on  the  points  at  issue,  to  abide 
by  its  result.  When  this  offer  was  refused,  he  requested 
leave  to  remain  at  his  town  house,  and  there  to  discuss 
with  some  divines  of  eminence  the  doctrines  upon  which 
he  differed  with  the  council.  But  the  reforming  party 
would  come  to  no  compromise;  they  insisted  on  his  re- 
ceiving the  injunctions  without  qualification,  or  being 
committed  to  custody.  Necessity,  so  often  the  plea  of 
men  in  power,  w^as  doubtless  the  plea  urged  by  the 
reformers  on  the  present  occasion.  The  Bishop  of  Win- 
chester had  conducted  himself  throughout  the  proceedings 
with  dignity  and  composure.  He  professed  to  be  open 
to  conviction,  but  readily  admitted  that  he  had  uttered  to 
others  the  opinions  he  expressed  to  the  board.  He  re- 
marked on  the  hardship  of  committing  a  man  to  prison 
for  talking  of  the  manner  he  intended  to  act  upon  an 
occasion  not  yet  arrived  ;  but  as  the  council  had  decreed 
otherwise,  he  submitted  with  magnanimity,  and  was 
committed  to  the  Fleet. 

Never  was  the  Bishop  of  Winchester  in  so  proud  a 
situation  as  that  which  he  now  occupied  ;  a  confessor  for 
what  he  deemed  to  be  the  cause  of  truth,  and  the  perse- 
cuted leader  of  a  party  which,  though  rapidly  sinking  in 


political  influence,  was  still  dear  to  a  majority  of  the 
people.  If  Gardiner  had  died  at  this  time,  he  would 
have  been  handed  down  in  the  page  of  history  as  a  great 

The  bishop  continued  in  prison  until  the  8th  of  Janu- 
ary, when  parliament  had  broken  up.  that  is  to  say,  the 
government  kept  in  prison  the  leader  of  the  opposition 
until  they  had  carried  all  their  measures.  x\s  Gardiner 
was  a  politician,  and  not  a  person  under  the  strong 
impulses  of  religion,  he  was  not  likely  to  be  hurried  into 
excesses,  and  on  being  liberated,  he  conducted  himself 
with  great  discretion  :  he  professed  his  willingness  to  be 
guided  by  the  conduct  of  his  episcopal  brethren,  and  as 
to  the  homilies,  though  he  still  objected  to  the  one  on 
justification,  he  admitted  the  general  soundness  of  their 
doctrine.  He  returned  to  his  diocese,  and  though  still 
at  the  head  of  the  Romish  party  in  our  Church,  both  by 
his  precept  and  example,  induced  the  clergy  to  acquiesce 
in  those  changes  which  were  now  enjoined,  and  which 
he  knew  infringed  not  any  principle  of  the  Church. 

But  although  this  is  admitted  by  all  the  histoiians,  a 
report,  whether  true  or  not,  in  1548  reached  the  council, 
of  his  having  armed  his  servants,  and  conducted  himself 
in  other  respects  contumaciously,  and  before  the  council 
he  was  summoned  again.  On  this  occasion,  the  Bishop 
of  Winchester,  the  head  of  the  Romish  party  in  the 
Church  of  England,  and  consequently  a  man  of  immense 
influence,  still  conducted  himself  with  dignity,  and  in  a 
conciliatory  temper.  Having  clearly  vindicated  himself 
from  the  charges  brought  against  him,  he  was  at  last 
directed  to  preach  a  written  sermon  before  the  king,  ac- 
cording to  the  tenour  of  two  papers  which  were  produced 
by  Cecil.  Gardiner  expressed  his  readiness  to  preach, 
and  also  to  comment  upon  most  of  the  subjects  recom- 
mended to  him,  but  he  refused  to  write  his  sermon,  or 
hand  it  over  to  previous  inspection.  The  government 
seems  to  have  felt  intense  anxiety  as  to  this  sermon,  and 


many  were  the  messages  sent  to  the  bishop,  who  seems  to 
have  been  determined  to  offer  as  it  were  the  ultimatum  of 
the  Romish  party  in  our  Church,  to  offer  certain  compro- 
mises, but  to  make  a  principle  by  which  they  were  deter- 
mined to  abide.  The  sermon  was  delivered  on  the  feast  of 
St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul,  the  ^Oth  of  June :  he  admitted  that 
the  papal  supremacy  was  justly  abolished ;  that  monaste- 
ries and  chantries  were  properly  suppressed ;  that  the 
king's  proceedings  had  hitherto  been  unexceptionable  ; 
that,  all  things  considered,  it  was  as  well  to  remove 
images,  though  with  proper  caution  they  might  be  re- 
tained ;  that  masses  satisfactory,  having  become  so  very 
numerous,  were  better  put  down ;  that  the  new  commu- 
nion service  was  worthy  of  commendation ;  that  the 
admission  of  the  laity  to  the  sacramental  cup  was  a 
proper  measure ;  but  transubstantiation  he  would  not 
give  up  ;  on  the  contrary,  he  defended  it  at  considerable 
length;  and  what  gave  more  offence  to  the  political 
reformers,  as  to  the  authority  vested  in  a  minor  king  the 
sermon  was  silent.  The  sermon  was  listened  to  with 
intense  interest,  the  reforming  party  cheering  at  the  con- 
cessions, the  Romish  party  sending  counter  cheers  when 
he  brought  forward  the  doctrine  of  transubstantiation, 
which  was  used  ever  afterwards  as  the  test  of  Romanism. 
For  this  sermon  the  bishop  was  committed  to  the 
Tower  !  And  he  remained  in  prison  during  the  whole  of 
this  reign.  In  1550  he  published  an  answer  to  Arch- 
bishop Cranmer's  "  Defence  of  the  True  and  Catholic 
Doctrine  of  the  Sacrament  of  the  Body  and  Blood  of  our 
Saviour  Christ."  But  the  early  studies  of  the  Bishop  of 
Winchester  had  been  directed  to  law  rather  than  divinity, 
and  thus  his  work  was  a  failure.  He  was  well  employed 
during  his  imprisonment  in  composing  a  variety  of  Latin 
poems,  and  by  translating  into  verse  several  passages 
in  the  books  of  Ecclesiastes,  Wisdom,  Job,  and  other 
parts  of  the  Old  Testament.  In  the  same  year  he  was 
most  unjustly  and  iniquitously  deprived  of  his  bishopric 


by  a  commission,  over  which  Cranmer  presided.  Although 
Dr.  Poynet  was  appointed  his  successor,  he  was  only 
allowed  a  pension  of  two  thousand  marks,  the  estates  of 
the  see  being  seized  by  the  greedy  reformers  of  the  court. 
The  disgraceful  rapacity  of  the  reformers  has  cast  a  shade 
over  the  motives  of  most  of  the  laymen  who  promoted 
the  Reformation,  and  in  this  instance  a  thirst  for  the 
spoil  may  have  rendered  the  courtiers  the  more  eager 
for  his  condemnation. 

By  the  death  of  Edward,  and  the  accession  of  Mary, 
Bishop  Gardiner  was  restored  to  his  episcopal  rights,  and 
to  political  power.  And  now  the  most  disgraceful  part 
of  his  career  commences.  He  was  created  chancellor,  and 
was  the  chief  minister  of  the  crown.  He  had  hitherto 
been  willing  to  make  concessions,  but  the  reforming  prin- 
ciples had  run  to  such  an  extreme,  that  he  was  now  anxious 
to  retrace  some  of  the  steps  that  had  been  taken, — a  very 
serious  proceeding,  such  as  seldom  succeeds.  The  bishop 
wished  to  proceed  with  greater  caution  in  retracing  past 
steps,  than  the  more  honest  zeal  of  the  queen  would 
allow.  Both  parliament  and  convocation,  the  latter  of 
which  is  said  to  have  been  packed,  were  quite  prepared ; 
the  former  to  repeal  the  religious  statutes  of  the  last  reign, 
and  the  latter  to  assert  the  doctrine  of  transubstantiation. 
The  Romish  party  was  once  again,  and  for  the  last  time, 
in  the  ascendant  in  our  Church.  The  Bishop  of  Win- 
chester acceded  now  to  the  papal  supremacy.  Cardinal 
Pole  became  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  reconciled 
England  to  the  see  of  Rome.  And  under  Gardiner's 
administration  the  laws  were  put  in  force  against  all  who 
did  not  conform  to  the  prevailing  Romanism.  And  as 
chancellor,  many  of  the  visitors  were  brought  before  him ; 
and  it  must  be  confessed  that  on  these  occasions  he  lost 
that  dignity  of  character  which  he  maintained  under  the 
pressure  of  adversity ;  he  frequently  betrayed  a  malicious 
and  revengeful  spirit.  But  while  the  chancellor  was 
engaged  in  upholding  the  politic  interests  of  the  queen, 

;^7a  GASTRELL. 

and  prosecuting  the  Protestants,  bis  physical  strength 
began  to  faib  His  mortal  seizure  is  said  by  some  to 
have  been  suppression  of  urine ;  by  others  a  violent  attack 
of  the  gout.  His  bodily  sufferings  were  great,  his  mental 
anguish  greater.  To  religion  the  mind  of  Gardiner  had 
been  turned,  although  throughout  his  life  religion  was 
regarded  by  him  with  the  eye  of  the  politician ;  he  now 
began  to  see  the  nothingness  of  every  thing  except  religion. 
The  indignation  of  his  Protestant  contemporaries,  has 
certainly  exaggerated  his  moral  defects,  but  still  he  had 
been  merely  a  politician,  and  this  was  an  awful  thought 
to  an  ecclesiastic  just  passing  into  eternity.  "Alas  !"  he 
said,  "  like  Peter  I  have  erred,  but  I  have  not  like  Peter 
gone  out  and  wept  bitterly."  He  died  at  Westminster, 
on  the  12th  of  November,  1555. — Strype.  Burnet.  Col- 
lier.   Soames.    Heylin.    Dod. 


Francis  Gastrell  was  born  at  Slapton,  in  Northamp- 
tonshire, about  166'2,  and  educated  at  Westminster 
School,  and  Christ  Church,  Oxford.  He  was  preacher 
at  Lincoln's  Inn,  and  Boyle's  lecturer,  and  distinguished 
himself  not  only  by  his  eloquence  in  the  pulpit,  but  by 
his  writings  in  defence  of  the  Christian  religion.  In 
1700  he  took  his  degree  of  D.D.,  and  became  chaplain  to 
Harley,  speaker  of  the  house  of  commons,  and  in  1702 
he  was  appointed  canon  of  Christ  Church,  Oxford.  In 
1711  he  was  chaplain  to  the  queen,  and  in  1714  he  was 
raised  to  the  see  of  Chester,  with  permission  to  retain 
his  canonry;  but  he  resigned  his  preachership  at  Lin- 
coln's Inn. 

He  was  strongly  opposed  to  the  tyrannical  proceedings 
of  the  whig  ministry  of  George  I.,  and  warmly  vindicated 
the  university  of  Oxford,  when  it  was  attacked  for  a 
pretended  riot  on  the  birth  day  of  the  Prince  of  Wales, 
in  1717. 


As  Bishop  of  Chester  he  was  involved  in  a  very  remark- 
able contest  with  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbuiy,  about 
the  force  and  quality  of  the  degrees  granted  in  virtue  of 
his  metropolitical  power.     The  occasion  was  this.     The 
presentation  to  the  place  of  warden  of  the   collegiate- 
church  of  Manchester  in  Lancashire  pertaining  to   the 
crown,  George  I.  nominated  thereto  Mr.  Samuel  Peploe, 
vicar  of  Preston  in  the  same  county.     But  that  gentleman, 
being  then  only  master  of  arts,  found  himself  obliged  by 
the  charter  of  the  college,  to  take  the  degree  of  bachelor 
of  divinity,  as  a  necessary  qualification  to  hold  the  war- 
denship.    To  that  end  having  been  bred  at  Oxford,  where 
he  had  taken  his  former  degrees,  he  went  thither  in  order 
to  obtain  this,  and  had  actually  prepared  the  best  part  of 
his  exercise  for  that  purpose,  when  he  was  called  to  Lam- 
beth, and  there  created  bachelor  of  divinity,  by  the  arch- 
bishop, who,  under  the  influence  of  party  spirit,  thought 
the  university  ought,  in  respect  to  the  royal  nomination, 
to  dispense  with  the  usual  exercise.     With  this  title,  he 
applied  to  Dr.  Gastrel,  in  whose  diocese  the  church  of 
Manchester  then  lay,  for  institution.     But  the  bishop 
being  persuaded,    that  his  degree  was  not  a  sufficient 
qualification  in  this  case,  refused  to   admit  him ;  and 
observed  to   him,   that   being  in   all  respects  qualified 
to  take  his  degree  regularly  in  the  university,  he  might 
proceed  that  way  without  any  danger  of  being  denied, 
and  that,    if   he  desired  any  favour  usually  shown  to 
other  persons,  he  would  endeavour  to  obtain  it  for  him, 
and  did  not  doubt  but  the  university  would  grant  it. 
On  the  other  hand,  Mr.  Peploe  insisted  on  his  qualifica- 
tion by  the  archbishop,  and  had  recourse  to  the  court  of 
king's  bench,  where  sentence  was  given  in  his  favour. 
Hereupon,  Dr.  Gastrel,  in  his  own  vindication,  published 
"  The  Bishop  of  Chester's  case,  with  relation  to  the  war- 
denship  of  Manchester.     In  which  is  shown,   that  no 
other  degrees,  but  such  as   are  taken  in  the  university, 
can  be  deemed  legal  qualifications  for  any  ecclesiastical 
VOL.   V.  2  c 


preferment  in  England."  This  was  printed  at  Oxford, 
and  that  university,  March  22,  1720,  decreed  in  a  full 
convocation,  that  solemn  thanks  should  be  returned  to 
the  bishop,  for  his  having  so  fully  asserted  the  rights, 
privileges,  and  dignities,  belonging  to  the  university  de- 
grees in  this  book.  The  dispute  was  carried  on  with 
great  warmth,  and  among  other  things,  there  passed 
some  letters  between  the  bishop  and  Dr.  Gibson,  after- 
wards Bishop  of  London,  who  threatened  our  author 
with  being  called  to  an  account  for  his  conduct  by  the 
archbishop ;  but  in  answer  thereto,  he  declared  that  he 
feared  nothing  that  could  happen  to  him  in  this  world, 
and  as  to  the  account  which  was  to  be  made  in  the  next, 
he  believed  he  stood  as  good  a  chance  as  his  adversaries. 

This  affair  was  scarcely  concluded,  when  the  prosecu- 
tion commenced  against  Dr.  Francis  Atterbury,  Bishop  of 
Rochester.  Our  author  never  liked  the  haughty  temper 
of  that  prelate,  and  had  always  opposed  his  arbitrary  at- 
tempts while  dean  of  Christ  Church.  Yet  being  satis- 
lied  in  his  conscience,  that  the  proceedings  in  parliament 
against  him  were  conducted  in  a  tyrannical  temper,  and 
with  too  much  violence,  he  opposed  them  with  great 
resolution,  and  when  the  bill  for  inflicting  pains  and 
penalties  upon  his  old  schoolfellow  and  collegian  was 
before  the  house  of  lords,  he  spoke  against  it  with  all  the 
earnestness  and  warmth  that  was  natural  to  his  temper, 
not  sparing  to  censure  the  rest  of  his  brethren  on  the 
bishops'  bench,  who  all  concurred  with  the  bill. 

The  whigs,  indeed,  had  resorted  to  their  usual  course ; 
hating  the  Church,  but  not  daring  to  attack  it,  they 
sought  to  undermine  it,  by  preferring  persons  unworthy 
of  the  office,  and  who  had  no  moral  influence  with  the 
other  clergy.  Good  bishops  there  were  on  the  bench, 
but  the  majority  had  been  prefen-ed  because  of  their 
being  suspected  of  holding  heretical  tenets,  and  because 
of  their  supposed  readiness  to  aid  the  ministry  in  their 
endeavours  to  ruin  the  Church. 

GATAKER.  275 

He  survived  the  Bishop  of  Rochester's  banishment  but 
a  few  years.  The  gout,  with  which  he  had  been  much 
afflicted  in  the  latter  part  of  his  Ufe,  put  a  period  to  it, 
November  24,  1725,  in  the  62nd  or  63rd  year  of  his  age. 
He  died  at  his  canon's  lodgings,  in  Christ  Church,  and 
was  buried  in  that  cathedral. 

Among  the  most  celebrated  of  his  writings  are — 1.  A 
Treatise  on  the  Moral  Proof  of  a  Future  State,  and 
another,  entitled  Christian  Institutes.  A  series  of  Boyle's 
Lectures,  afterwards  arranged  as  a  continuous  discourse 
against  Deism.  And  pamphlets  against  Dr.  Samuel 
Clarke  and  Mr.  Collins,  on  the  question  of  the  Trinity. 
This  last  treatise  was  written  early  in  1714,  and  mainly 
contributed  to  his  advancement  to  the  episcopal  dignity 
in  the  reign  of  Queen  Anne. — Biog.  Brit.  Nichols'  Atter 
bury  and  Bowyer. 


Thomas  Gataker  was  born  in  London  in  1574;  was 
sent  to  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge,  in  1590;  and  on 
the  foundation  of  Sidney  College,  in  1596,  he  was  ap- 
pointed one  of  the  fellows.  Having  been  ordained,  he 
commenced  preaching  at  the  parish  church  of  Everton, 
near  Cambridge,  and  soon  after  removed  to  London,  and 
became  preacher  to  the  society  of  Lincoln's  Inn.  In 
1603  he  went  down  to  Cambridge  to  take  his  degree  of 
bachelor  of  divinity ;  and  it  so  fell  out,  that  he  preached 
at  St.  Mary's  on  the  very  day  that  the  news  came  of  the 
death  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  when,  by  the  direction  of  the 
vice-chancellor,  he  prayed  for  the  present  supreme  gover- 
nor, it  being  thought  unsafe  to  name  King  James,  till 
they  received  advice  of  his  accession  by  authority.  About 
this  time  an  alteration  was  made  as  to  the  hour  of  the 
lecture  on  the  Lord's  day  at  Lincoln's  Inn,  occasioned 
chiefly  by  Mr.  Gataker's  taking  notice  in  one  of  his  ser- 

276  .  GATAKER. 

mons,  that  it  was  as  lawful  for  the  husbandman  to  follow 
his  tillage,  as  for  counsellors  to  confer  with  their  clients 
and  give  advice  upon  that  day.  This  admonition  was 
well  received,  and,  instead  of  preaching  at  seven  in  the 
morning,  as  the  practice  had  always  been,  he  was  desired 
to  preach  at  the  usual  hour  of  morning  service.  The 
Wednesday's  lecture  was  also  transferred  to  Sunday  in 
the  afternoon;  and  this  provision  was  made,  that  the 
spare  hours  in  which  the  clients  came  to  their  lawyer's 
chambers,  should  be  better  employed. 

In  1611  he  was  presented  to  the  rectory  of  Rotherhithe 
in  Surrey ;  and  while  resident  there,  published  the  sub- 
stance of  a  course  of  sermons,  under  the  title  of  "  The 
nature  and  use  of  Lots  ;  a  Treatise,  historical  and  theo- 
logical," 1619,  4to.  In  the  next  year  he  made  a  tour 
through  the  Netherlands,  and  after  his  return  home  in 
1623,  he  published  a  Defence  of  his  Treatise  on  Lots, 
against  the  animadversions  of  a  Mr.  Balmford.  In  ]  637 
appeared  a  more  extended  defence  of  his  opinions,  under 
the  title  of  *'  Thomae  Gatakeri  Londinatis  Antithesis 
partim  Gulielmi  Amesii,  partim  Gisberti  Voetii  de  Sorte 
Thesibus  reposita,"  4to.  In  1642  he  was  chosen  by  the 
rebels  one  of  the  assembly  of  divines  at  Westminster ; 
but  in  the  discussions  which  took  place,  he  opposed  the 
introduction  of  the  Covenant,  and  declared  in  favour  of 
episcopacy,  that  is  to  say,  of  a  nominal  episcopacy,  in 
whicji  bishops  would  be  regarded  as  the  same  in  order  as 
presbyters.  Although  he  in  general  complied  with  the 
authority  of  the  parliament,  yet  he  remonstrated  strongly 
against  the  trial  of  King  Charles  I.  In  1648  he  pub- 
lished "  Thomas  Gatakeri  de  Novi  Testamenti  Stylo 
Dissertatio,"  4to,  in  which  he  vindicated  the  purity  of 
the  language  of  the  sacred  writers  against  the  objections 
of  Sebastian  Pfochenius.  This  was  followed  by  his  "Ad- 
versaria miscellanea  Animadversionum  variorum,  lib.  vi. 
comprehensa,"  1651,  4to.  The  following  year  he  pub- 
lished   an   edition  of  the   meditations  of  the   emperor 

GATAKER.  ^77 

Marcus  Antoninus.  He  died  in  1654  ;  and  in  1659  bis 
son,  Charles  Gataker,  published  "  Adversaria  Miscellanea 
Posthuma,  folio,"  forming  the  sequel  to  the  former  work. 
He  was  the  author  of  several  other  theological  productions. 
His  Opera  Critica  were  printed  at  Utrecht,  1693,  folio. — 
Biog.  Brit. 


Charles  Gataker,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  at 
Rotherhithe,  about  1614,  and  educated  at  St.  Paul's 
School,  and  at  Sidney  College,  Cambridge,  whence,  after 
he  had  taken  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  arts,  he  went  to 
Pembroke  College,  Oxford.  About  that  time  he  became 
acquainted  with  Lucius  Lord  Viscount  Falkland,  who 
made  him  his  chaplain.  Afterwards,  through  the  influ- 
ence of  the  Earl  of  Caernarvon,  he  became  rector  of 
Hoggeston,  in  Buckinghamshire,  about  1647,  and  con- 
tinued there  till  his  death  in  1680.  He  wrote  several 
treatises  upon  Calvinistical  principles,  of  which  the  fol- 
lowing are  the  principal :  1.  The  Way  of  Tiiith  and 
Peace,  or  a  Reconciliation  of  the  holy  Apostles,  St.  Paul 
and  St.  James,  concerning  Justification,  &c.  1669.  2.  An 
Answer  to  five  captious  Questions  propounded  by  a 
Factor  for  the  Papacy,  by  parallel  questions  and  positive 
resolutions,  London  1673,  4to.  3.  The  Papists'  Bait,  or 
their  usual  Method  of  gaining  Proselytes  answered, 
London,  1674,  4to.  4.  Ichnographia  Doctrinse  de  Justifi- 
catione  secundum  Typum  in  Monte,  London,  1681,  4to. 

Gataker  derives  his  chief  notoriety  from  his  having 
been  noticed  by  Bishop  Bull.  He  wrote  animadversions 
on  Bull's  Harmonia  Apostolica,  which,  concealing  his 
name,  he  communicated  to  several  bishops,  stirring  them 
up  by  letter  to  make  use  of  their  authority  against  the 
doctrines  maintained  by  Bishop  Bull,  as  pernicious  and 
heretical,  and  contrary  to  the  decrees  of  the  Church  of 

278  ^  GAUDEN. 

England,  and  of  all  other  reformed  Churches.  These 
"Animadversions,"  which  are  commonly  cited  by  Bishop 
Bull  under  the  name  of  Censura,  were  communicated  to 
him  in  1670  by  Dr.  Nicholson,  Bishop  of  Gloucester; 
and  in  1671  they  were  discovered  to  Bishop  Bull  to  have 
been  written  by  Mr.  Charles  Gataker,  who  in  these 
"  Animadversions,"  endeavours  to  reconcile  St.  Paul  with 
St.  James  by  the  distinction  of  a  twofold  justification,  as 
respecting  a  twofold  accusation,  according  to  the  different 
conditions  of  the  covenant  of  works,  and  the  covenant  of 
grace.  For  he  maintains,  that  we  are  accused  before 
God,  either  as  sinners  or  as  unbelievers  ;  and  that  we  are 
justified  against  the  first  accusation  by  faith  alone,  laying 
hold  on  the  grace  and  righteousness  of  Christ;  and 
against  the  second  by  works,  and  not  by  faith  only,  as 
these  are  the  signs  and  evidences  of  our  being  true  be- 
lievers. Mr.  Nelson  observes,  that  Mr.  Gataker  "appears 
to  have  been  a  person  of  great  violence  in  his  temper, 
but  one  well-intentioned,  and  a  very  zealous  protestant ; 
and  had  he  had  but  more  coolness  of  thought,  and  had 
he  withal  read  more  of  the  ancients,  and  fewer  of  the 
moderns,  he  would  have  made  no  inconsiderable  writer." 
Bishop  Bull  wrote  an  answer  to  these  "  Animadversions," 
which  he  entitled  "  Examen  Censurae,"  in  which  he  re- 
flects severely  on  Mr.  Charles  Gataker  for  publishing  his 
father's  posthumous  tract  above-mentioned,  since  he  had 
not  thereby  consulted  the  reputation  of  a  parent,  who  by 
his  great  critical  knowledge,  and  other  learning,  had  made 
himself  more  considerable,  than  to  deserve  that  such 
crudities  should  be  published  under  his  name,  at  least 
by  a  son. — Chalmers. 


John  Gauden  was  born  in  1605,  atMayfield,  in  Essex, 
where  his  father  was  vicar.     He  was  educated  at  Bury 

GAUDEN.  279 

St.  Edmund's  School,  and  at  St.  John's  College,  Cam- 
bridge. In  1630  he  obtained  the  ^'icarage  of  Chippenham, 
in  Cambridgeshire,  and  afterwards  the  rectory  of  Bright- 
well,  in  Berkshire.  He  was  chaplain  to  Lord  Warwick, 
and  preached  before  the  house  of  commons  with  such 
acceptation,  that  the  parliament  presented  him  in  the 
following  year  to  the  rich  deanery  of  Bocking.  in  Essex, 
for  the  regular  possession  of  which  he  obtained  the  colla- 
tion of  Laud,  then  a  prisoner  in  the  tower.  He  sub- 
mitted to  the  regulations  of  the  parliament  upon  the 
abolition  of  the  hierarchy,  and  he  was  one  of  the  assembly 
of  divines  who  met  at  Westminster ;  but  his  name  was 
struck  off  the  list,  and  that  of  Thomas  Godwin  was  sub- 
stituted for  it.  When  preparations  were  made  to  try  the 
king,  he  was  one  of  those  divines  who  boldly  petitioned 
against  it;  and  after  the  king's  death  he  published  a 
Just  Invective  against  those  who  murdered  King  Charles 
I.,  &G. 

At  this  period  he  published  the  work,  by  his  connexion 
with  which,  his  name  is  rescued  from  the  oblivion  to 
which  it  would  otherwise  have  been  long  since  consigned. 
Having  obtained  possession  of  the  Meditations  of  Charles 
L,  he  took  a  copy  of  the  manuscript,  and  immediately 
resolving  to  print  it  with  all  speed,  he  prevailed  with 
Mr.  Royston,  the  king's  printer,  to  undertake  the  work. 
But  when  it  was  about  half  printed,  a  discovery  of  it  was 
made  by  the  rebels,  and  all  the  sheets  then  wrought  off 
were  destroyed.  This  did  not,  however,  damp  Dr.  Gau- 
den's  spirit.  He  attempted,  notwithstanding,  to  print  it 
again,  but  could  by  no  possible  means  get  it  finished, 
till  some  few  days  after  his  majesty's  destruction,  when 
it  came  out  under  the  title  of  Ei/cwv  "BamXiKri,  or,  "  The 
portraiture  of  his  sacred  majesty  in  his  solitude  and  suf- 
ferings." Upon  its  first  appearance,  the  dissenters  now 
at  the  head  of  affairs,  were  immediately  sensible  how 
dangerous  a  book  it  was  to  their  cause,  and  therefore  set 
all  their  engines  at  work  to  discover  the  publisher ;  and 


having  seized  the  manuscript  which  had  been  sent  to  the 
king,  they  appointed  a  committee  to  examine  into  the 
business.  Dr.  Gauden  having  notice  of  this  proceeding, 
withdrew  privately  in  the  night  from  his  own  house  to 
Sir  John  Wentworth's,  near  Yarmouth,  with  a  design  to 
convey  himself  beyond  sea.  But,  Mr.  Symonds,  his  ma- 
jesty's chaplain,  who  had  communicated  the  manuscript 
to  the  doctor,  and  had  been  taken  up  in  a  disguise,  hap- 
pening to  die  before  his  intended  examination,  the  com- 
mittee were  not  able  to  find  out  any  thing,  by  any  means 
whatsoever ;  hereupon,  the  doctor  changed  his  resolution, 
and  stayed  in  England ;  where  he  directed  his  conduct 
with  so  much  policy,  as  to  keep  his  preferments  during 
the  several  periods  of  the  usurpation,  notwithstanding, 
he  published  several  treatises  in  vindication  of  the  Church 
of  England  and  its  ministers,  as  may  be  seen  below. 

This  unprincipled  man,  to  further  the  purposes  of  his 
ambition,  asserted  that  he  was  himself  the  author  of  the 
book,  and  not  merely  its  editor  and  publisher.  To  this 
very  day  the  subject  is  under  controversy,  the  truth  pro- 
bably being,  that  Gauden  had  the  king's  own  book  for 
the  foundation,  making  such  additions  and  alterations  as 
fitted  it  for  publication. 

Soon  after  the  restoration  he  became  Bishop  of  Exeter, 
and  having  made  a  fortune  there  by  the  renewal  of  leases, 
was  translated  to  Worcester,  much  disappointed  at  miss- 
ing the  lucrative  see  of  Winchester.  He  died  unregretted, 
in  1662. — Biog.  Brit.    Wordsworth. 


Of  the  elrly  life  of  St.  Gaudentius  we  know  nothing. 
It  is  supposed  that  he  was  educated  under  St.  Philas- 
trius.  Bishop  of  Brescia,  whom  he  styles  his  father. 
He  obtained  a  high  reputation  early  in  life,  and  fearful 
of  encouraging  vanity,  he  travelled  to  Jerusalem.    During 

GEDDES.  281 

his  absence    St.    Philastrius   died,  and  the   clergy  and 
people  of  Brescia,  who  had  been  accustomed  to  receive 
from  him  solid  instructions,  and  in  his  person  to  see  at 
their  head  a  perfect  model  of  Christian  virtue,  pitched 
upon  him  for  their  bishop,  and  fearing  obstacles  from  his 
humility,  bound  themselves  by  oath  to  receive  no  other 
for  their  pastor.     The  bishops  of  the  province  met,  and 
with   St.   Ambrose,  their   metropolitan,    confirmed    the 
election.    Letters  were  dispatched  to  St.  Gaudentius,  who 
was  then  in  Cappadocia,  to  press  his  speedy  return :  but 
he  only  yielded  to  the  threat  of  an  excommunication,  if 
he  refused  to  obey.     He  was  ordained  by  St.  Ambrose, 
with  other  bishops  of  the  province  about  the  year  387. 
He  was  one  of  the  deputation  sent  to  Constantinople, 
in  the  year  404  or  405,  by  the  emperor  Honorius  and 
the  Western  bishops,  to  appease  the  resentment  of  the 
emperor  Arcadius,  against  St.  Chrysostom,  and  to  inter- 
cede for  his  peaceable  re-establishment  in  his  see.     The 
time  of  his  death  is  fixed  by  some,  in  the  year  410,  and 
and  by  others,  in  427.     He  is  supposed  to  have  been  the 
author  of  the  Life  of  Philastrius,  which  is  to  be  found 
in  Surius  under  the   18th   of  July.     There  are  fifteen 
discourses,    and   other  treatises   on    different    subjects, 
addressed   to   Benevolus,    a  person    of   consequence   in 
Brescia,  letters,  and  other  pieces,  which  are  inserted  in 
the  fifteenth  volume  of  the  Bibleotheca  Patrum.    The 
most  complete  edition  of  his  works  is  that  published 
at  Brescia  in  1738,  by  Paul  Galearoli.' — Cave.     Dupin. 


Michael  Geddes  was  born  in  Scotland,  and  educated 
at  Edinburgh.  In  1678,  he  was  appointed  chaplain  to 
the  English  factory  at  Lisbon,  and  remained  in  that 
office  for  ten  years.     But  in  1686  he  was  summoned  to 

282  GEDDES. 

appear  before  the  court  of  the  Inquisition.  When  he 
came  into  the  presence  of  the  judges,  they  received  him  at 
first  with  great  affectation  of  civility  and  courtesy,  desir- 
ing him  to  sit  down  and  to  be  covered,  before  they  pro- 
ceeded to  examine  him.  After  this  ceremony  was  over, 
they  sternly  asked  him  how  he  dared  to  preach  or  exercise 
his  function,  in  that  city?  He  answered,  that  he  enjoyed 
that  liberty  by  virtue  of  an  article  in  the  treaty  between 
the  crowns  of  Portugal  and  England;  that  it  was  a 
privilege  which  had  never  been  called  in  question  ;  and 
that  he  had  resided  at  Lisbon  for  eight  years,  during 
which  time  he  had  served  the  English  factory  in  the 
capacity  of  chaplain,  as  many  others  had  done  before  him. 
To  these  declarations  they  replied,  not  without  being 
guilty  of  the  grossest  falsehood,  that  they  were  entirely 
ignorant  till  lately  that  any  such  liberty  had  been  assum- 
ed by  him  or  others,  and  that  if  they  had  known  it  they 
would  never  have  suffered  it.  They  then  strictly  forbade 
him  to  minister  any  more  to  his  congregation;  and,  after 
threatening  him  with  their  vengeance  if  he  should 
venture  to  disobey  them,  gave  him  his  dismission.  It 
is  said,  and  not  without  probability,  that  they  were 
encouraged  to  take  this  step  by  the  catholic  party  in 
England,  where  active  measures  were  now  pursuing  for 
the  re-establishment  of  the  popish  religion.  Upon  this 
interdiction,  letters  of  complaint  were  addressed  by  the 
factory  to  the  Bishop  of  London ;  but  as  they  did  not 
reach  England  before  the  suspension  of  his  lordship,  all 
hopes  of  speedy  redress  were  lost.  Until  the  arrival  of 
Mr.  Scarborough,  the  English  envoy,  the  English  pro- 
testants  in  Lisbon  were  wholly  debarred  the  exercise  of 
their  religion ;  and  they  were  then  obliged,  for  a  time,  to 
shelter  themselves  under  the  privileges  of  his  character 
as  a  public  minister.  In  this  state  of  things  Mr.  Geddes 
thought  it  adviseable  to  return  to  his  native  country, 
which  he  did  in  the  beginning  of  the  year  1688. 

On  his  return  to  England  he  obtained  an  L.L.D.  de- 

GEDDES.  283 

gree  from  the  university  of  Oxford,  and  was  made  chan- 
cellor of  Samm,  by  Bishop  Burnet.  He  wrote,  a  History 
of  the  Church  of  Malabar ;  the  Church  History  of  Ethio- 
pia ;  Miscellaneous  Tracts  against  Popery,  3  vols,  8vo ; 
and  the  Council  of  Trent  no  Free  Assembly.  He  died 
in  1715. — Birclis  life  of  Tillotson.    Aikin. 


Alexander  Geddes,  a  Socinian  in  principle,  if  not 
something  worse,  though  by  profession  a  Romish  priest, 
was  born  at  Ruthven,  in  the  shire  of  Bamff,  in  1737. 
He  was  educated  in  the  Scotch  College  at  Paris,  after 
which  he  officiated  as  a  priest  in  his  native  country  some 
years,  where  he  published  a  translation  of  the  satires  of 
Horace,  and  obtained  the  degree  of  doctor  of  laws.  In 
1780  he  removed  to  London,  and  officiated  some  time 
in  the  Roman  catholic  chapels ;  but,  in  1782,  he  relin- 
quished the  priestly  function  altogether.  He  now  entered 
upon  the  great  work  of  translating  the  bible,  and  issued 
proposals  for  the  undertaking,  which  met  with  encourage- 
ment ;  and  Lord  Petre  allowed  him  a  pension  to  carry  it 
into  effect.  The  first  volume  appeared  in  1792,  and  the 
second  in  1797  ;  but  much  to  the  disappointment  of  those 
who  had  formed  great  expectations  from  it.  In  1800  he 
published  "  Critical  Remarks  on  the  Hebrew  Scriptures ;" 
in  which  he  vilified  Moses  as  a  writer  and  a  legislator  to 
such  a  degree,  that  even  Priestley  doubted  whether  Ged- 
des could  be  a  christian. 

On  the  day  anterior  to  his  decease  he  was  visited  as 
usual  by  his  friend,  M.  St.  Martin,  professor  of  theology, 
and  a  doctor  of  the  Sorbonne,  who  officially  attended  him 
as  his  priest.  On  entering  the  room,  says  Mr.  Mason 
Good,  M.  St.  Martin  found  the  doctor  extremely  comatose, 
and  believed  him  to  be  in  the  utmost  danger:  he  en- 
deavoured to  rouse  him  from  his  lethargy,  and  proposed 


to  him  to  receive  absolution.  Dr.  Geddes  observed  that, 
in  such  case,  it  was  necessary  he  should  first  make  his 
confession.  M.  St.  Martin  was  sensible  that  he  had 
neither  strength  nor  wakefulness  enough  for  such  an 
exertion,  and  replied  that  in  extremis  this  was  not  neces- 
sary :  that  he  had  only  to  examine  the  state  of  his  own 
mind,  and  to  make  a  sign  when  he  was  prepared.  M.  St. 
Martin  was  a  gentleman  of  much  liberality  of  sentiment, 
but  strenuously  attached  to  what  are  denominated  the 
orthodox  tenets  of  the  catholic  church :  he  had  long  beheld, 
with  great  grief  of  heart,  what  he  conceived  to  be  the 
aberrations  of  his  learned  friend  ;  and  had  flattered  him- 
self, that  in  the  course  of  this  last  illness  he  should  be 
the  happy  instrument  of  recalling  him  to  a  full  belief  of 
every  doctrine  he  had  rejected ;  and  with  this  view  he 
was  actually  prepared  upon  the  present  occasion  with  a 
written  list  of  questions,  in  the  hope  of  obtaining  from 
the  doctor  an  accurate  and  satisfactoiy  reply.  He  found 
however,  from  the  lethargic  state  of  Dr.  Geddes,  that 
this  regular  process  was  impracticable.  He  could  not 
avoid,  nevertheless,  examining  the  state  of  his  mind  as  to 
several  of  the  more  important  points  upon  which  they 
differed.  "  You  fully,"  said  he,  "  believe  in  the  scrip- 
tures?" He  roused  himself  from  his  sleep,  and  said, 
"Certainly." — "In  the  doctrine  of  the  trinity?" — "Cer- 
tainly, but  not  in  the  manner  you  mean." — "  In  the 
mediation  of  Jesus  Christ?" — "No,  no,  no — not  as  you 
mean :  in  Jesus  Christ  as  our  Saviour — but  not  in  the 
atonement."     He  died  Feb.  26th,  1802. — Mason  Good. 


Gelasitjs,  the  elder,  was  nephew  of  Cyril,  Bishop  of 
Jerusalem,  by  whom  he  was  consecrated  Bishop  of 
Caesarea  in  380.  Of  his  works,  there  are  extant  only 
some  fragments,  explanatory  of  the  Apostles'  Creed,  and 
of  the  Traditions  of  the  Church.     He  died  in  394. 



Gelasius,  of  Cyzicus,  who  is  supposed  by  some  to  have 
been  Bishop  of  Cassarea,  although  the  fact  is  disputed  by 
others,  flourished  about  the  year  476.  He  compiled  a 
history  of  the  Nicene  Council,  in  three  books,  partly  from 
an  old  manuscript  of  Dahnatius,  Archbishop  of  Cyzicus, 
and  from  other  authorities.  It  is  a  work  of  little  value. 
It  was  published  at  Paris,  in  Greek  and  Latin,  1559. — 
Fabricius.     Cave.    Dupin. 


Gerard  Geldenhacr,  commonly  called  Gerard  of 
Nimeguen,  an  eminent  German  v^riter,  was  born  in  1482, 
at  Nimeguen,  and  educated  at  De venter,  (where  he  had 
for  his  instructor  i^lexander  Hegius,  the  preceptor  of 
of  Erasmus)  and  at  Louvain.  In  1517  his  skill  in  Latin 
versification  obtained  for  him  the  laurel  crown  from  the 
emperor  Maximilian  I.  He  afterwards  became  chaplain 
and  secretary  to  PhiUp  of  Burgundy,  Bishop  of  Utrecht, 
and  natural  son  of  Philip  the  Good. 

He  was  sent  to  Wittemberg  in  1526  to  visit  the  schools 
and  church.  He  ingenuously  related  what  he  observed 
there,  and  declared  that  he  could  not  oppose  a  doctrine 
so  consonant  with  that  of  the  prophets  and  apostles, 
which  he  heard  among  the  Lutherans.  He  renounced 
popery,  and  retired  towards  the  Upper  PJiine,  where,  at 
Worms,  he  married,  and  became  a  schoolmaster.  After- 
wards he  was  called  to  Augsburg,  and  eventually  became 
a  professor,  first  of  history,  and  then  of  theology,  at  Mas- 
purg.  Erasmus,  who  at  one  time  was  his  friend,  attacked 
him  violently  on  his  secession  to  Lutheranism,  in  a  letter 
in  PseudevaDgelicos ;  he  changed  the  name  of  Gelden- 
haur,  in  this  letter,  to  Vulturius.  He  died  of  the  plagu« 
VOL  T.  2d 


in  1542.  He  wrote,  Historia  Batavica ;  Historise  suae 
yEtatis,  lib.  vii. ;  Descriptio  Insulse  Batavorum ;  Catalo- 
gus  Episcoporum  Ultrajectinomm ;  Epistolae  Zelandise  ; 
De  Yiris  illiistribus  Inferioris  (jermaniae ;  and  several 
controversial  pieces. — Melchior  Adam.    Bayle. 


Gilbert  Genebrard  was  born  at  Rioni,  in  Auvergne, 
in  .1.537.  Having  entered  into  the  Benedictine  order  at 
the  Abbey  of  Maiissac,  he  studied  at  Paris,  where  he 
learned  Greek  under  Turnebius,  philosophy  under  Car- 
pentier,  and  theology  under  Claude  de  Saintes.  In  1563 
he  was  admitted  to  the  degree  of  doctor  of  divinity  by 
the  college  of  Navarre,  and  was  afterwards  appointed 
regius-professor  of  the  Hebrew  language.  This  post  he 
filled  for  thirteen  years  with  distinguished  reputation, 
and  had,  among  other  eminent  disciples,  the  celebrated 
Francis  de  Sales.  He  was  also  preferred  to  the  priory 
of  St.  Denys  de  la  Chartre,  at  Paris,  and  to  the  priory 
of  Semur  in  Burgundy.  In  1576,  being  disappointed  in 
his  expectations  of  obtaining  the  Bishopric  of  Lavaur,  by 
the  intrigues  of  the  president  De  Pibrac,  he  became  hos- 
tile to  the  court,  and  joined  the  party  of  the  league.  The 
waitings  which  he  published  against  those  who  supported 
the  measures  of  the  court  and  the  reformed  religion  were 
violent.  They  were  so  congenial,  however,  with  the  spirit 
of  the  league,  that  the  Duke  de  Mayenne,  the  head  of 
that  body,  nominated  him  to  the  Archbishopric  of  Aix, 
to  which  he  was  consecrated  in  1598.  Here  he  still  con- 
tinued his  hostility  to  the  court,  and  declaimed  in  his 
sermons  against  the  king,  even  when  the  cause  of  his 
own  party  had  become  hopeless.  When  the  league  was 
finally  broken,  and  the  whole  kingdom  had  submitted  to 
Henry  IV.,  Genebrard  retired  to  Avignon,  where  he  pub- 
lished his  celebrated  and  important  treatise  De  Sacrarum 


Electionum  Jure,  ad  Ecclesise  Romaiiis  Redintegration- 
em  ;  in  which  he  maintained  that  the  elections  of  bishops 
belong  of  right  to  the  clergy  and  people,  and  argued 
acutely  against  the  nominations  of  kings  and  princes, 
pointing  out  in  strong  language  the  misfortunes  resulting 
to  the  church  from  this  practice.  For  publishing  this 
book  he  was  prosecuted  before  the  parliament  of  Aix, 
who  in  1596  decreed  that  it  should  be  burnt  by  the  hands 
of  the  common  executioner,  and,  after  depriving  the 
author  of  his  see,  condemned  him  to  banishment  from 
the  kingdom,  prohibiting  his  return  to  it  on  pain  of 
death.  So  tyrannical  is  the  civil  government  found  in  all 
ages  when  the  Church  asserts  her  rights  and  privileges 
in  opposition  to  worldly  interests.  He  was  afterwards 
permitted  to  return  to  his  priory  at  Lemner,  where  he  died 
in  1597. 

He  w^rote,  besides  the  work  above  mentioned,  and  others 
of  which  a  list  is  given  in  Dupin,  A  Sacred  Chronology, 
8vo ;  Notes  upon  the  Scripture ;  A  Commentary  upon 
the  Psalms,  8vo  ,  in  which  he  particularly  applies  him- 
self to  reconcile  the  Hebrew  text  with  the  vulgar  Latin ; 
A  Translation  of  the  Canticles  into  Iambic  Verse  ;  An 
Introduction  to  the  Reading  of  Hebrew  and  other  East- 
ern Languages  without  Points ;  Notes  upon  the  Hebrew 
Grammar.  He  published  an  edition  of  Origen's  Works, 
with  a  Latin  version,  1578  ;  and  a  translation  into  French 
of  the  Works  of  Josephus,  in  2  vols,  8vo. — Dupin.    Moreri. 


Gennadius,  Bishop  and  Patriarch  of  Constantinople, 
succeeded  Anatolius  in  these  dignities,  and  was  elected 
in  the  year  458.  He  had  naturally  a  quick  penetrating 
genius,  which  he  had  strengthened  by  study ;  he  spoke 
wdth  great  facility,  and  had  a  profound  knowledge  of  the 
holy  Scriptures,  and  passed  for  an  eloquent  man.     He 


iKild  ill  459  a  synofl  composed  of  78  bishops,  besides 
legates  from  tlie  lioly  see,  to  settle  tlie  disputes  that 
divided  the  Eastern  Church  on  the  subject  of  the  council 
of  Chalccdon.  New  rules  of  discipline  were  agreed  on 
in  this  assembly;  it  was  also  decided  that  no  one  should 
be  ordained  priest,  without  knowing  the  psalter  by  heart, 
and  measures  were  taken  to  prevent  simony.  Gennadius 
reformed  the  abuses  which  had  crept  in  among  his  clergy, 
and  governed  with  great  wisdom,  lie  died  in  the  reign 
of  the  emperor  Leo,  in  471.  It  has  been  said  that  he 
was  warned  of  his  death  by  a  spectre,  who  at  the  same 
time,  predicted  the  troubles  which  his  Church  expcrien- 
ed  after  his  death.  Gennadius  of  Marseilles,  his  con- 
temporary, has  appropriated  an  article  to  him  in  his 
treatise  of  ecclesiastical  writers,  and  mentions  among  the 
various  works  of  which  he  was  the  author:  1.  A  Com- 
mentary on  Daniel.  2.  Some  Homilies.  3,  A  Synodic 
letter  against  Simoniacs  ;  which  was  doubtless  composed 
in  the  council  which  he  held.  Of  all  his  other  works 
there  remain  but  fragments ;  one  mentioned  by  Eacun- 
dus,  in  which  Gennadius  complains  with  bitterness  and 
anger  of  St  Cyril,  on  the  occasion  of  the  dispute  of  this 
father  with  the  Eastern  Church  ;  another  drawn  from 
the  second  book  to  Parthenius,  noticed  by  Leontius,  in 
the  "Lieux  communs  do  I'origine  de  lame."  The 
Greeks  mention  Gennadius  as  a  holy  bishop,  and  com- 
memorate him  on  Ihe  2r)th  of  August. — Lecuy.  Bioy. 


Gennadius  of  Marseilles,  a  (iaul  by  birth,  flourished 
at  the  end  of  the  fifth  century,  in  the  reign  of  Anastasius. 
Although  the  modern  writers  assert  that  he  was  a  bishop, 
some  say  of  Marseilles,  others  of  Toledo,  it  is  certain 
that  lie  was  only  a  priest,  and  he  takes  no  other  title  in 
his  works.      Jle  was  well  versed  in  the  Greek  and  Latin 

GENNADIUS.  '^.sy 

languages,  had  studied  the  Scriptures  and  the  l^'athers, 
and  was  not  a  stranger  to  profane  literature  ;  he  was  also 
very  well  read,  and  was  a  laborious  writer,  but  displaying 
more  learning  than  taste  or  solidity.    There  are  different 
opinions  respecting  his  orthodoxy,  and  it  has  been  thought 
that  he  was  involved  in  the  errors  of  Senii-pelagianisui ; 
and  in  the  sixth  century  the  Church  at  Lyons  thought 
they  discovered  in  his  writings  symptoms  of  the  same 
error,  though  in  them  he  had  attacked  Pelagius.    Vossiiis. 
in  his  History  of  Pelagianism,  defends  him  against  this 
imputation,  and  the  Pope  Adrian  I.,  in  a  letter  to  Charle- 
magne, speaks  of  him  as  a  very  holy  person.     It  is  ditli- 
cult  however  to  justify  him  on  this  subject.     It  cannot  be 
denied  that  in  his  treatise  of  Ecclesiastical  Dogmas  some 
errors  are  found,  and  in  his  book  "  De  viris  illustribus," 
called   also,    "  De  scriptoribus   ecclesiasticis,  "   conlinns 
this  idea.     In  them  he  protests  against  the  doctrines  of 
St.  Augustine,  and  gives  this  father  only  equivocal  praise  ; 
he  extols  the  merit  of  Evagrus,  whom  St.  Jerome  accuses 
of  being  an  Originist,  and  of  Ilufmus,  who  shares  the 
same  error :  he  highly  commends  Faustus  de  Riez,  well 
known  as  a  Semi-pelagian.     He  praises  the  Eulogies  of 
Pelagius,  which  St.  Jerome  taxes  with  heresy,  and  dis- 
approves of  the  book  of   St.  Prosper,  against  Cassian, 
which  St.  Jerome  highly  esteemed.     Gennadius  of  Mar- 
seilles wrote  many  books ;  besides  his  original  works,  he 
translated  from  the  Greek  and  Latin  many  of  those  of 
the  ancient  fathers.     He  gives  the  list  of  his  writings  at 
the  end  of  his  treatise  on  ecclesiastical  writers,    tie  there 
mentions  : — Against    Heresies,  8  books  ;    against  Nesto- 
rius,   6  books ;  Against  Pelagius,  3  ;   A  Treatise  on  the 
Millennium  and  the  Apocalypse ;  the  Ecclesiastical  Writ- 
ers ;  and  a  Profession  of  Faith,  sent  to  the  Pope  Gelasius. 
Of  all  these  works  only  two  have  descended  to  us,  namely, 
the  book  of  Ecclesiastical  Writers,  and  his  Treatise;  (ju 
Dogmas.     Some  think  that  the  former  of  these  was  writ- 
ten in  the  Pontificate  of  Gelasius  ;  others  that  it  may 
2  D  2 


have  been  begun  as  eai-ly  as  the  year  477,  although  it 
was  not  finished  until  much  later.  This  catalogue  is 
considered  as  a  sequel  to  that  of  St.  Jerome,  to  which  it 
is  usually  joined  ;  the  custom  of  uniting  these  two  works 
is  very  ancient.  Traces  of  it  are  found  in  the  sixth  cen- 
tury, in  the  time  of  Capiodorus,  and  they  are  joined  in  a 
manuscript  by  Corbie,  which  is  more  than  900  years  old. 
The  book  of  Gennadius  is  written  with  great  simplicity, 
but  with  conciseness,  and  a  kind  of  elegance.  In  it  the 
author  has  preserved  many  historical  facts,  and  alludes 
to  many  works  which  are  no  longer  in  existence.  This 
book  is  composed  of  a  hundred  articles,  from  the  year 
330  to  490.  There  have  been  many  editions  of  it,  besides 
that  which  is  inserted  in  the  works  of  St.  Jerome.  Don 
Martinay,  in  1706,  has  put  it  at  the  head  of  the  fifth 
volume  of  St.  Jerome ;  and  the  learned  Fabricius  has 
entered  it  in  his  "  Bibliotheca  Ecclesiastica,"  Hamburgh, 
1718,  in  folio.  The  Treatise  on  Ecclesiastical  Dogmas, 
another  work  written  by  Gennadius,  has  passed  for  St. 
Augustine's,  and  has  been  inserted  in  his  works,  although 
the  sentiments  contained  in  it  are  very  opposite  to  those 
of  that  father :  others  have  attributed  it  to  different 
authors,  but  the  most  common  opinion  gives  it  to  Geima- 
dius.  Since  the  eighth  century,  this  treatise  has  been 
found  under  his  name,  in  the  library  of  St.  Vandrille, 
near  Rouen.  It  appears  also,  and  this  is  the  opinion  of 
Bellarmine,  that  it  is  the  same  with  the  profession  of  faith 
sent  by  Gennadius  to  the  Pope  Gelasius. 

The  critics  have  remarked  of  this  treatise  that  it  dis- 
plays more  erudition  than  judgment,  that  simple  opinions 
are  given  as  dogmatical  truths,  and  that  some  Catholic  doc- 
trines were  condemned.  The  author  appears  evidently  to 
be  opposed  to  St.  Augustine,  and  agrees  with  Faustus  of 
Reiz,  on  grace,  free-will,  and  the  corporiety  of  souls  ;  on 
other  points  he  expresses  himself  in  a  (^;atholic  manner. 
There  have  been  two  editions  of  the  Treatise  on  Eccle- 
siastical Dogmas,  published  at  Hamburgh,  one  in  1504. 


the  other  in  i6J4.  in  quarto  A  manuscript  of  St.  Vic- 
tor attributes  to  Gennadius,  the  addition  of  four  new 
heresies,  to  the  list  of  those,  on  which  St.  Augustine  had 
written  treatises. — Lecuy.    Biog.  Univers. 


John  Valentine  Gentilts,  a  victim  to  the  persecuting 
spirit  of  the  Calvinists,  in  the  sixteenth  century,  was 
born  at  Cosenza  in  Calabria.  Having  become  a  convert 
to  the  principles  of  the  Preformation,  he  was  obliged  to 
fly  from  his  native  country  towards  the  middle  of  the 
sixteenth  century,  and  to  take  refuge  at  Geneva,  where 
several  Italian  families  had  already  formed  a  congrega- 
tion. In  the  course  of  his  enquiries  he  became  dissatis- 
fied with  the  orthodox  doctrine  of  the  Trinity,  and  together 
with  the  celebrated  George  Blandrata,  John  Paul  Alciati, 
a  Milanese,  and  an  advocate  named  Matthew  Grimbaldi, 
formed  a  private  society,  in  which  the  sense  of  the  pas- 
sages of  Scripture  produced  in  support  of  that  doctrine 
was  discussed,  both  in  conversation  and  writing.  The 
result  of  their  discussions  was  a  private  judgment,  that 
the  terms  co-essential,  co-equal,  and  co-existent,  were 
improperly  applied  to  the  Son  and  Spirit,  and  that  they 
were  subordinate  in  nature  and  dignity  to  the  Father. 
But  however  privately  their  meetings  were  held,  such 
information  was  conveyed  to  the  Italian  consistory  as  led 
them  to  suspect  that  the  associates  had  departed  from  the 
orthodox  creed  ;  upon  which,  in  conformity  to  the  inquisi- 
torial system  which  Calvin  had  established  against  her- 
esy, they  drew  up  articles  of  faith,  subscription  to  which 
was  demanded  from  all  the  members  of  their  communion. 
These  articles  consisted  of  Calvin's  confession  of  faith, 
which  had  been  lately  approved  of  by  the  ministers, 
syndics,  councils,  and  general  assembly  of  the  people; 
to    which    a   promise   was    annexed,    never    to    do    any 


thing   directly  or  indirectly,  that  should  controvert  the 
doctrine  of  the  Trinity  as  therein  defined,     (xentilis  is 
said  at  first  to  have  refused  signing  these  articles ;  but 
afterwards  he   was  prevailed  upon   to   comply,   influen- 
ced, not  improbably,  by  his  recollection  of  the  late  tragi- 
cal fate  of  Servetus,  (sec  life  of  Calvin,)  and  not  finding 
himself  sufficiently  courageous  to  hazard  the   like  bar- 
barous treatment.     In  private,  however,  he  still  avowed 
and  maintained   his  change  of  sentiment ;  which  com- 
ing  to    the   ears    of   the    Calvinistic    magistrates,    they 
committed  him  to  prison.     The  charge  preferred  against 
him   was,  that   he  had  violated  his    subscription :    and 
when  ho  endeavoured  to  excuse  himself  by  urging  that 
he  had  only  obeyed  the   suggestions  of  his  conscience, 
those  very  men  who  had  no  other  plea  to  offer  in  defence 
of  their  revolt  from  the  yoke  of  Rome,  would  not  permit 
it  to  have   any  weight  on  behalf  of  a  supposed  erring 
brother.     From  his  prison  he  addressed  several  writings 
to  the  magistrates,  endeavouring  to  shew  the  inoffensive- 
iiess  of  his  opinions,  and  at  length,  to  pacify  Calvin, 
declared  his  readiness  to  abjure  whatever  should  be  pro- 
nounced erroneous.    Upon  this  he  was  sentenced  to  make 
the    amende  Iwnorahle,  to   throw  his  writings  into   the 
fire,  and  to  take  an  oath  not  to  go  out  of  Geneva  without 
the  leave  of  the  magistrates.     Being  now  at  liberty,  and 
fearful  of  the  effects  of  the  jealous  and  vindictive  spirit 
which  prevailed   in   Geneva   against   persons   who   had 
aiforded  any  ground  of  suspicion  concerning  their  ortho- 
doxy, he  satisfied  himself  that  he  was  justifiable  in  break- 
ing an  oath  which  had  been  extorted  from  him  by  terror, 
and  withdrew  into  the  country  of  Gex,  where  he  joined 
his  friend   Matthew    Grimbaldi ;    thus  proving  himself 
to  have,  with  much  obstinacy,  very  little  true  religion. 
The  ancient  martyrs  courted  death  for  their  principles. 
Afterwards  he  went  to  Lyons,  and  then  wandered  from 
place  to  place  in  Dauphine  and  Savoy ;  but  finding  that 
he  was  safe  nowhere,  returned  again  to  Gex.     As  soon  as 


he  was  known  there,  he  was  sent  to  prison ;  hut  was  liher- 
ated  within  a  few  days,  when,  npon  the  baihff's  demand- 
ing from  him  a  confession  of  faith,  that  he  might  cause 
it  to  be  examined  by  some  ministers,  and  sent  to  Bern, 
GentiHs  printed  the  same,  with  a  dedication  to  the  baihff. 
This  step  the  latter  resented,  as  it  was  taken  without  his 
}"»ermission,  and  occasioned  his  being  suspected  at  Bern 
(^f  favouring  the  principles  in  the  confession ;  on  which 
account,  he  afterwards  became  the  instrument  of  subject- 
ing Gentilis  to  the  iniquitous  proceedings  to  which  he 
fell  a  sacrifice.  From  Gex,  Gentilis  went  again  to  Lyons, 
w^iere  he  was  imprisoned  for  his  opinions ;  but  he  was 
not  long  before  he  obtained  his  liberty,  having  had  the 
address  to  shew,  if  we  are  to  credit  the  accounts  which  are 
given  of  him,  that  he  had  only  opposed  Calvin,  and  not 
the  doctrine  of  the  Trinity.  Afterwards  he  went  to  Poland, 
where  he  joined  Blandrata  and  Alciati,  who  were  very 
successful  in  propagating  their  opinions,  until  in  the  year 
]  5CG  the  king  of  Poland,  at  the  instigation  of  the  Calvin- 
ists  as  well  as  the  Catholics,  published  an  edict,  by  which 
all  strangers  who  taught  doctrines  inconsistent  with  the 
ortliodox  notion  concerning  the  Trinity,  were  ordered  to 
quit  the  kingdom.  From  Poland,  Gentilis  withdrew 
into  Moravia,  whence  he  went  to  Vienna,  and  then  re- 
solved to  return  to  Savoy,  where  he  hoped  still  to  find 
his  friend  Grimbaldi,  and  flattered  himself  that  he  might 
be  suffered  to  remain  unmolested,  as  Calvin,  his  most 
dreaded  and  implacable  adversary  and  persecutor,  was 
no  more.  But  the  spirit  of  Calvin  remained.  It  was 
either  after  his  return  to  Savoy,  or  on  his  journey  thither, 
that  he  went  to  Gex,  where  his  zeal  for  the  propagation 
of  his  principles  led  him  to  apply  to  the  bailiff  to  permit 
a  public  disputation  to  be  held,  in  which  he  offered  to 
defend  his  notions  against  any  persons  who  might  be 
deputed  by  the  ministers  and  consistories  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood. The  bailiff,  who  was  the  same  person  whom 
Gentilis  had    offended  by  dedicatincf  his   confession  to 

'294  GEOFFREY. 

him,  no  sooner  found  that  the  obnoxious  person  was 
within  his  reach,  than  he  ordered  him  to  he  seized  and 
imprisoned.  He  then  deUvered  him  to  the  magistrates 
of  Bern,  to  which  canton  the  county  of  Gex  at  that  time 
belonged ;  by  whom  Gentilis  underwent  a  tedious  trial, 
and  being  convicted  of  obstinately  impugning  the  mystery 
of  the  Trinity,  was  sentenced  to  lose  his  head.  To  the 
indelible  disgrace  of  those  Calvinistic  magistrates,  and 
the  clergy  who  prompted  them,  this  sentence  was  carried 
into  execution ;  when  Gentilis  triumphed  over  his  ene- 
mies by  the  fortitude  with  which  he  met  it ;  rejoicing,  as 
he  said,  that  he  suffered  for  asserting  and  vindicating 
the  supremacy  and  glory  of  the  Father.  His  hypothesis 
concerning  the  person  of  Christ  was  that  of  the  Arian 
school.  His  history  affords  a  striking  evidence  that  the 
first  reformers,  when  they  renounced  the  communion  of 
Rome,  entertained  but  imperfect  and  contracted  notions 
of  Christian  freedom  and  toleration ;  and  it  exhibits  per- 
secution for  religious  opinions  in  a  peculiarly  odious  light, 
because  practised  by  men  who  professed  a  more  strict 
adherence  than  others  to  the  genuine  spirit  of  the  gospel, 
and  yet  glaringly  violated  its  most  distinguishing  and 
fundamental  obligations. — Aikin.   Bayle.    Moreri. 


Geoffrey,  of  Monmouth,  flourished  about  the  year 
1150,  and  was  first  Archdeacon  of  Monmouth,  and  then 
Bishop  of  St.  Asaph.  He  quitted  his  diocese  on  account 
of  some  disturbances  in  Wales,  and  repairing  to  the  court 
of  Henry  II,,  was  presented  by  that  monarch  to  the 
abbey  of  Abingdon,  which  he  held  in  commendam  :  but  of 
this  abbey  he  was  afterwards  deprived.  He  died  in  1 154. 
He  was  the  author  of  Chronicon  sive  Historia  Brito- 
num,  which  is  supposed  by  some  persons  to  be  a  trans- 
lation from  the  Welsh  language  brought  from  Brittany. 

GEORGE.  -^95 

It  is  a  useful  work  fur  those  who  study  the  legendary 
history  of  England.  The  earliest  edition  of  Geoffrey's 
History  is  in  4to,  Paris,  1508  ;  reprinted.  4to,  1517.  It 
was  also  printed  by  Commeline  at  Heidelberg,  in  fol. 
1587.  A  translation  of  it  into  English,  by  Aaron  Thomp- 
son, of  Queen's  College,  Oxford,  was  published  in  London, 
1718,  8 vo.  —Nicholson. 


George  the  Fuller,  or  of  Cappadocia,  an  intruder 
placed  in  the  choir  of  Alexandria,  was  called  by  the  first 
name  from  the  occupation  of  his  father,  and  by  the 
second,  because  he  was  an  inhabitant  of  that  province. 
Ammianus  Marcellinus  says  that  he  was  of  Epiphania  in 
Cilicia ;  but  his  opinion  cannot  be  held  against  that  of 
St.  Athanasius,  who  must  have  known  George  well,,  and 
who  makes  him  a  Cappadocian ;  neither  can  it  stand 
against  St.  Gregory  Nazianzen,  himself  of  Cappadocia, 
who  recognizes  George  as  a  fellow  countr3'm an.  The 
character,  the  opinions,  and  the  conduct  of  George, 
corresponded  with  the  lowness  of  his  origin.  Few  hav(? 
been  more  corrupt  and  more  despicable.  He  began  life 
in  the  debasing  situation  of  parasite.  Afterwards  he  was 
provided  with  a  subaltern  office  in  the  commissariat  de- 
partment of  the  army,  and  he  there  embezzled  the  money 
entrusted  to  him,  and  was  obliged  to  fly.  He  then  became 
a  vagabond.  To  so  many  bad  qualities  he  added  pro- 
found ignorance ;  he  had  no  knowledge  of  letters,  and 
still  less  of  the  holy  Scriptures  and  theology. 

Notwithstanding  these  disadvantages,  this  man,  "  bold 
without  modesty,"  and  "  without  bounds,"  appeared  to 
the  Arians  a  fit  instrument  to  work  their  will.  They 
brought  the  emperor  Constans  into  their  views  ;  he  was 
their  protector  and  their  support. 

At  Antioch,  in  the  year  356,  there  was  an  assembly  of 

295  GEORGE. 

thirty  Arian  bishops  ;  it  was  in  this  assembly  that  the 
respectable  George  was  ordained,  and  received  the  mission 
to  go  and  govern  the  Church,  of  which  St.  Athanasius 
was  the  true  bishop.  George  entered  Alexandria,  accom- 
panied, by  the  order  of  Constaas,  by  soldiers  under  the 
command  of  Sebastian,  Duke  of  Egypt,  and  a  Mani- 
chean ; — worthy  escort  of  such  an  intruder  I  His  arrival 
was  the  signal  of  persecution  to  tlie  Catholics.  Under 
pretext  of  searching  for  St.  Athanasius,  they  intruded 
themselves  in  every  part  of  the  city ;  they  violated  the 
most  sacred  places  ;  the  virgins  were  taken  to  prison ;  the 
bishops  were  bound  and  dragged  about  by  soldiers ; 
houses  were  pillaged,  and  Christians  were  carried  away 
during  the  night;  there  was  no  kind  of  irregularity  which 
they  did  not  commit.  The  Catholics  were  not  the  only 
object  of  George's  violence ;  idolaters,  and  even  Arians 
were  not  exempt,  so  that  he  made  himself  odious  to  all 
parties.  Such  was  his  conduct  in  Alexandria  until  362. 
The  ^Alexandrians  rose  against  him,  and  obliged  him  to 
fly.  But  supported  by  Constans,  he  returned  more 
powerful  than  ever.  There  is  no  doubt  but  that  another 
revolt  would  have  taken  place,  were  it  not  that  men's 
minds  were  kept  in  check  from  the  fear  of  Arthemius,  then 
Duke  of  Egypt,  a  friend  of  George's.  Julian,  when  raised  to 
the  empire,  caused  the  head  of  this  duke  to  be  cut  off, 
and  the  Pagans,  whose  temples  George  had  pillaged,  rose 
in  revolt, — threw  themselves  upon  George, — and  over- 
whelmed him  with  abuse  and  with  blows.  The  next  day 
they  paraded  him  through  the  town  upon  a  camel,  and 
having  lighted  a  pile,  they  threw  him  and  the  animal  on 
which  he  was  mounted  upon  it ;  after  which,  they  threw 
his  ashes  to  the  winds,  and  plundered  his  house  and  his 
treasures.  Julian,  on  learning  this  outrage,  was  much 
irritated,  or  pretended  to  be  so  ;  he  wrote  a  severe  letter 
to  the  insurgents,  but  pursued  them  no  further.  As  a 
lover  of  books,  he  endeavoured  to  recover  the  library  of 
George,  which  was  veiT  numerous,   and  with  which  he 

GERARD.  207 

was  well  acquaintud.  On  lliis  subjocl  ha  wrote  two  letters, 
one  to  Ecdicius,  the  governor,  the  other  to  Porphyry,  the 
treasurer  general  of  Egyjit. 

It  is  not  easy  to  reconeile  the  extreme',  ignoi-aiic.e  of 
George  of  Cappadocia,  with  the  great  pains  he  took  to 
collect  a  valuable  and  numerous  library,  even  before  hf; 
went  to  Alexandria.  Julian,  in  his  letter  to  Ecdiciui^, 
relates  that  when  he  was  in  Capj)adocia,  before  the  year 
o51,  George  had  lent  him  several  books,  with  a  view  to 
liis  getting  them  copied,  and  that  he  had  never  returned 
them. — Lerv)/  in  Jliotp-ojJiic  Thiivfirsall/'. 

Gerard,  Tiiom,  or  'L'ung,  or  Ti<:nqui<i,  the  founder  and 
first  grand-master  of  the  order  of  8t.  John  of  Jerusalem, 
was. a  native  of  the  isle  of  Martigues,  on  the  coast  of 
Provence.  While  Jerusalem  was  in  the  hands  of  the 
Saracens,  some  merchants  of  Amalfi,  a  town  in  the 
Neapolitan  territory,  obtained  permission  from  the  sultan 
of  Egypt  and  Syria,  in  the  year  1050,  to  erect  a  Bene- 
dictine monastery  near  the  holy  sepulchre,  for  the  con- 
venience of  the  numerous  pilgrims  who  came  to  visit  it. 
it  was  called  Sainte  Marie  la  Latine,  because  the  Latin 
otHces  were  celebrated  the  most,  and  to  distinguish  it 
from  the  Greek  Church.  Among  others,  Gerard  arrived 
to  pay  his  devotions  in  the  holy  city,  where  he  acquired  a 
high  character  with  the  Christians  for  his  pi(!ty  and  pru- 
dence. The  dtnotion  of  the  people  occasioning  the  num- 
ber of  pilgrims  to  increase  every  year,  by  which  means 
the  treasury  of  the  monastery  rec(nved  considerable  sup- 
plies; the  abbot  was  (enabled,  in  the  year  1 080,  to  build 
a  hospital  for  th(!  reception  of  the  poorer  pilgrims,  and 
with  accommodations  for  the  relief  of  the  sick,  the  man- 
agement of  which  he  gave  to  Gerard.  'J'he  chapel  of  that 
liospital  was  consecrated  to  St.  John,  because  of  a  tra- 
VOL.    v.  '^  K 

vMl.S  (ilsKAi;.!) 

(lilHUj  aiiMiii!.',  (he  inluibitauls  of  .liMiisaidiii.  Iliiil  /(U'luinjiH, 
(lie  I'tUluM-  (»l"  St.  ,)(>hu.  hiul  IInmhI  on  tlio  spot  wlmro  it  was 
Imill.  Art(M-  tlic  coiKHH^sl,  of  ,lt>nisaltMii  by  llio  (.'liriHtiaiis, 
undiM- ( iotllVt'v  (>r  Houillon.  (un'Mrd  projtn'ltMl  tlio  roimda- 
lion  ol'  11  wrw  iclij^ioiis  ordiM*.  in  wliicli  llic  occlosiastioal 
nnd  nnlilary  rliMnicliM's  wcw)  to  ho  Uoudvd.  This  tlcHifrii 
ln'  liri'iui  (o  cmTv  into  (^\(MMition  in  tlu>  yvtiv  I  100.  whvn 
nuniluM's  of  ptM'sons  jissjciiitt'd  willi  liim  nndcr  tin*  (\o- 
noniiniition  ol"  "  I  lospilidcrs  of  St.  .lohn  o['  .IcrusnhMM," 
who,  bosidos  the  lln-rc  vows  of  clinslilv,  |)ov(>rlv,  and 
obodioncc,  took  a  particnlnr  vow  to  d(^vol«>  tluMns«>lv(>s  to 
tbi^  rclirf  o\'  idl  Cbristiims  in  dislross.  'I'liis  ordor,  and 
tli(>  Miles  diMwn  nj)  for  ils  !;-ov(MniU(Mil.  wci'i*  !i]>|>roV(>d 
and  roniiiinod  l>v  I'opi^  Pasclial  II..  who.  by  a  bnll  winch 
ho  issninl.  jti'Mntinl  it.  vari(»ns  considt^rablo  inivili^ni^a.  and 
rooognist'd  (Jorard  as  ilio  lirst,  jj;rand  nnistor.  (Jiward 
d'wd  in  lb(>  voar  I  I'.M).  Siu'h  was  tlio  connutMUMMniMit  of 
lliat  order  whicli  in  sntvoodillg  tinvos  bocanio  so  ci^lo- 
braUnl  in  history,  when  its  iniMobtMs  wcn^  oonnnouly 
known  by  the  nanio  of  Knijifhtsof  Kiuxb^s,  and  afterwards 
bv  tliat  of   KniLjlits  of  Malta.   -  ."l/<';v;7. 

(ii-'.K.VKO.   oiioor. 

(iKit.\Ki>.  (iuoor,  Ol-  tlu>  ( ir«Mit,  witli  wlioni  ori'jtinatoii 
th(>  ('("lobralcd  foundation  oi'  oaimns  regular  of  Windos- 
luMU.  was  born  at  Oovt^itiM-  in  llMlK  Ho  connnoiu'ed 
his  studios  at  the  university  of  l^uis.  and  at  the  iv^o  of 
oightO(Mi  was  appointed  to  teaeb  philosophy  and  theology 
at  Cologne.  wlu'n>  he  soon  acipiired.  by  his  knowledge 
and  oh)(puMie(\  the  appellation  of  the  (Jn^at.  lliMibtained 
sov«n-al  eeelesiastieal  IxMielit'i  s.  whieh  \\o  reliiapiislu^d.  in 
order  b>  einitraoi"  the  monasiie  lilV.  1 1  is  seriuons  at 
nev(Miter.  /.\ni>11.  .Vmsteiilaui.  I.eyden.  and  other  towns 
in  Holland,  were  atiiMided  by  erowiis,  aaid  produo*M,i  a 
groat    S(Misaliou.       lie   tliligenlly    eollecied    llie   best    jviui 

(;i<:i{hAis.  '!'.)fl 

uiosl,  aiicionl.  MSS.  of  tin-  Scriptures  aiid  of  Llic  I'mI.Iiith, 
jiiul  (!ini)l()ye(l  tlin  loarncd  ukiiiImth  of  bin  oidcr  in  copy- 
irj{^'  l,li(»s(!  MSS.,  and  in  inula  n<,' ex  tract  h  from  tlic  writings 
(»r  tlic  Katlntrs.  Il<;  dird  at  JJ(3V(int(!r,  of  tli(i  fdagiK;,  in 
IMHI,  ill  I  Ik;  rorty-lourtli  y<;ar  of  liis  jl^c.  'l"ho  MSS. 
wliicli  issiird  from  liis  inHtitntion  wore  diHlinguishod  for 
t,li(;  hoauty  of  the  hand-writing,  an  woll  as  for  tlicir 
<;orr(!ctn(!SH,  MJid  won;  long  held  in  liigli  cstirrnition  by  the 
l«'fi rruul .  —  iiioff.  IhiivcrH. 


Ai,kxAn[)I<;ii  (h<:ii\\i\)  was  born  at  (v}iap(;l-Oariocli,  in' 
Aberd(!(!riHhire,  in  17'2H.  He  was  educated  at  the  school 
of  Aberd(3(!n,  and  next  at  iVlarischal  College;  from 
whene(\  on  taking  his  masU^r's  dcgre*!,  he  went  to  Mdin- 
burgh.  In  175'.^  ho  bccanH!  professor  of  mornl  jdiilosophy 
in  Miirischal  (Jollogc',  in  th(!  room  of  Mr.  David  Foidyee, 
to  whom  he  had  been  assistant,  in  1750  he  was  ap- 
pointed prof(;ssor  of  divinity,  about  which  time  he  look 
his  doctor's  degree.  In  1771  he  removed  to  the  theolo- 
gical professorship,  in  King's  College,  which  place  he 
held  toliis  death,  in  17!I5.  JTis  works  are — 1.  An  Essay 
on  Taste,  Hvo.  Ji.  Dissertations  on  the  Geniiis  and 
Evidences  of  Christianity,  Hvo.  '\.  An  Essay  on  Genius, 
8vo.  4.  Sermons,  "Z  vols,  Hvo.  in  1790,  his  son  and 
successor,  Dr.  Gilbert  Gerard,  publislK^d  his  father's  work 
on    the    Pastond  dare. — Sii/q>.  to  ICncyrl.  Jirit. 


.louN  GlORBAis,  doctor  of  the  Sorbonne,  professor  of 
rhetoric  at  the  royal  college  of  Paris,  and  principal  of  the 
college  of  Kheims,  died  in  that  eily  in  lOOO.  Jle  was 
commissioned  by  the   J<'r(^nch  flergy  to  piddish  the  Deci- 

300  GERBEKT. 

sions  touchant  les  Reguliers,  (decreed  in  the  assembly  of 
1645,)  with  Hallier's  notes.  He  wrote — 1.  De  Causis 
Majoribus,  1079,  4to,  in  which  he  ably  supports  the 
liberties  of  the  Gallican  Church,  and  maintains  that 
episcopal  causes  ought  to  be  first  judged  by  the  metro- 
politan, and  the  bishops  in  his  province ;  Innocent  XI. 
condemned  this  work  in  1680.  2.  A  Treatise  on  the 
authority  of  Kings  over  Marriages,  1690,  4to.  3.  Letters 
touchant  le  Pecule  des  Religieux,  1698,  J2mo.  4.  A 
translation  of  the  Treatise  by  Panormus  on  the  Council 
of  Basle,  8vo.  5.  Lettre  sur  la  Comedie,  12mo.  6.  Let- 
tre  sur  les  Dorures  et  le  Luxe  des  Habits  des  Femmes. — 
Dupin.    Moreri. 


Gabriel  Gerberon,  was  born  at  St.  Calais,  in  the 
province  of  Maine,  in  1628.  He  became  a  Benedictine 
and  Priest  of  the  oratory.  He  was  ordered  to  be  arrested 
in  1682  by  Louis  XIV.  for  the  freedom  of  his  opinions 
on  the  Jansenist  controversy,  but  he  escaped  to  Holland, 
and  in  1703  was  seized  by  the  Bishop  of  Mechlin,  and 
imprisoned  at  Amiens,  and  afterwards  at  Vincennes.  He 
died  at  the  prison  of  the  abbey  of  St.  Denis  in  1711. 
His  chief  work  is  the  General  History  of  Jansenism, 
3  vols,  12mo. 

gerbert,  martin. 

Martin  Gerbert  was  born  at  Horb,  on  the  Necker, 
in  1720,  and  became  prince  abbot  of  the  Benedictine 
convent  of  St.  Blaise,  in  the  Black  Forest.  He  travelled 
in  various  countries,  to  collect  materials  for  his  history  of 
church  music.  This  work  appeared  in  1774,  in  2  vols., 
4to,  with  numerous  engravings,  and  is  entitled  De  Cantu 

GEKHAKD.  301 

el  Musica  Sacra  a  prima  Ecclesiae  ^tate  usque  ad  pre- 
sens  Tempus.  Gerbert  divided  his  history  of  church 
music  into  three  parts :  the  first  finishes  at  the  pontificate 
of  St.  Gregory;  the  second  goes  as  far  as  the  fifteenth 
century;  and  the  third  to  his  own  time.  In  1784  he 
pubUshed  a  work  of  more  importance,  under  the  title  of 
Scriptores  Ecclesiastici  de  Musica  Sacra,  potissimum  ex 
variis  ItaU^e,  Gallite,  et  Germanic  Codicibus  collecti, 
3  vols,  4to.  This  is  a  collection  of  all  the  ancient  authors 
-who  have  written  on  music,  from  the  third  century  to  the 
invention  of  printing,  and  whose  works  had  remained  in 
manuscript.  It  is  now  very  rare.  Forkel  has  given  an 
analysis  of  it  in  his  Histoire  de  la  Musique.  Gerbert 
kept  up  a  constant  correspondence  with  Gluck.  After  his 
death  was  published  a  work  of  his,  entitled  De  Sublimi  in 
Evangelio  Christi  juxta  divinam  Verbi  incarnati  CEcono- 
miam.     He  died  in  1793. — Biog.  Diet,  of  Mies. 


John  Francis  Gerbillon  was  born  in  1654.  He  be- 
came a  Jesuit  and  was  sent  as  a  missionary  to  China.  He 
wrote  "  Observations  on  Great  Tartary ;"  and  an  Account 
of  his  Travels  is  inserted  in  Du  Halde"s  History  of  China. 
He  was  in  great  favour  with  the  emperor,  for  whom  he 
composed  the  Elements  of  Geometry,  which  were  printed 
in  the  Chinese  and  Tartar  languages.  He  died  at  Pekin 
in  1707. — Moreri. 


John  Gerhard  was  bora  at  Quedlinburg,  in  Saxony, 
in  1582.  In  1605  he  was  appointed  to  a  church  in  Fran- 
coma,and  professor  of  divinity  in  the  Casimirian-CoUege 
of  Cobourg,  which  place  he  quitted  for  the  theological 

2  E  ':i 


chair  at  Jena;  whore  he  conUnued  till  his  death,  in  1768. 
His  works  are  numerous;  and  one,  entitled  "Medita- 
tions," has  been  translated  into  most  European  lan- 
gua<(es,  and  (wen  into  Greek.  His  eldest  son,  John 
hrnest  fr&rhanL  was  horn  at  Jena  in  1021.  He  became 
professor  of  history  at  Jena,  and  died  in  1688.  Among 
his  works  are — 1.  "  Harmonia  Linguarum  Orientalium." 
U.  Disputationum  Theologicarum  Fasciculus.  3.'De 
Ecclesiii'  Coptic*  ortu,  progressn,  et  doctrina. — Moreri. 


Geumanus  of  Auxerre,  was  born  in  that  town,  of  illus- 
trious parents,  several  years  before  the  end  of  the  eighth 
century.  He  was  placed  in  the  best  schools  of  Gaul,  to 
receive  instruction  in  science  and  literature,  and  having 
finished  his  early  education,  he  went  to  Home,  to  pursue 
a  course  of  civil  law,  and  study  eloquence  ;  he  then  began 
to  plead  with  great  success  before  the  judges  of  the  pre- 
fecture, in  important  cases.  His  merit,  and  his  marriage 
with  a  lady  of  high  rank,  brought  him  into  notice  at  the 
court  of  the  emperor  Honorius,  and  procured  for  him, 
besides  the  government  of  Auxurre,  the  office  of  duke  or 
general  of  the  troops  of  several  provinces.  Although  he 
was  a  christian,  he  followed,  during  his  youth,  the  tastes 
and  pursuits  usual  among  persons  of  his  age,  especially 
hunting,  in  which  he  excelled ;  he  took  pride  in  displaying 
proofs  of  his  skill,  and  was  in  the  habit  of  hanging  on  a 
large  tree,  in  one  of  the  public  squares,  the  heads  of  the 
animals  he  had  killed.  This  custom  bearing  some  re- 
semblance to  pagan  superstitions,  St.  Amatorius,  Bishop 
of  Auxerre,  represented  to  him,  that  it  became  a  christian 
to  abstain  from  it.  Germanus  paid  no  attention  to  him, 
l^ut  the  bishop  one  day,  when  the  duke  was  absent, 
caused  the  tree  to  be  cut  down,  and  the  monuments  of 
his  vanity  to  be  removed.  Germanus  suffered  this  cor- 
rection with  impatience!,  and  threatened  to  be  revenged, 


but  God  ordered  it  otherwise.  Amatorius  was  advanced 
in  years  ;  whether  he  had  been  warned  of  his  approaching 
death  by  a  secret  inspiration,  which  had  also  revealed  to 
him  the  person  who  should  succeed  him,  as  some  authors 
assert,  or  whether  he  had  discovered  in  Germanus  such 
qualities  as  were  calculated  to  make  a  great  bishop,  he 
convoked  in  his  church  an  assembly  of  the  faithful,  and 
Germanus  being  present,  he  seized  on  him,  and  compelled 
him  to  assume  the  ecclesiastical  habit,  without  giving 
him  time  to  reflect,  and  informed  him  that  he  was  to  be 
liis  successor.  In  fact,  on  the  death  of  Amatorius,  the 
1st  of  May,  418,  Germanus  was  elected  bishop,  by  the 
clergy  and  people  ;  from  that  time  he  was  completely 
changed,  he  separated  himself  from  his  wife,  treating  her 
only  as  a  sister.  He  subjected  himself  to  severe  penances, 
and  practised  his  episcopal  duties  to  their  fullest  extent 
The  christians  of  Great  Britain,  frightened  at  the  pro- 
gress of  Pelagianism  in  their  island,  had  applied  to  Pope 
Celestine,  and  the  Bishop  of  Gaul,  to  obtain  aid  against 
this  error,  and  they,  in  an  assembly  held  in  428-9,  sent 
them  Germanus,  with  whom  they  joined  St.  Loupus  of 
Troyes,  Both  set  off  instantly.  It  was  in  this  journey 
that,  passing  by  Nanterre,  Germanus  saw  the  young 
Genevieve,  and  blessed  her,  foreseeing  her  future  cele- 
brity. This  mission  had  the  success  which  might  have 
been  expected  from  the  zeal  of  these  two  holy  bishops ; 
their  knowledge,  their  virtues,  and  even  their  miracles, 
as  related  by  the  historians  of  the  time,  triumphed  over 
heresy,  and  they  returned  with  the  consolation  of  having 
delivered  the  country  from  this  scourge.  It  reappeared 
seventeen  or  eighteen  years  aftei^wards,  and  Germanus 
went  again  with  Severus,  Bishop  of  Troyes,  and  this 
time  entirely  extirpated  the  Pelagian  heresy.  To  prevent 
its  return,  Germanus  established  schools  in  Britain, 
which  afterwards  became  celebrated.  He  had  scarcely 
arrived  again  at  Auxerre,  when  the  Armoricans  entreated 
him  to  mediate  for  them  with  Evaricus,  who  had  been 

304  GERSON. 

sent  by  Aetius,  to  cliastise  them  for  an  imputed  reLellion, 
Germanus  set  out  immediately,  saw  the  prince  of  the 
barbarians,  and  succeeding  in  arresting  his  march.  As 
this  affair  could  not  end  without  the  consent  of  the  em- 
peror, Germanus  went  to  Ravenna,  where  the  court  was 
then  held  :  he  w;;s  received  with  great  honour  by  Plaudia, 
mother  of  Valentinian  III.  This  work  of  charity  was 
the  last  which  the  holy  bishop  undertook.  He  died  in 
Ravenna,  on  the  31st  of  July,  448,  after  having  been 
thirty  years  Bishop  of  Auxerre.  The  priest  Constantius 
wrote  his  life,  at  the  solicitation  of  St.  Patientius,  Bishop 
of  Lyons ;  and  Eric,  a  monk  of  Auxerre,  put  in  verse 
this  same  life,  at  the  request  of  his  abbot.  It  is  found 
in  Surius,  at  the  31st  of  July.  Father  Sabbius  has 
inserted  it  in  his  library  of  manuscripts,  and  Arnauld 
d'  Audilly  has  given  us  a  translation  of  it.  It  is  impro- 
bable that  a  bishop,  so  learned  as  was  St.  Germanus, 
should  have  died  without  leaving  some  writings,  but 
none  have  come  down  to  us.  Yet  the  Benedictines,  who 
have  published  an  edition  of  the  works  of  St.  Ambrose, 
have  thought  proper  to  attribute  to  the  Bishop  of  Auxerre, 
a  work  entitled,  "Liber  sancti  Ambrosei  in  laude,  sanc- 
torum compositus,"  preserved  in  the  library  of  St.  Gall ; 
the  manuscripts  would  now  have  been  more  than  1100 
years  old.  Don  Mabellan  had  procured  a  copy  to  insert 
in  his  edition  of  St.  Ambrose,  but  the  learned  editors 
soon  discovered  that  it  could  not  have  been  written  by 
this  father ;  the  mention  of  a  journey  to  England,  bearing 
A  striking  resemblance  to  that  of  St.  Germanus  of  Aux- 
erre, probably  caused  the  mistake. 

The  mass  which  was  formerly  said,  according  to  the 
Gallican  liturgy,  on  the  feast  of  St,  Germanus,  is  still 
extant. — Lecuy. 


JoHw  Charlier  T)e  Gerson,  chancellor  of  the  univer- 

GERSON.  305 

sity  of  Paris,  said  to  have  been  the  most  pious  doctor, 
and  the  brightest  luminary  of  France  and  of  the  Church, 
in  the  fifteenth  century.  He  was  named  Gerson  from  a 
village  of  that  name,  near  Rhetal  in  the  diocese  of 
Rheims,  where  he  was  bom  on  the  14th  of  December, 
1363.  He  was  sent,  at  the  age  of  fourteen,  to  the  col- 
lege of  Navarre,  where  he  studied  for  ten  years,  passing 
through  all  the  degrees  :  and  had  for  friend  and  pro- 
fessor, the  grand-master  Pierre  d'Ailly,  whom  he  suc- 
ceeded as  chancellor  of  the  university,  and  prebendary  of 
Notre  Dame.  The  troubles  of  the  Church  and  state, 
made  it  very  difficult  to  fulfil  the  duties  attached  to  the 
former  of  these  dignities.  But  his  love  for  truth  always 
bore  down  every  other  consideration. 

Gerson  was  under  great  obligations  to  the  Duke  of 
Burgundy,  who  had  made  him  dean  of  the  Church  of 
Bruges,  and  he  had  incurred  the  resentment  of  the  Duke 
of  Orleans,  by  having  disapproved  of  his  political  con- 
duct in  a  discourse  preached  before  Charles  VI.,  and 
beginning  with  these  words,  "  Vivat  Rex."  Notwith- 
standing this  circumstance,  Gerson,  after  the  assassina- 
tion of  the  latter  prince,  pronounced  his  funeral  oration 
in  the  church  of  St.  Jean  en  Greve,  exclaiming  loudly 
against  this  crime.  In  a  popular  commotion,  his  house 
was  pillaged  by  the  rioters,  and  he  escaped  only  by 
hiding  himself  in  the  vaults  of  Notre  Dame,  where  he 
remained,  some  say  several  days,  others  as  many  months, 
quite  alone  and  left  to  his  own  meditations.  The  perse- 
cution of  which  he  had  so  nearly  been  the  victim,  did 
not  in  the  least  check  his  zeal.  Restored  to  his  duties, 
he  opposed,  before  the  Church  at  Paris  and  the  Univer- 
sity, the  doctrine  of  Jean  Petit ;  a  poor  apologist  for  the 
crime  committed  against  the  Duke  of  Orleans.  It  was 
not  Gerson's  fault  that  the  writings  of  this  courtier,  were 
not  afterwards  condemned  by  the  council  of  Constance, 
which,  in  order  to  conciliate  a  powerful  party,  contented 
itself  with  a  general  censure  of  a  doctrine  which  tended 

^^06  GERSON. 

to  justify  minder  under  the  name  of  Tyrannicide.  Ger- 
son  was  more  than  once  deputed  to  the  popes,  during  the 
schism  which  so  long  divided  the  Church  at  the  time  of 
the  double  elections  made  at  Rome  and  at  Avignon.  After 
having  refuted  in  a  memoir,  "  De  unitate  ecclesiastica," 
all  that  was  alleged  against  the  council  of  Pisa,  he  pre- 
sented himself  with  great  credit,  and  conducted  himself 
in  a  firm  though  prudent  manner,  when  they  proceeded 
to  depose  Gregory  XII.  and  Benedict  XIII.  and  to  elect 
Alexander  V.  It  was  during  the  sitting  of  this  council, 
that  he  published  his  famous  treatise,  "  De  auferibilitate 
Papae,"  not,  as  some  have  imagined,  to  acknowledge  the 
power  of  the  Church  to  suppress  Papacy,  but  to  prove 
that  there  are  cases,  in  which  the  assembled  Church  may 
command  two  rivals  to  desist  from  their  strife,  and  has 
a  right  to  depose  them  if  they  refuse,  for  the  sake  of 
peace  and  unity.  The  council  of  Constance  opened  a 
new  field  for  his  talent  and  zeal ;  he  took  a  place  there 
as  ambassador  from  King  Charles  VI.,  from  the  Church 
of  France,  and  from  the  university  of  Paris,  and  he 
directed  all  the  measures  which  were  adopted  respecting 
John  XXII I.,  who  had  succeeded  Alexander  V.,  and 
whose  irregular  conduct,  and  opposition  to  the  views  of 
the  council,  had  tended  rather  to  increase  than  to  allay 
ihe  schism. 

The  discourses  which  Gerson  on  various  occasions  pro- 
nounced, and  the  treatises  which  he  published,  were  in- 
tended principally,  to  show  that  the  Church  may  reform 
itself,  as  well  in  its  governors  as  in  its  members,  when 
its  power  is  divided  ;  and  that  it  has  the  power  of  assem- 
bling, without  the  consent  of  the  Pope,  when  he  refuses 
to  convoke  it ;  to  prove  the  necessity  of  holding  councils, 
as  well  general  as  special  ;  to  prescribe  the  payment  of 
first  fruits,  and  to  extirpate  simony,  which  had  become 
very  common.  He  had  established  as  the  basis  of  the 
decrees  of  the  council,  the  doctrine  of  the  supremacy  of 
the  Church,  in  all  which  concerns  faith  and  morals,  and 

GERSON.  mr 

on  this  subject^ a  discourse  on  the  immaculate  conception 
has  been  ascribed  to  him,  but  which  was  in  fact,  pro- 
nounced at  the  council  of  Basle,  after  his  death, 

The  piety  of  Gerson,  though  strong  and  zealous,  was 
neither  superstitious  nor  credulous  ;  he  denounced  in  his 
treatise  "  Contra  sectam  Flagellantium,"  the  abuse 
these  sectaries  made  of  Flagellation,  of  which  Vincent 
Ferrier  was  the  advocate ;  and  Gerson  addressed  some 
friendly  remonstrances  to  him.  He  composed  a  book, 
"  De  probatione  spirituum,"  in  which  he  gave  rules  for 
distinguishing  false  revelations  from  true  ones.  It  may 
be  supposed  that  he  was  far  from  being  favourable  to  the 
visions  of  St.  Bridget,  which  would  have  been  con- 
demned at  his  instigation,  had  they  not  found  an  apolo- 
gist, in  the  Cardinal  Torquemada .  and  it  will  be  believed 
that  he  had  no  share  in  the  theories  of  Hebertin,  Casal, 
or  John  Rosbroeck,  of  the  passive  union  of  the  soul  in 
the  Deity,  which  is  similar  to  the  pure  love  of  the  Quie- 
tists  ;  nor  in  those  of  the  Doctor  Pierre  d'Ailly,  on  judi- 
cial astrology,  which  was  then  in  high  repute  among  the 
princes  of  Europe,  and  which  he  combated  with  great 
success,  even  in  his  old  age,  against  the  physicians  of 
Lyons  and  Montpellier. 

Before  that  time  his  treatise  on  this  subject,  "  De 
astrologia  reformata,"  had  procured  for  him  the  assenta- 
tion of  the  learned  Bishop  of  Cambray.  In  another 
treatise,  "  De  erroribus  circa  artem  magicam,"  he  attacks 
the  superstitious  errors  of  magic,  and  the  prejudices  of 
the  empirics.  But  the  obstinate  piejudice  in  favour  of 
these  inveterate  errors,  could  yield  only  to  the  progress 
of  reason  and  public  opinion.  Humane,  though  severe, 
Gerson  wished  only  to  attack  the  self-esteem  of  the  sec- 
tarians, by  overthrowing  their  doctrine ;  he  forcibly  re- 
futed the  opposition  maintained  against  the  authority  of 
the  Church,  and  of  its  chief,  by  John  Huss,  who  refused 
to  retract.  But  he  succeeded  in  obliging  Matthew  Gra- 
bon,    a   Dominican   mendicant,    to  abjure   his    doctrine 


against  those  useful  communities  established  in  Flanders 
and  Germany,  for  education  and  Christian  instruction, 
which  subsisted  by  the  produce  of  their  common  labour. 
He  had  contributed  by  his  writings  to  the  revocation  of 
a  bull  of  x^lexander  V.,  in  favour  of  the  preaching  friars, 
against  the  privileges  of  the  clergy,  and  of  the  universi- 
ties. Whatever  was  the  spirit  of  wisdom  and  peace,  with 
which  Gerson  was  animated,  so  much  sincerity  and  zeal 
raised  against  him  many  enemies.  Above  all,  the  fol- 
lowers of  Jean  Petit,  who  obliged  him  to  enter  on  the 
defence  of  some  opinions  advanced  in  his  sermons  and 
in  his  writings ;  he  confounded  his  adversaries,  but  the 
fear  of  the  dangers  to  which  he  would  be  exposed  from 
the  Burgundian  faction,  induced  him  to  take  refuge  in 
Germany,  disguised  as  a  pilgrim,  about  the  time  of  the 
last  sittings  of  the  council.  In  a  letter  mentioned  by 
Edmund  Pdcher,  under  the  date  of  1416  or  17,  he  ad- 
dresses his  defence  to  the  monk  John,  his  brother,  whose 
dress  and  character  he  assumed,  and  informs  him  of 
his  journey. 

Gerson  stopped  first  in  the  mountains  of  Bavaria, 
where,  in  imitation  of  Boethius,  he  composed  his  book, 
"  De  Consolatione  Theologise,"  a  mixture  of  prose  and 
verse,  which  was  an  apology  for  his  conduct  at  the  coun- 
cil- of  Constance.  Soon  after  he  retired  into  Austria, 
where  the  duke  offered  him  an  asylum.  There  have 
been  found  in  the  abbey  of  Mselek  many  books  written 
by  him  during  his  exile,  and  especially  the  Treatise  of 
Consolatione  Theologise,  which  is  followed  by  that  on  the 
Imitation  of  Jesus  Christ,  in  a  collection  transcribed  in 
the  year  1421.  This  book  offered  to  all,  in  this  time  of 
trouble,  consolations  of  another  kind,  which  its  author 
had  probably  experienced  in  the  midst  of  persecutions 
and  misfortunes.  After  remaining  many  years  in  a 
foreign  land,  Gerson  returned,  and  took  up  his  abode  at 
the  monastery  of  the  Celestines  at  Lyons,  of  which  his 
brother  was  prior.     Here  this  great  man,  whom  Cardinal 


Zarbarella  had  proclaimed  in  the  council  of  Constance, 
the  most  excellent  doctor  of  the  Church,  whose  writiDgs 
decided  the  most  enlighterecl  theologians,  and  who  had 
been  raised  by  divine  providence  above  others  by  talents, 
to  combat  the  errors  of  the  age,  now  humbly  exercised 
the  office  of  schoolmaster  or  catechiser  of  children,  whom 
he  collected  every  day  in  the  church  of  St.  Paul,  and  of 
whom  he  required  no  other  reward  than  this  simple  prayer, 
which  they  repeated  till  the  eve  of  his  death:  "Lord 
have  mercy  on  thy  poor  servant,  Gerson."  He  died  at 
the  age  of  sixty-six  years,  the  12th  of  July,  1429. 

The  first  complete  edition  of  his  works  appeared  at 
Cologne,  in  1483,  in  4  vols,  folio.  Charles  VIII.  caused 
a  chapel  to  be  erected  to  Gerson's  memory  in  the  parish 
of  St.  Paul's,  where  he  had  been  buried. — Lecuy.  Biog. 


Aemand  Francis  Geevaise  was  born  at  Paris  in  1660. 
Having  studied  under  the  Jesuits,  he  then  entered 
among  the  bare-footed  Carmelites ;  but,  not  finding  this 
reform  sufficiently  austere  to  satisfy  his  love  of  asceti- 
cism, he  took  the  habit  of  La  Trappe  in  1695,  and 
insinuated  himself  so  much  into  the  favour  of  the  cele- 
brated abbe  de  Ranee,  that  he  was  appointed  abbot 
of  La  Trappe  on  the  death  of  Zozimus  Foisel,  in 
1696.  The  abbe,  however,  soon  repented  of  his  choice; 
for  the  new  abbot  began  by  his  austerity  and  intrigue- 
ing  spirit  to  foment  divisions  among  the  monks,  and 
to  undo  all  that  De  Ranee  had  d(>ne.  He  soon  re- 
signed, and  on  leaving  La  Trappe  he  drew  up  a  long 
Apology.  When  the  first  volume  of  his  Histoire  generale 
de  Citeaux,  4to,  appeared,  the  Bernardines,  who  w^ere 
violenty  attacked  in  it,  obtained  an  order  from  the  court 
against  him,  and  he  was  arrested  at  Paris,  and  conducted 

VOL.  V.  2   F 

310  GIB. 

to  the  abbey  of  Notre  Dame  de  Reclus,  where  he  died  in 
1755.  He  wrote,  La  Vie  de  St.  Cyprien;  La  Vie  d'Abail- 
lard  et  d'Heloise ;  La  Vie  de  St.  Irenee ;  La  Vie  de  Rufin, 
2  vols,  12mo;  La  Vie  de  I'Apotre  St.  Paul,  3  vols,  ]2mo; 
La  Vie  de  St.  Epiphane,  4to. 

His  brother  Nicholas  was  eminent  as  a  missionary, 
and  being  consecrated  Bishop  of  Horren  at  Rome,  em- 
barked for  the  place  of  his  mission ;  and  was  with  all 
his  clergy  murdered  by  the  Caribbees,  on  their  arrival, 
November  20,   1729. — Moreri. 


Solomon  Gesner  was  born  at  Boleslau,  in  Silesia,  in 
1559,  and  was  educated  a  Lutheran.  He  became  pro- 
fessor of  theology  at  Wittemberg,  where  also  he  filled  the 
important  offices  of  dean  and  rector  of  the  university, 
assessor  in  the  ecclesiastical  consistory,  and  first  preacher 
in  the  church.     He  died  in  1605. 

He  published,  The  Prophecy  of  Hosea,  with  the  Latin 
Version  of  St.  Jerome,  from  the  Hebrew,  and  of  B.  A. 
Montanus  from  the  Chaldee  Paraphrase  of  Jonathan, 
illustrated  by  the  Commentary  of  St.  Jerome,  and  addi- 
tional Notes;  A  General  Disquisition  on  the  Psalter, 
treating  of  the  dignity,  the  use,  the  argument,  and  the 
connexion  of  the  Psalms;  Polemical  Dissertations  on  the 
Book  of  Genesis;  The  Orthodox  Doctrine  concerning  the 
Person  and  Office  of  Jesus  Christ;  a  collection  of  Ser- 
mons on  the  Sufferings  of  Christ ;  De  Conciliis,  Lib.  IV. 
• — Niceron.     Melchior  Adam. 

GIB,    ADAM. 

Adam  Gib  was  born  in  Perthshire,  in  1713 ;  and  was 
educated  at  Edinburgh.     He  is  chiefly  distinguished  as  a 

GIBSON.  311 

fanatical  Presbyterian,  who  a(ted  consistently  on  the 
principle  of  that  religion,  and  became  the  founder  of  the 
Secession  Church.  The  disputes  concerning  the  law  of 
patronage  commenced  in  1730.  Mr.  Gib  was  among 
the  keenest  opponents  of  private  church  patronage,  and 
in  1733  was  with  three  others  dismissed  from  his  pastor- 
al charge.  These  afterwards  formed  congregations  of 
their  own,  to  one  of  which,  at  Edinburgh,  Mr.  Gib  was 
ordained  in  1741.  This  congregation  gradually  increased, 
and,  wdth  others  of  the  same  kind,  was  in  a  flourishing 
state,  when  in  1746  a  schism  took  place  among  them 
respecting  the  swearing  of  the  oaths  of  burgesses,  and 
from  this  time  the  secession  church  was  divided  into 
parties,  called  Burghers  and  Antiburghers,  and  Mr.  Gib 
was  considered  as  the  ablest  advocate  for  the  latter.  In 
1744  he  published,  a  Display  of  the  Secession  Testimony, 
2  vols,  8vo ;  and  in  1786  his  Sacred  Contemplations,  at 
the  end  of  which  is  an  Essay  on  Liberty  and  Necessity, 
in  answer  to  Lord  Karnes's  Essay  on  that  subject.  He 
died  in  1 788. — Gen.  Biog.  Diet. 


Edmund  Gibson  was  born  at  Bampton,  in  Westmore- 
land, in  1669,  and  received  his  primary  education  at  the 
free-school  in  that  town.  He  thence  proceeded  to  Queen's 
College,  Oxford,  a  college  which  presents  many  advan- 
tages to  a  native  of  Westmoreland.  As  the  study  of  the 
northern  languages  was  then  much  cultivated  at  that 
university,  he  applied  early  to  this  branch  of  literature, 
and  with  the  assistance  of  Dr.  Hickes,  made  a  consider- 
able and  rapid  proficiency  in  it.  In  1691  he  oflered  to 
the  public  the  first  fruits  of  his  studies,  in  a  new  edition 
of  William  Drummond's  Polemo-Middiana,  and  James 
V.  of  Scotland's  Cantilena  Rustica,  4to,  illustrated  with 
notes,  and  interspersed  with  lively  and  witty  remarks. 

ai^  GIBSON. 

In  1692  he  published  a  Latin  translation,  together  with 
the  original,  of  The  Chronicon  Saxonicum,  in  4to,  with 
notes.  In  the  same  year  he  pablished,  in  4to,  Libromm 
Manuscriptorum  in  duabus  insignibus  Bibliothecis,  altera 
Tenisoniana  Londini,  altera  Dugdaliana  Oxonii,  Cata- 
logus,  with  a  dedication  to  Dr.  Tenison,  then  Bishop  of 
Lincoln,  and  afterwards  Archbishop  of  Canterbury.  His 
next  publication  was  a  valuable  edition  of  Quintilian, 
which  was  followed,  in  1694,  by  a  new  edition  of  Somner  s 
Treatise  on  the  Roman  Ports  and  Forts  in  Kent,  and 
the  same  author's  Julii  Caesaris  Portus  Iccius  illustratus, 
8vo.  In  February  of  the  same  year  he  took  his  M.A. 
degree,  and  soon  after  w^as  ordained,  although  the  precise 
time  of  his  ordination  has  not  been  ascertained ;  he 
became  also  a  fellow  of  his  college.  In  1695  he  published 
an  English  translation  of  Camden's  Britannia,  fol.  In 
1696  he  was  appointed  librarian  at  Lambeth,  by  Dr. 
Tenison,  at  that  time  Archbishop  of  Canterbury ;  and  in 
the  following  year  he  was  appointed  morning  preacher  at 
Lambeth  church,  and  produced  Vita  Thomae  Bodleii, 
Equitis  Aurati,  together  with  Historia  Bibliothecse  Bod- 
leianse,  both  prefixed  to  the  Catalogi  Librorum  Manu- 
scriptorum, in  Anglia  et  Hibernia,  in  unum  collecti,  in 
2  vols,  fol.  In  1698  he  published,  Reliquae  Spelman- 
nianae,  together  with  the  Life  of  the  Author,  fol.  He 
was  now  made  domestic  chaplain  to  the  archbishop, 
through  whose  means  he  obtained  about  the  same  time 
the  lectureship  of  St.  Martin's-in-the-Fields,  and  in  1700 
he  was  presented  to  the  rectory  of  Stisted,  in  Essex,  a 
rectory  still  the  seat  of  learning.  In  1703  he  was  made 
rector  of  Lambeth,  and  residentiary-  of  the  cathedral  of 
Chichester.  He  was  soon  after  appointed  master  of  the 
hospital  of  St.  Mary;  and  in  1710  he  was  promoted  to 
the  Archdeaconry  of  Surrey. 

While  he  was  chaplain  to  Archbishop  Tenison,  he 
engaged  in  the  controversy  between  the  two  houses  of 
convocation,   of  which  a   detached   account  has  alreadv 

GIBSON.  318 

been  given  in  the  life  of  Atterbui7.  Gibson  was  con- 
nected with  the  whigs,  but  was  in  heart  a  good  christian 
and  churchman,  and  in  this  controversy  he  was  enabled 
to  serve  his  party,  and  the  cause  of  truth,  at  the  same 
time,  in  vindicating  the  rights  of  the  archbishop,  as 
president  of  the  synod.  The  bishops,  the  majority  of 
whom  were  nominees  of  a  whig  ministry  hostile  to  reli- 
gion, were  persons  in  whom  the  clergy  could  place  no 
confidence ;  the  object  of  the  lower  house,  therefore,  was 
to  deprive  them  of  the  power  of  doing  mischief.  The 
bishops,  while  thinking  chiefly  of  their  own  power,  vin- 
dicated incidentally  the  episcopal  authority  as  a  divine 
institution  from  the  attacks  of  the  lower  house,  which 
consisting  of  good  churchmen,  with  reference  to  the 
majority,  were  led  by  party  views  to  act  contrary  to  the 
principles  they  possessed.  Gibson's  connection  wdth  the 
archbishop  led  him  to  enlist  in  the  cause  of  the  upper 
house,  and  in  maintaining  that  cause  he  was  enabled  to 
maintain  his  Church  principles  with  consistency :  his 
feelings  and  his  principles  were  in  accordance.  He  pub- 
lished ten  pamphlets  on  the  subject  in  three  years,  to 
which  he  added  another  in  1707.  And  to  the  interest 
he  took  in  this  controversy,  we  may  trace  the  origin  of 
his  great  work.  Codex  Juris  Ecclesiastici  Anglicani,  or 
the  Statutes,  Constitution,  Canons,  Ptubrics,  and  Articles 
of  the  Church  of  England,  methodically  digested  under 
their  proper  heads,  &c.  fol.  1713.  It  was  printed  at  Ox- 
ford, in  1761. 

It  was  during  this  controversy,  in  June,  1702,  that  the 
degree  of  D.D.  was  conferred  upon  him,  by  the  Arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury;  by  accepting  which  he  gave  great 
offence  to  his  university.  The  university  of  Oxford  was 
strongly  opposed  to  the  Latitudinarian  bishops,  whose 
cause,  in  asserting  the  rights  of  the  upper  house  of  con- 
vocation, Gibson  had  defended;  and  he  was  evidently 
afraid  to  present  himself  for  his  degree  to  the  university 
of  Oxford,  lest  he  should  be  rejected.  This  was  not  a 

314  GIBSON. 

solitary  instance  of  an  exertion  of  power  by  this  arch- 
bishop in  opposition  to  the  privileges  of  the  university ; 
the  archbishop  has  authority  to  confer  degrees,  but  it  is 
given,  not  for  the  purpose  of  controlling  the  universities, 
but  that  learned  men,  who  have  not  had  the  advantage 
of  a  university  education,  may  not  be  excluded  on  that 
account  from  holding  high  offices  in  the  Church. 

Upon  the  death  of  Archbishop  Tenison  in  1715,  and 
the  translation  of  Dr.  Wake  to  Canterbury  from  the  see 
of  Lincoln,  Dr.  Gibson,  in  consequence  of  the  recommen- 
dation of  the  new  metropolitan,  was  nominated  his  suc- 
cessor, and  consecrated  towards  the  beginning  of  the  fol- 
lowing year.  In  1721  he  was  appointed  dean  of  the 
chapel  royal,  and  in  1723,  upon  the  death  of  bishop 
Eobinson,  he  was  translated  to  the  see  of  London.  Soon 
after  his  translation  he  procured  an  endow^ment  from  the 
crown  for  a  regular  course  of  sermons  on  Sundays,  to  be 
preached  in  the  royal  chapel  at  Whitehall  by  twelve 
clergymen  of  the  universities  of  Oxford  and  Cambridge, 
selected  in  equal  numbers  from  each  university,  and  ap- 
pointed by  the  Bishop  of  London  for  the  time  being. 
This  arrangement  has  been  altered  by  the  distinguished 
prelate,  who,  with  so  much  honour  to  himself  and  advan- 
tage to  the  Church,  presides  over  the  diocese  of  London, 
so  as  to  secure  for  the  congregation  a  more  regular  course 
of  teaching. 

His  talent  for  business,  more  than  his  noble  exer- 
tions in  the  cause  of  Christianity,  recommended  him  to 
the  notice  of  Sir  Robert  Walpole,  and  Bishop  Gibson  was 
for  some  years  his  chief  adviser  in  ecclesiastical  affairs, 
especially  when  the  powers  of  Archbishop  Wake,  mental 
as  well  as  bodily,  began  to  fail.  Bishop  Gibson  was  sup- 
posed to  be  heir-apparent  to  the  metropolitan  see;  but  he 
nobly  forfeited  the  favour  of  the  minister  and  of  the 
profligate  king,  by  maintaining  in  opposition  to  them 
what  he  believed  to  be  the  cause  of  the  Church  and  of 
true  religion.    He  constantly  guarded  against  the  repeated 

GIBSON.  315 

attempts  of  some  persons  to  procure  the  repeal  of  the 
Corporation  and  Test  Acts,  and  likewise  frustrated  the 
dishonest  attempts  of  the  Quakers  to  deprive  the  clergy 
of  their  legal  maintenance  by  tithes.  These  measures 
brought  an  outcry  against  the  bishop,  on  the  part  of  those 
who  had  formerly  praised  his  liberality.  The  whig  law- 
yers began  now  to  attack  his  codex,  and  the  malevolent 
feelings  of  Latitudinarians  were  excited  against  him,  be- 
cause he  boldly  resisted  the  promotion  to  a  bishopric  of  a 
Dr.  Piundle,  a  friend  of  the  lord  chancellor  and  an 
amiable  man,  but  one  suspected  of  heresy.  Bishop  Gib- 
son prevented  his  obtaining  an  English  Diocese,  but  a 
profligate  ministry  forced  him  upon  the  Church  of  Ire- 
land, the  Church  of  which  country,  has  been  grossly 
insulted  by  shameful  appointments  to  the  highest  ecclesi- 
astical offices,  as  the  country  itself  has  been  mis- 

The  enmity  of  the  king  was  excited  against  the  bishop 
because  he  denounced  the  amusement  of  masquerades, 
which  were  the  occasion  of  all  kinds  of  iniquity,  but  were 
patronized  by  George  II.  Bishop  Gibson  procured  an  ad- 
dress to  the  king  from  several  bishops,  praying  for  the  entire 
suppression  of  such  amusements.  But  although  the  bishop 
had  lost  his  influence  at  court,  he  persevered  in  that 
diligent  exercise  of  the  duties  of  his  pastoral  office,  which 
appeared  to  him  most  likely  to  promote  the  best  interests 
of  religion  and  virtue.  He  wrote  and  printed  several  Pas- 
toral Letters,  addressed  to  the  clergy  and  laity,  intended 
to  oppose  the  growth  of  infidelity  and  enthusiasm;  as 
well  as  visitation  charges,  occasional  sermons,  and  small 
tracts  against  the  prevailing  vices  of  the  age.  He  also 
printed  a  collection  of  Discourses  published  by  Mr.  Ad- 
dison, and  others  of  the  laity,  against  atheism  and  infi- 
delity, and  in  defence  of  the  Christian  religion ;  which 
he  introduced  with  a  well-written  preface,  exhibiting  a 
concise  view  of  the  sentiments  of  Mr.  Boyle,  Mr.  Locke, 
and  Sir  Isaac  Newton,  concerning  Christianity.    Pie  like- 

316  GILL. 

wise  made  a  collection  of  the  best  pieces  that  were  written 
against  popery  during  the  reign  of  king  James  II.,  and 
published  them  with  a  preface  in  1738,  in  3  vols,  fol. 
He  died  at  Bath  in  1748. — Biog.  Brit.  Cones  Life  of 
Walpole.     Bundles  Memoirs. 


GiLDAS,  surnamed  the  Wise.  Mr.  Stevenson  in  his 
preface  to  the  works  of  Gildas,  says,  "  We  are  unable  to 
speak  with  certainty  to  his  parentage,  his  country  or 
even  his  name,  the  period  when  he  lived,  or  the  works  of 
which  he  was  the  author;"  we  may  repeat  the  words  of 
Dr.  Gibs,  his  learned  translator:  "  Such  a  statement  is 
surely  sufficient  to  excuse  us  at  present  for  saying  more 
on  the  subject,  than  that  he  is  supposed  to  have  lived  and 
to  have  written  what  remains  under  his  name,  during 
some  part  of  the  sixth  century."  He  is  said  to  have  been 
an  ecclesiastic. 


John  Gill  was  born  at  Kettering,  in  Northampton- 
shire, in  1697.  His  education  was  limited,  owing  to 
the  contracted  circumstances  of  his  parents ;  but,  by 
application,  he  became  a  good  classical  and  oriental 
scholar.  In  1718  he  officiated  to  a  congregation  at  High- 
am  Ferrers,  from  whence  he  removed  to  a  congregation 
at  Horsely  Down,  in  Southwark.  In  1728  he  published 
his  "  Exposition  of  the  Song  of  Solomon,"  in  folio.  In 
1735  appeared  his  "  Cause  of  God  and  Truth,"  4  vols. 
8vo.,  in  which  he  defended  Calvinism  upon  Supralap- 
sarian  principles.  But  his  chief  work  was  a  Commentary 
on  the  Scriptures,  in  9  vols.  fol. ;  for  which  he  was  com- 
plimented with  the  degree  of  D.  D.  by  the  university  of 

GILPIN.  317 

Aberdeen.  A  new  edition  of  this  exposition  has  subse- 
quently appeared,  in  10  vols.  4to.  In  1767  Dr.  Gill 
printed  "  A  Dissertation  on  the  Antiquities  of  the  Hebrew 
Language."  His  last  work  was  a  body  of  doctrinal  and 
practical  divinity,  3  vols,  4to.  He  died  Oct.  14,  1771. 
—  Universal  Biography. 


"  Beenaed  Gilpin,  called  the  Apostle  of  the  North,  was 
born  of  a  respectable  family,  at  Kentmire,  in  Westmor- 
land, in  151 7.  He  early  evinced  a  contemplative  serious- 
ness of  disposition,  which  led  his  parents  to  educate  him 
iorthe  Church,  and  they  accordingly  placed  him  at  a  gram- 
1  lar-school,  whence,  at  the  age  of  sixteen,  he  was  sent 
to  Queen's  College,  Oxford,  where  he  applied  himself 
with  eagerness  to  the  perusal  of  the  works  of  Erasmus. 
He  now  made  the  Scriptures  his  chief  study,  and  ear- 
nestly set  about  acquiring  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the 
Greek  and  Hebrew  languages.  In  1539  he  took  his 
degree  of  B.A.;  and  in  1541  that  of  M.A.,  and  about 
the  same  time  was  elected  fellow  of  his  college,  and 
admitted  into  holy  orders.  His  reputation  for  learning 
soon  after  led  to  his  being  solicited  by  Cardinal  Wolsey  s 
agents  to  accept  an  establishment  in  his  new  foundation 
at  Christ's  Church,  hither  he  removed  from  Queen's 
College.  The  university  was  divided  between  those 
who  asserted  the  necessity  of  a  Reformation,  and  those 
who  resisted  it.  Gilpin  was  for  some  time  opposed  to 
the  reformers,  maintaining  the  Romish  side  in  a  dis- 
pute with  Hooper  afterwards  bishop  of  Worcester.  But  his 
mind  was  open  to  conversion,  and  in  preparing  himself 
for  this  dispute,  he  began  to  suspect  that  the  peculiarities 
of  Romanism,  were  not  supported  by  Scripture  or  by  the 
Fathers.  This  truth  was  still  further  forced  upon  him 
when  on  the  accession  of  Edward  VI.     Peter  Martyr  was 

318  GILPIN. 

sent  to  Oxford,  and  Bernard  Gilpin  was  selected  as 
one  of  the  champions  on  the  Komanizing  side  to  oppose 
him.     Bishop  Carleton  quaintly  remarks  : 

•*  While  he  pryed  into  the  popish  religion,  he  was  en- 
forced to  acknowledge  that  very  many  errors  were  crept 
into  the  Church  which  hinder  and  obscure  the  matter  of 
our  salvation,  insomuch  that  they  are  no  small  offence  to 
as  many  as  hunger  and  thirst  after  righteousness  and 
the  knowledge  of  the  truth.  He  discovered  many  cor- 
ruptions and  changes  of  sound  doctrine ;  he  found  not 
so  much  as  a  word  touching  seven  sacraments  before 
Peter  Lumbard;  and  that  the  use  of  the  supper  was 
delivered  under  one  kinde  onely,  contrary  to  expresse 
scriptures  :  that  transubstantiation  was  a  devise  of  the 
school-men :  that  the  doctrine  of  the  worke  wrought 
called  Ojjus  operatum,  was  newly  risen :  that  the  masse 
was  turned  from  a  sacrament  to  a  sacrifice  :  that  in  the 
Church,  wherein  all  things  were  ordeined  for  the  edifica- 
tion of  the  people,  all  things  were  now  done  to  the  non- 
edification  of  them  :  that  the  adoration  of  images  was 
instituted  against  the  expresse  commandment  of  God. 
Demurring  for  a  while,  as  distracted  with  these  thoughts, 
behold  the  rule  of  faith  lately  changed  in  the  councel  of 
Trent,  utterly  astonished  him.  For  he  had  observed  out 
of  the  ancient  writers  as  well  as  out  of  the  later  ones, 
Lumbard,  Scotus,  Aquinas,  and  the  rest,  that  the  rule 
of  faith  was  to  be  drawne  onely  from  the  holy  Scriptures, 
but  in  the  councel  of  Trent  he  beheld  humane  traditions 
made  equall  with  the  Scriptures." 

In  this  temper  he  applied  for  further  instruction  to 
Cuthbert  Tonstal,  Bishop  of  Durham,  who  was  his  mo- 
ther's uncle.  That  prelate  told  him  that  in  the  matter 
of  transubstantiation,  Pope  Innocent  III.  had  done  un- 
advisedly in  making  it  an  article  of  faith,  and  confessed 
that  the  pope  had  also  committed  a  great  fault  in  taking 
no  better  care  than  he  had  done  in  the  business  of  indul- 
gences and  other  things.    After  this,  Mr.  Gilpin  conferred 

GILPIN.  319 

with  Dr.  Redman,  of  whose  virtue  and  learning  he  had  a 
great  opinion ;  and  this  friend  affirmed  ttiat  the  book  of 
common  prayer  was  a  holy  book,  and  agreeable  to  the 
gospel ;  these  things  threw  him  into  many  distracting 
thoughts.  Afterwards  one  of  the  fellows  of  Queen's  Col- 
lege, Oxford,  told  him  that  he  had  heard  Dr.  Chedsey,  one 
of  his  old  acquaintances,  say  among  his  friends,  "  The 
protestants  and  we  must  compound  the  matter,  they  must 
grant  us  the  real  presence,  and  we  must  give  way  to  them 
in  the  point  of  transubstantiation."  Dr.  Weston  also, 
another  of  his  fellow  students,  made  a  long  oration  to 
shew  that  the  eucharist  should  be  administered  in  both 
kinds,  and  Mr.  Morgan,  a  third  brother  Oxonian,  told 
him  that  Dr.  Ware,  a  man  most  famous  for  life  and  learn- 
ing, had  affirmed  to  him,  that  the  principal  sacrifice  of 
the  church  of  God  was  the  sacrifice  of  thanksgiving. 
Mr.  Gilpin  further  observed,  that  the  most  learned  bishops 
at  that  time  confuted  the  primacy  of  the  pope  both  in 
words  and  writing.  And  to  conclude,  one  Harding,  being 
newly  returned  home  out  of  Italy,  in  a  long  and  famous 
oration,  so  plainly  set  out  to  the  life  the  friars  and  unlearn- 
ed bishops,  who  had  met  at  the  counsel  of  Trent  in  their 
green  gowns,  that  it  abated  in  him  as  well  as  in  very 
many  others,  a  great  deal  of  that  opinion  and  confidence, 
which  they  had  reposed  in  general  councils. 

Whilst  he  was  going  on  in  this  course,  having  taken 
holy  orders  from  the  Bishop  of  Oxford,  he  was  overruled 
by  the  persuasions  of  his  friends,  to  accept,  against  his 
will,  the  vicarage  of  Norton,  in  the  diocese  of  Durham. 
This  was  in  1552,  and  being  a  grant  from  King  Edward 
VI.  before  he  went  to  reside  he  was  appointed  to  preach 
before  his  majesty,  who  was  then  at  Greenwich.  His 
sermon  was  greatly  approved,  and  recommended  him  to 
the  notice  of  many  persons  of  the  first  rank,  particularly 
to  Sir  Francis  Russel  and  Sir  Robert  Dudley,  afterwards 
Earls  of  Bedford  and  Leicester,  and  to  secretary  Cecil, 
afterwards  lord  treasurer  Burleigh,  who  obtained  for  him 

320  GILPIN. 

the  king's  licence  for  a  general  preacher  during  his 
majesty's  life,  which  however  happened  to  be  not  much 
above  the  space  of  half  a  year  after.  Thus  honoured  he 
repaired  to  his  parish,  entered  upon  the  duties  of  it,  and, 
as  occasion  required,  made  use  of  the  king's  licence  in 
other  parts  of  the  country.  But  here  he  soon  grew  un- 
easy :  however,  resolved  as  he  was  against  popery,  he  was 
scarcely  settled  in  -some  of  his  religious  opinions;  he 
found  the  country  overspread  with  popish  doctrines,  the 
errors  of  which  he  was  unable  to  oppose.  In  this  un- 
happy state  he  applied  to  Bishop  Tonstall  (then  in  the 
tower.)  That  prelate  advised  him  to  provide  a  trusty 
curate  for  his  parish,  and  spend  a  year  or  two  abroad  in 
conversing  with  some  of  the  most  eminent  professors  on 
both  sides  the  question.  The  proposal  was  just  Mr. 
Gilpin's  own  wish  with  regard  to  travelling  abroad,  which 
he  therefore  resolved  upon,  but,  at  the  same  time,  deter- 
mined to  resign  his  living,  as  he  accordingly  did,  to  a 
person  very  deserving  of  it.  This  done,  he  set  out  for 
London  to  receive  the  bishop's  last  orders,  and  embark. 

His  resignation  gave  his  lordship  much  concern,  it 
was  done  out  of  a  scruple  of  conscience  very  uncommon, 
and  which  the  bishop  could  see  no  foundation  for,  since 
he  could  have  procured  him  a  dispensation.  However, 
after  some  words  of  advice  to  look  better  to  his  interest, 
he  was  reconciled,  promised  to  sujDport  him  abroad,  and 
at  parting,  put  into  his  hands  a  treatise  upon  the  Euchar- 
ist, which  the  times  not  suiting  to  be  printed  here,  he 
desired  might  be  done  under  his  inspection  at  Paris. 
With  this  charge  he  embarked  for  Holland,  and  upon 
landing,  went  immediately  to  Malines,  to  visit  his  brother 
George,  who  was  then  a  student  there.  But  after  a  few 
weeks  he  went  to  Louvain,  which  he  selected  for  his 

He  returned  to  England  in  1550.  '-Returning  to 
England,"     says    Bishop    Carleton,    "  in    the    days   of 

GILPIN.  831 

Queen  Mary,  he  beheld  to  his  great  grief  the  Church 
oppressed  with  blood  and  fire;  and  being  placed  by  Bishop 
Tonstal  in  the  rectory  of  Essingdon,  he  began  to  preach 
the  word  of  God,  and  sharply  to  tax  some  vices  which 
then  reigned  in  the  Church.  He  propounded  the  doctrine 
of  salvation  plainly  and  soundly,  which  thing  procured 
him  many  back  friends,  especially  among  the  clergy, 
whose  faults  he  had  touched  to  the  quick. 

"  There  was  at  that  time  among  the  clergy  of  the  Bish- 
opric of  Durham,  one  Dunstall,  parson  of  a  church  in  that 
Diocese.  This  man  was  very  hot  against  Gilpin,  and 
accused  him  often  to  the  Bishoj),  as  an  heretic,  and  one 
that  deserved  to  be  burnt  as  other  heretics  were.  But 
the  bishop  could  not  endure  to  shed  blood,  and  therefore 
dealt  mildly  with  him,  and  preserved  him  from  the  projects 
of  his  enemies.  I  have  heard  Anthony  Carleton  relate, 
(and  he  at  that  time  lived  in  the  bishop's  house)  that  the 
bishop's  chaplains  at  a  certain  time  had  some  discourse 
with  Gilpin  about  Luther;  and  that  one  of  them  had  asked 
him  what  he  thought  of  Luther,  and  his  writings.  Gilpin 
confessed  that  he  had  not  read  the  writings  of  Luther.  '  I 
propounded  unto  myself,'  (said  he)  'this  course;  first  of 
all  to  search  the  Scriptures  diligently,  and  to  be  acquaint- 
with  the  exposition  of  the  fathers  upon  them.  As  for  the 
writings  of  the  Neoterics,  I  have  only  looked  upon  them  ; 
howbeit  I  refuse  them  not,  when  and  where  they  agree 
with  the  ancients.'  One  of  them  commended  Mr.  Gil- 
pin's resolution,  and  said,  '  it  would  be  w^ell  with  the 
Church,  if  all  men  would  duly  respect  the  writings  of 
the  fathers  ;  for  then  the  upstart  opinions  of  late  writers 
w^ould  not  so  much  disturb  the  Church,  such  as  are  of 
these  of  Luther.'  But  Gilpin  answered,  '  if  Neoterics 
and  late  writers  produce  the  opinions  of  the  ancient 
fathers,  the  novelty  of  the  men  is  not  to  be  disdained, 
but  the  antiquity  of  the  doctrines  is  to  be  reverenced.' 

"They  hereupon  subtilly  draw  on  Gilpin  into  a  disputa- 
tion concerning  the  sacrament  of  the  altar  ;  propounding 

VOL.  V.  3  G 

332  GILPIN. 

therein  two  questions,  the  one  concerning  the  real  presence, 
the  other  concerning  transubstantiation.  Touching  the 
real  presence,  Gilpin  confessed  that  he  had  no  very  strong 
argument,  wherewith  in  his  judgment  he  might  oppose 
the  real  presence ;  '  For  I  suppose,'  (saith  he)  *  that 
therein  lieth  hid  a  great  mystery,  such  a  one  as  is  above 
my  capacity  ;  rather  to  be  adored,  than  disputed  upon.' 
They  asked  then,  '  what  he  thought  of  transubstantia- 
tion ?'  He  answ^ered,  '  that  there  was  no  necessity  why 
we  should  believe  those  things  which  have  no  solid 
foundation  in  the  word  of  God.'  '  Do  you  not  then 
believe,'  (said  they)  '  as  the  Church  believes  ?'  Gilpin 
replied  that  the  Church  had  not  always  held  that  as  an 
article  of  faith :  '  I  am  (saith  he)  of  the  Catholic  faith, 
and  the  Catholic  faith  changeth  not.  But  in  this  point  I 
see  alteration,  such  as  the  Catholic  faith  is  not  capable  of.' 
They  demanded  what  alterations  in  faith  he  had  observed 
touching  the  sacrament  of  the  altar.  He  replieth  :  '  I  do 
not  find  that  in  the  Church  in  former  ages,  there  w  as  any 
thing  spoken  or  w^ritten  about  transubstantiation.  Peter 
Lumbard  was  either  the  first,  or  at  least  one  of  the  first, 
that  brought  in  the  alteration  of  the  ancient  faith.  And 
what  do  you  yourselves  think ;  is  the  bread  of  transub- 
stantiation converted  into  the  flesh  and  blood  of  Christ  ?' 
They  answer,  that  they  believe  so  absolutely.  '  But,' 
saith  Gilpin,  '  Peter  Lumbard,  who  was  the  first  man 
that  made  an  alteration  of  the  faith  of  our  forefathers  in 
this  point,  himself  did  not  believe  as  you  do.  For  in  his 
fourth  book,  the  eleventh  distinction,  F.  thus  he  hath  it; 
there  is  no  transubstantiation  but  of  bread  into  flesh, 
and  wine  into  blood.  And  if  that  be  true,  then  doubtless 
it  follows  consequently,  that  in  the  transubstantiation  of 
the  bread  there  is  no  blood.  And  now,  saith  he,  how 
will  you  reconcile  these  things  ?'  They  stood  at  a  stand, 
as  having  nothing  to  answer,  because  the  w^ords  of  Lum- 
bard plainly  deny  that  in  the  transubstantiated  bread  can 
bo   any  blood,  or  in  the  wine  his  flesh.     Whom  when 

GILPIN.  523 

Gilpin  had  observed  to  stagger  in  this  point,  '  Take 
notice  now,  .saith  he,  of  the  immutability  of  the  Catholic 
faith  :  we  see  the  alteration  of  transubstantiation.  For 
when  Lumbard  had  broached  this  doctrine,  that  there 
was  a  kind  of  change,  he  would  have  it  none  othenvise 
understood  than  thus  :  that  the  bread  only  should  be 
changed  into  flesh,  and  the  wine  only  into  blood.  Nor 
did  men  at  that  time  dream  of  any  other  conversion  in 
the  sacrament  of  the  altar,  until  the  fiction  of  concomi- 
tancy  was  broached  by  Thomas  Aquinas.  He  was  a  man 
that  understood  well  the  difficulty  of  this  point,  and 
therefore  he  underpropped  it  with  concomitancy ;  that 
forsooth  by  reason  of  concomitancy  there  is  both  flesh 
and  blood  in  the  transubstantiated  bread.  But  these  are 
the  inventions  of  later  men,  whereas  the  Catholic  religion 
abhorreth  invented  alterations  in  matters  of  faith.' 
While  they  were  holding  this  disputation  without  speak- 
ing aloud,  because  they  were  close  at  the  bishop's  back, 
who  at  that  time  sat  before  the  fire,  for  it  was  in  the 
winter  season;  the  bishop  leaned  his  chair  somewhat 
backwards,  and  hearkened  what  they  said.  And  when 
they  had  done  speaking,  the  bishop  turning  to  his  chap- 
lains, used  these  words,  *  Fathers  soul,  let  him  alone, 
for  he  hath  more  learning  than  you  all.'  " 

"  The  living  of  Essingdon  was  attached  to  the  Arch- 
deaconry of  Durham,  and  Gilpin,  finding  the  two  offices 
of  parish  priest  and  archdeacon,  to  be  too  onerous,  re- 
quested permission  to  resign  one;  the  bishop  refused, 
however,  to  separate  the  preferments,  and  Gilpin  resigned, 
but  was  afterwards  presented  to  the  valuable  rectory  of 
Houghton-le- Spring.  He  now  lived  retired,  and  gave  no 
immediate  offence  to  the  clergy ;  the  experience  he  had  of 
their  temper,  made  him  more  cautious  not  to  provoke 
them.  Indeed,  he  was  more  cautious  than  he  could  after- 
wards approve,  for  in  his  future  life  he  would  often  tax  his 
behaviour  at  this  time  with  weakness  and  cowardice.  But 
all  his  caution  availed  nothing.     He  was  soon  formally 


accused  to  the  bishop  a  second  time,  and  was  again 
protected  by  his  lordship ;  who,  however,  thought  proper, 
perhaps  in  the  view  of  his  own  safety,  to  shew  his  dishke 
of  his  nephew's  conduct,  by  striking  him  out  of  his  will, 
of  which  he  had  before  made  him  the  executor.  This 
loss  gave  Mr.  Gilpin  no  concern  ;  he  was  at  a  great  dis- 
tance from  all  worldly-mindedness  ;  it  was  not  less  than 
he  expected,  nor  more  than  he  was  well  provided  for. 
His  enemies  were  not  thus  silenced :  enraged  at  this 
second  defeat,  they  delated  him  to  Dr.  Bonner,  Bishop  of 
London  ;  here  they  went  the  right  way  to  work.  Bonner 
was  just  the  reverse  of  Tunstal,  and  immediately  gave 
orders  to  apprehend  him.  Mr.  Gilpin  had  no  sooner 
notice  of  it,  but,  being  no  stranger  to  this  prelate's  buen- 
ING  zeal,  he  prepared  for  martyrdom,  and  commanding 
his  house-steward  to  provide  him  a  long  garment,  that 
he  might  go  the  more  comely  to  the  stake,  he  set  out  for 
London.  It  is  said,  that  he  happened  to  break  his  leg 
in  the  journey,  which  delayed  him ;  however  that  be,  it 
is  certain,  that  the  news  of  Queen  Mary's  death  met  him 
on  the  road,  which  proved  his  delivery. 

Upon  his  return  to  Houghton,  he  was  received  by  his 
parishioners  with  the  sincerest  joy,  and  though  he  soon 
after  lost  his  patron.  Bishop  Tunstal,  yet  he  quickly 
experienced,  that  worth  like  his  could  never  be  left  friend- 
less. When  the  popish  bishops  were  deprived,  the  Earl 
of  Bedford  recommended  him  to  the  queen  for  the  Bishop- 
ric of  Carlisle,  and  took  care  that  a  conge  d'  elire,  should 
be  sent  down  to  the  dean  and  chapter  for  that  purpose. 
But  Mr.  Gilpin  declined  this  promotion,  on  account  of 
the  particular  inconvenience  of  it  to  himself,  as  having  so 
many  friends  and  acquaintances  in  that  diocese,  of  whom 
he  had  not  the  best  opinion,  that  he  must  either  connive 
at  many  irregularities,  or  draw  upon  himself  so  much 
hatred,  that  he  should  be  less  able  to  do  good  there  than 
any  body  else. 

In  1561  the  provostship  of  Queen's  College  was  offered 

GLANVTL.  325 

to  him,  and  refused.  The  account  given  of  his  conduct 
as  a  parish  priest,  and  the  regulation  of  his  family,  by 
Bishop  Carleton,  is  so  deeply  interesting,  that  the  reader 
is  referred  to  the  memoir  reprinted  by  Dr.  Wordsworth. 
He  was  exemplaiy  in  eveiy  department  of  life,  and  was 
especially  zealous  in  the  cause  of  education.  He  died  on 
the  4th  of  March,  16S^.— Carleton.    Gilpin. 

GERALDUS,  CAMBRENSis.     (See  Barri. ) 


Bartholomew  Glanvil  was  an  English  Minorite  or 
Franciscan,  of  the  family  of  the  Earls  of  Suffolk,  in  the 
fourteenth  century.  He  is  said  to  have  studied  at  Oxford, 
Paris,  and  Rome.  He  wrote  a  work  entitled  "  De  pro- 
prietatibus  rerum,"  and  also  sermons  printed  by  Wynkyn 
de  Worde. — Dibdin's  Typog.  Antiquities. 


Joseph  Glanvil  was  born  at  Plymouth,  in  1636.  He 
was  sent  to  Exeter  College,  Oxford,  in  1652,  and  in  1656 
he  removed  to  Lincoln  College,  where  he  took  his  degree 
of  M.A.  in  1658.  Although  a  friend  of  Eichard  Baxter, 
at  the  restoration  he  conformed  to  the  Church ;  he  also 
became  a  convert  to  the  principles  of  the  Baconian  philo- 
sophy ;  and  when  he  had  just  entered  his  twenty-fifth  year, 
he  wrote  a  treatise  in  defence  of  them,  under  the  title  of 
The  Vanity  of  Dogmatizing,  or  Confidence  in  Opinions, 
manifested  in  a  Discourse  on  the  Shortness  and  Uncer- 
tainty of  our  Knowledge,  and  its  Causes,  with  some 
Picflections  on  Peripateticism,  and  an  Apology  for  Phil- 
osophy, 12mo,  1661.  About  this  time  he  entered  into 
2  G  2 

336  GLANVIL. 

orders,  and  was  presented  to  the  rectory  of  Wimbish,  in 
the  county  of  Essex,  and  to  the  vicarage  of  Frome-Sel- 
wood,  in  Somersetshire.  In  1662  he  published  Lux 
Orientalis;  or,  An  Enquiry  into  the  Opin4on  of  the 
Eastern  Sages,  concerning  the  Pre-existence  of  Souls; 
being  a  Key  to  unlock  the  Grand  Mysteries  of  Providence, 
in  Relation  to  Man's  Sin  and  Misery,  12mo.  In  1665 
he  published  Scepsis  Scientifica;  or,  Confessed  Ignor- 
ance the  Way  to  Science ;  in  an  Essay  on  the  Vanity  of 
Dogmatizing  and  Confident  Opinion,  4to.  Of  this  trea- 
tise his  first  publication  formed  the  groundwork.  It  was 
'dedicated  to  the  Royal  Society,  of  which  he  was  now 
chosen  a  member.  The  credit  which  he  had  acquired 
by  his  writings  encouraged  him,  in  1666,  to  deliver  his 
sentiments  upon  the  subject  of  witchcraft,  the  existence 
of  which  he  endeavoured  to  defend.  His  treatise  was 
originally  entitled.  Some  Philosophical  Considerations 
touching  the  Being  of  Witches  and  Witchcraft,  4to,  but 
it  underwent  frequent  alterations  in  subsequent  editions. 
About  this  time  he  was  presented  to  the  rectory  of  the 
Abbey  Church  at  Bath.  In  1668  he  published  an  enter- 
taining and  instructive  account  of  modern  improvements, 
in  an  elegant  little  treatise,  entitled  Plus  Ultra ;  or.  The 
Progress  and  Advancement  of  Knowledge  since  the  days 
of  Aristotle ;  in  an  Account  of  some  of  the  most  remark- 
able late  Improvements  of  practical  useful  Learning  to 
encourage  philosophical  endeavours;  occasioned  by  a 
Conference  with  one  of  the  Notional  Way,  4to.  In  1670 
he  published  a  Visitation  Sermon,  which  met  with  gen- 
eral approbation,  and  was  repeatedly  reprinted;  it  was 
entitled  AOPOY  ©PH^KEIA ;  or,  A  seasonable  Recom- 
mendation and  Defence  of  Reason  in  the  Affairs  of  Re- 
ligion, against  Infidelity,  Scepticism,  and  Fanaticism  of 
all  sorts,  4to.  This  was  followed  by  a  piece  entitled, 
Philosophia  Pia;  or,  A  Discourse  of  the  Religious  Tem- 
per and  Tendency  of  the  Experimental  Philosophy  which 
is  professed  by  the  Royal  Society,  1671,  8vo.     He  also 

GLASS.  327 

wrote  some  observations  on  the  Mines  in  the  Mendip 
hills,  and  on  the  natural  history  and  springs  of  Bath, 
which  were  inserted  in  the  Philosophical  Transactions. 
In  167-2  he  exchanged  his  rectory  at  Frome  for  that  of 
Streat,  in  the  same  county,  with  the  chapel  of  Walton 
annexed ;  and  about  the  same  time  he  was  made  chaplain 
in  ordinar}^  to  the  king.  His  next  publication  was  a 
volume  of  Essays  on  several  important  subjects  in  Phil- 
osophy and  Religion,  1676,  4to,  and  a  treatise  called 
Antifanatic  Theology  and  free  Philosophy ;  which  is  a 
kind  of  supplement  to  the  philosophical  romance  of  Lord 
Bacon.  In  1678  he  published.  An  Essay  concerning 
Preaching,  written  for  the  Direction  of  a  Young  Divine, 
&c.,  with  a  seasonable  Defence  of  Preaching,  and  the 
plain  way  of  it,  12mo.  His  last  work  was  entitled.  The 
zealous  and  impartial  Protestant,  showing  some  great 
but  less  heeded  Dangers  of  Popeiy,  &c.,  1680,  4to.  He 
was  immediately  after  seized  with  a  fever,  which  proved 
fatal  to  him  in  the  same  year,  when  he  was  about  the 
age  of  forty-four.  Soon  after  his  death,  Dr.  Anthony 
Horneck  published  several  of  his  Sermons,  and  other 
pieces,  with  the  title  of,  Some  Discourses,  Sermons,  and 
Remains,  &c.  1681,  4to. — Gen.  Diet.    Biog.  Brit. 


John  Glass,  the  founder  of  a  sect,  was  born  at  Dundee, 
in  1698.  He  was  educated  at  St.  Andrew's,  after  which 
he  became  minister  of  a  country  parish;  but  in  1727  he 
published  a  book,  to  prove  that  the  civil  establishment  of 
religion  is  inconsistent  with  the  gospel,  for  which  he  was 
deposed  by  the  general  assembly.  He  now  gathered 
followers,  who  were  called  by  his  name  in  Scotland ;  but 
in  England  they  were  denominated  Sandemanians,  from 
another  leader.  Glass  died  at  Dundee,  in  1773.  His 
works  were  published  at  Edinburgh,  in  4  vols,  8vo. — 
Gen.  Biog.  Diet. 

328  GODEAU. 


Solomon  Glassius  was  born  at  Sondershausen  in 
Thuringia,  in  1593.  He  became  professor  of  theology  at 
Jena;  and  also  superintendant  of  tlie  churches  and 
schools  in  Saxe  Gotha.  He  died  in  1656.  His  works 
are — 1.  Philologia  Sacra,  4to.  2.  Onomatologia  Messise 
Prophetica.  3.  Christologia.  4.  Disputationes  in  Au- 
gustanam  Confessionem.  5.  Exegesis  Evangeliorum  et 
Epistolarum. — Moreri. 


James  Goar,  a  learned  Dominican  monk,  was  born  at 
Paris,  in  1601.  He  entered  into  the  order  of  preaching 
friars  in  1 619,  and  was  sent  on  a  mission  into  the  Levant, 
where  he  made  the  doctrines  and  ceremonies  of  the  Greek 
Church  the  subjects  of  his  investigation  ;  and  in  1647  he 
published  at  Paris,  in  Greek  and  Latin,  his  Eucologion, 
sive  Rituale  Grsecorum,  foL,  reprinted  at  Venice,  in  1730. 
He  also  translated  into  Latin  some  of  the  Byzantine  his- 
torians, which  form  the  curious  collection  printed  at 
the  Louvre. — Moreri. 


Anthony  Godeau  was  born  at  Dreux,  in  1605.  He 
frequented  the  hotel  of  Julie  dAngennes,  Mademoiselle 
de  Rambouillet,  and  was  one  of  those  learned  men  who 
met  at  the  house  of  M.  Conrart,  to  discuss  subjects  of 
science  and  philosophy ;  and  to  their  zeal  in  the  cause  of 
literature  the  French  Academy  owes  its  origin;  and 
Godeau  became  one  of  its  first  and  brightest  ornaments. 
In  1636,    he  was  raised   by   Pdchelieu  to  the   Bishop- 

GODWIN.  3^9 

ric  of  Grasse,  which  he  relinquished  for  that  of  Vence. 
He  was  an  active  prelate,  attentive  to  the  duties  of  his 
station,  and  exemplary  in  every  part  of  his  conduct.  He 
died  in  167-2.  The  most  important  of  his  productions 
is,  The  History  of  the  Church,  from  the  Commencement 
of  the  World  to  the  end  of  the  ninth  century,  5  vols,  fol. 
He  had  laboured  on  a  continuation  of  this  work ;  but  as 
his  MSS.  were  left  in  a  very  unfinished  state,  they  have 
not  been  committed  to  the  press.  This  is  the  first  eccle- 
siastical history  written  in  the  French  language ;  and 
the  following  character  of  the  work  is  given  by  Mr.  Dow- 
ling  : — "  Though  he  adhered  pretty  closely  to  the  method 
of  Baronius,  and  was  no  doubt  chiefly  indebted  to  him 
for  his  materials,  his  conception  of  his  subject  was  in 
some  degree  original,  and  his  work  was  distinguished  by 
some  important  peculiarities  It  bore  the  impress  of  the 
author's  mind,  and  was  accordingly  religious,  moderate, 
and  candid.  Though  written  to  exhibit  a  popular  view 
of  the  subject,  and  excluding  therefore  inquiries  interest- 
ing only  to  scholars,  it  probably  exercised  considerable  in- 
fluence on  the  future  cultivation  of  Church  history.  It 
seems  to  possess  the  merit  of  having  introduced  to  the 
Roman  Catholics  a  peculiarity  which  the  Centuriators 
had  long  before  made  familiar  to  Protestants,  and  first 
shown  them  how  greatly  the  history  of  God's  dealings 
with  His  Church  is  calculated  to  minister  to  the  personal 
edification  of  the  believer." 

It  is  said  that  the  fidelity  of  the  first  volume  exposed 
the  author  to  a  charge  of  heresy ;  and  that  the  intelligi- 
ble threats  of  a  powerful  ecclesiastic  induced  him  to  write 
the  rest  of  his  work  with  less  impartiality. — Diqnn. 
Niceron.    Dowling. 


Francis  Godwin,  was  born  at  Havington,  in  Nor- 
thamptonshire, in  1561,  and  educated  at  Christ  Church, 

330  GODWIN. 

Oxford,  of  wliicli  house  he  became  a  student  in  1578. 
He  was  rector  of  Samford  Orcais,  in  Somersetshire,  pre- 
bendary of  Wilts,  and  subdean  of  Exeter.  Similarity 
of  j)ursuits  made  him  acquainted  with  Camden,  whom 
he  accompanied  in  an  excursion  into  Wales  in  search  of 
antiquities;  but  while  he  left  his  friend  to  record  the 
features  of  the  country,  he  turned  his  thoughts  to  the 
history  of  some  of  the  inhabitants,  and  published,  in 
1601,  a  catalogue  of  the  bishops  of  England,  since  the 
first  planting  of  Christianity  in  the  island,  with  an  history 
of  their  lives  and  memorable  actions,  4to.  This  valuable 
work,  to  which  reference  has  been  frequently  made  in 
these  pages,  gained  him  the  friendship  of  Lord  Buck- 
hurst,  and  the  patronage  of  Elizabeth,  who  made  him 
Bishop  of  Llandaff.  In  1615  he  published  a  second 
edition  of  his  work,  which,  however,  was  so  erroneously 
printed,  from  his  distance  from  the  press,  that  he  gave 
another  edition  in  Latin,  dedicated  to  James  L,  who  was 
so  pleased  with  it,  that  he  translated  Godwin  to  the 
see  of  Hereford,  in  1617.  He  died  in  1683.  After  his 
death  was  published,  in  1638,  the  Man  in  the  Moon, 
by  Domingo  Gonsales,  8vo ;  an  entertaining  piece  on  a 
philosophical  subject,  which  he  had  written  in  1583. 
He  wrote  also.  Annals  of  the  reigns  of  Henry  VIIL, 
Edward  YI.  and  Mary,  in  Latin,  the  third  edition  of 
which  was  published  in  1630,  with  an  English  transla- 
tion by  his  son  Morgan ;  also  a  computation  of  the  value 
of  the  Attic  talent  and  Roman  Sesterce;  and  Nunciatus 
Inanimatus,  or  the  Inanimate  Messenger. — Biog.  Brit. 


Thomas  Godwin  was  born  at  Ockingham  in  Berkshire, 
in  1517,  and  educated  at  Magdalen  College,  Oxford,  of 
which  he  became  fellow  in  1544.  In  the  controversies 
of  the  day,  he  sided  with  the  reformers,  and  when  he 

GOMAR.  331 

quitted  Oxford,  became  master  of  the  grammar-school 
at  Brackley,  in  Northamptonshire,  where  he  lived  in 
comfortable  independence  in  the  reign  of  Edward  VI. 
At  the  accession  of  Mary,  he  was  exposed  to  persecution, 
and  leaving  his  school  he  began  to  practice  phjsic,  and 
took  his  bachelor's  degree  at  Oxford  in  1555.  On  Eliza- 
beth's accession  he  took  orders,  and  by  the  friendship  of 
BuUingham,  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  he  was  introduced  to  the 
queen,  who  admired  his  eloquence  in  the  pulpit,  and  re- 
warded him  with  the  deanery  of  Christ  Church,  in  1565, 
and  that  of  Canterbury  the  next  year.  In  1584  he  was 
made  Bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells,  being  succeeded  at  Can- 
terbury by  Dr.  Richard  Rogers,  Suffragan  Bishop  of 
Dover.  Bishop  Godwin  soon  after  fell  under  the  queen's 
displeasure,  for  taking  a  second  wife.  He  died  in  1590. 
Godwin.   Strype.  Fuller. 


Thomas  Godwin  was  born  in  Somersetshire  in  1587, 
and  educated  at  Magdalen  Hall,  Oxford,  where  he  took 
the  degree  of  M.A.  in  1609,  and  that  year  he  was  elected 
master  of  Royse's  free  school,  in  Abingdon.  He  wrote 
for  the  use  of  his  school,  RomanaB  Historioe  Anthologia, 
1613,  4to;  and  in  1616  published  at  Oxford  his  Synop- 
sis Antiquitatum  Hebraicarum,  &c.,  dedicated  to  his 
patron  Montague,  Bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells.  In  1661 
he  obtained  from  his  patron  the  rectoiy  of  Brightwell,  in 
Berkshire,  and  resigned  his  school.  In  1637  he  pub- 
lished his  Moses  and  Aaron.  He  died  in  the  spring  of 
1643.  He  was,  on  account  of  his  book  called  Three 
Arguments  to  prove  Election  upon  Foresight,  by  Faith, 
engaged  in  a  controversy  with  Dr.  Twisse  of  Newbury. — 
Biog.  Brit. 


It  will  not  be  necessary  to  enter  into  a  detailed  account 

33'2  GOMAR. 

of  this  polemic,  as  the  history  of  the  x\rminian  contro- 
versy has  already  been  given  under  the  articles  of  Armin- 
ius  and  Episcopius.  He  was  born  in  1563  at  Bruges, 
and  educated  at  Strasburg  under  the  celebrated  John 
Sturmius,  and  at  Neustadt,  where  the  professors  of  Hei- 
delberg found  a  refuge  when  Lewis,  the  elector  pala- 
tine, had  banished  them.  In  1582  he  came  to  England, 
and  attended  at  Oxford  the  divinity  lectures  of  Dr.  John 
Rainolds,  and  at  Cambridge  those  of  Dr.  William  Whit- 
taker,  and  at  this  latter  university  he  was  admitted  to  the 
degree  of  B.D.  in  ]584.  The  elector  Lewis  dying  in 
1583,  Prince  Casimir,  his  brother,  restored  the  professors 
of  Heidelberg,  to  which  place  Goraar  returned  from  Cam- 
bridge, and  spent  two  years  there.  In  1587  he  became 
pastor  of  the  Flemish  church  at  Frankfort,  and  exercised 
the  functions  of  that  office  until  1593,  and  in  the  follow- 
ing year  he  was  appointed  professor  of  divinity  at  Leyden. 
Here  he  remained  quietly  until  1603,  when  he  became 
the  zealous  opponent  of  his  colleague  Arminius. 

Arminius,  as  is  well  known,  opposed,  and  Gomar 
defended  the  heresies  and  peculiarities  of  Calvin,  and  as 
is  usual  with  Calvinists,  though  it  is  difficult  to  assign  a 
reason  why  it  should  be  so,  Gomar  displayed  a  most  vio- 
lent, virulent,  and  intolerant  spirit.  It  is  difficult  to 
understand  why  the  private  judgment  of  Gomar  should 
be  infallibly  right,  and  that  of  Arminius  wrong,  but 
Gomar  endeavoured  by  various  publications  to  excite  the 
indignation  of  the  states  of  Holland  against  his  rival. 

The  combatants  disputed  before  the  states  in  1608, 
(see  Arminius.)  On  one  of  these  occasions,  Barnevelt,  in 
a  short  address  to  them,  declared  that  he  thanked  God 
their  contentions  did  not  affect  the  fundamental  articles 
of  the  Christian  religion;  Gomar  replied,  that  "  he  would 
not  appear  before  the  throne  of  God  with  Arminius's 
errors,"  by  which  protestation  he  virtually  assumed  his 
own  infallibility. 

On  the  death  of  Arminius,  Vorstius  having  succeeded 


him,  and  holding  the  same  tenets,  Gomar  in  1609  retired 
to  Middleburg,  whence  he  was  invited  by  the  university 
of  Saumur  to  be  professor  of  divinity,  and  four  years 
after  he  exchanged  this  office  for  the  professorship  of 
divinity  and  Hebrew  at  Groningen.  He  attended  the 
synod  of  Dort  in  1618,  where  he  took  an  active  part  in 
procuring  the  unjust  and  persecuting  decrees  by  which  that 
assembly  of  Calvinists  procured  the  condemnation  of  the 
Arminians.  He  visited  Leyden  in  1633,  to  revise  the 
translation  of  the  Old  Testament.  He  died  at  Groningen 
in  1641.  His  works  were  published  at  Amsterdam  in 
1645,  fol. — Bayle.     Moreri.   Mosheim. 


Christopher  Goodman  was  born  at  Chester  about 
1520,  and  educated  at  Brazennose  College,  Oxford.  In 
1547  he  was  constituted  one  of  the  senior  students  of 
Christ  Church,  of  the  foundation  of  Henry  VIII.  About 
the  end  of  the  reign  of  king  Edward  VI.,  he  was  admitted 
to  the  reading  of  the  sentences,  and  chosen  divinity  lec- 
turer of  the  university.  On  the  accession  of  Queen  Mary 
he  retired  to  Frankfort,  where  he  became  involved  in  dis- 
putes with  those  of  the  English  exiles  who  adhered  to 
the  model  of  the  Church  of  England,  as  set  forth  in  the 
book  of  Common  Prayer,  (see  life  of  Knox.)  He  thus 
became  one  of  the  chief  founders  of  the  Puritan  heresy. 
He  united  with  Knox  in  contending  that  "  a  lady  woman 
cannot  be  by  God  a  governor  in  a  christian  realm."  They 
also  maintained,  that  it  is  lawful  for  any  private  person 
to  kill  his  sovereign,  if  he  think  him  a  tyrant  in  his  con- 
science. From  Frankfort  he  went  to  Geneva,  where  he 
and  John  Knox  were  chosen  pastors  of  the  English  Church, 
and  remained  there  until  the  death  of  Queen  Mary.  He 
assisted  Knox  in  compiling  The  Book  of  Common  Order, 

VOL  V.  3  H 

334  GOODMAN. 

which  was  used  as  a  directory  of  worship,  and  he  is  said 
to  have  taken  a  part  in  the  Genevan  translation  of  the 
Bible.  On  the  accession  of  queen  Elizabeth,  he  went  to 
Scotland,  where, "in  1500,  he  was  appointed  minister  of 
St.  Andrew's.  About  1565  he  removed  to  England,  and 
accompanied  Sir  Henry  Sidney  in  his  expedition  against 
the  rebels  in  Ireland.  In  1571  he  was  cited  before  Arch- 
bishop Parker,  for  having  published,  during  his  exile,  a 
book  answering  the  question.  How  far  superior  powers 
ought  to  be  obeyed  of  their  subjects,  and  wherein  they 
may  be  lawfully,  by  God's  word,  obeyed  and  resisted  ? 
This  had  been  written  against  the  tyrannical  proceedings 
of  Mary ;  but  he  consented  to  a  recantation,  and  an 
avowal  of  his  loyalty  to  Elizabeth.  He  afterwards  be- 
came preacher  at  Chester,  where  he  died  in  1601,  or 
1602.     He  wrote  A  Commentary  on  Amos. 


Godfrey  Goodman  was  born  at  Ruthven  in  Denbigh- 
shire, and  educated  at  Westminster  School,  and  at  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge.  In  1607  he  got  the  living  of  Staple- 
ford  Abbots,  in  Essex;  in  1617  a  canonry  of  Windsor ; 
in  1620  the  deanery  of  Rochester;  and  in  1625  the 
Bishopric  of  Gloucester. 

On  the  fifth  Sunday  in  Lent  he  preached  a  sermon 
before  King  Charles  I.,  of  which  the  following  account 
is  taken  from  Lawson's  Life  of  Laud. 

"  The  sermon  made  an  uproar  at  court,  especially 
among  the  Puritan  zealots,  because  it  was  conceived  to 
teach  covertly  the  doctrine  of  the  real  presence  in  the 
communion,  or  at  least  something  which  had  a  leaning 
that  way.  It  excited  a  dispute  in  the  convocation,  with- 
out calling  forth  any  decision.  The  king  took  the  matter 
into  consideration,  and  commanded  Archbishop  Abbot, 

GOODMAN.  335 

the  Bishops  of  Durham  and  Winchester,  and  Bishop 
Laud,  to  meet  and  consult  about  the  matter.  The  decision 
was,  (and  it  ought  to  be  recollected  that  Abbot  was  one  of 
the  commission,)  'that  some  things  were  spoken  less 
cautiously,  but  nothing  falsely :  that  nothing  was  inno- 
vated by  the  preacher  against  the  doctrine  of  the  Church 
of  England ;  and  that  the  best  way  to  remove  any  im- 
pression was,  that  the  sermon  should  be  again  preached, 
and  Bishop  Goodman  would  then  shew  in  what  particu- 
lars he  was  misunderstood  by  his  audience.'  This  was 
accordingly  done ;  and  here  the  matter  terminated. 

"  It  is  a  well  known  fact,  that  at  this  period  there  existed 
much  error  among  the  Puritans  respecting  the  holy  com- 
munion, and  they  had  unhappily  adopted  the  same 
opinions  as  many  of  the  modern  dissenters,  of  reducing 
both  it  and  the  holy  sacrament  of  baptism  into  mere  rites 
or  symbols.  For,  though  the  real  corporeal  presence  of 
Christ  in  the  communion  is  an  error  of  the  Papists  to  be 
rejected,  inasmuch  as  it  is  contrary  to  the  general  sense 
of  Scripture,  and  renders  the  one  great  atonement  of 
Christ  inefficacious,  yet  even  in  the  missal,  the  construc- 
tion, not  the  language,  is  objectionable.  It  is  there 
stated,  that  the  bread  and  wine  may  be  to  us,  the  body 
and  blood  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  which  language 
justly  implies  a  worthy  communicating:  and  hence,  in 
opposition  to  the  received  Popish  doctrine,  and  the  irre- 
verent notions  of  dissenters,  those  elements  are  not  mere 
signs,  but  holy  mysteries,  which,  to  those  who  worthily 
and  reverently  receive  them,  become  by  faith  the  body 
and  blood  of  Christ,  (not,  however,  transubstantiated,) 
as  St.  Paul  himself  teaches,  1  Cor.  x. ;  and  hence,  more- 
over, in  the  language  of  the  Church,  we  '  feed  on  Christ 
by  faith,'  and  we  receive  as  '  spiritual  food  the  body  and 
blood  of  Christ.'  It  is  indeed  a  modern  tenet,  that  the 
sacrament  is  a  bare  sign,  taken  in  remembrance  of  Christ's 
passion ;  but  this  tenet  is  lamentable  and  dangerous,  and 


tends  to  undermine  that  reverence  with  which  those  holy 
mysteries  ought  to  be  received." 

Bishop  Goodman  was  however  an  extreme  man,  and  a 
Komanizer,  as  will  appear  from  the  following  anecdote. 
In  1640,  the  new  Canons  were  set  forth,  which  he  refused 
to  subscribe,  "  and  it  appeared  afterwards,"  says  Fuller, 
"  that  he  scrapled  about  some  passages  on  the  corporeal 
presence,  but  whether  upon  Popish  or  Lutheran  principles 
he  best  knoweth."  Laud,  then  Archbishop,  after  the 
clergy  had  subscribed,  advised  him  "  to  avoid  obstinacy 
and  irregularity  therein,  but  he  refused."  It  was  in 
Henry  VII. 's  Chapel,  and  being  greatly  offended,  Laud 
said  to  him,  "  My  Lord  of  Gloucester,  I  admonish  you  to 
subscribe."  Goodman  remained  silent,  and  Laud  again 
said,  "  My  Lord  of  Gloucester,  I  do  admonish  you  a  second 
time  to  subscribe,"  and  immediately  after,  "I  do  admonish 
you  a  third  time  to  subscribe."  Goodman  "pleaded  con- 
science" and  was  in  consequence  suspended.  He  was 
committed  to  the  Gatehouse,  "where,"  says  Fuller,  "he 
got  by  this  restraint  what  he  could  never  have  got  by  his 
liberty,  namely,  of  one  reputed  a  Papist,  to  become  for  a 
short  time  popular,  as  the  only  consequent  suffering  for 
not  subscribing  to  the  new  canons." 

After  this,  and  during  the  rebellion,  he  lived  privately 
in  Westminster,  and  spent  much  of  his  time  in  researches 
in  the  Cottonian  Library.  He  died  January  19th,  1665, 
as  it  is  said,  in  open  profession  of  popery.  He  wrote 
1.  The  fall  of  Man,  and  Corruption  of  Nature,  proved  by 
Reason.  2.  Arguments  and  Animadversions  on  Dr.  George 
Hakewil's  apology  for  Divine  Providence.  3.  The  two 
Mysteries  of  the  Christian  Religion,  viz.  the  Trinity  and 
the  Incarnation  Explicated.  4.  An  Account  of  His  Suf- 
ferings. 5.  The  Court  of  King  James,  by  Sir  Anthony 
Weldon,  reviewed,  a  MS.  in  the  Bodleian.   Fuller.  Lawson. 


Thomas  Goodkich  was   the   second   son   of  Edward 


Goodrich,  of  East  Kirkby,  in  Lincolnshire.  He  was 
admitted  pensioner  of  Bene't  College,  Cambridge,  soon 
after  1500,  became  fellow  of  Jesus  College  in  1510,  com- 
menced M.  A.  in  1514,  and  the  following  year  was  proc- 
tor of  the  university.  Being  of  a  studious  turn,  he  made 
great  proficiency  in  several  branches  of  learning,  particu- 
larly in  the  civil  and  canon  laws.  In  1529,  he  was 
appointed  one  of  the  syndics  to  return  an  answer  from 
the  university  of  Cambridge,  concerning  the  lawfulness 
of  King  Henry  VIII. 's  marriage  with  Queen  Catherine  : 
and  from  his  readiness  to  obhge  the  king  in  that  business, 
was  recommended  to  his  royal  favour.  He  was  presented 
to  the  rectory  of  St.  Peter's  Cheap,  in  London,  by  Car- 
dinal Wolsey,  at  that  time  commendatory  of  the  monas- 
tery of  St.  Alban's ;  and  soon  after  was  made  canon  of 
St.  Stephen's,  Westminster,  and  chaplain  to  the  king. 
On  the  death  of  Dr.  West,  Bishop  of  Ely,  his  nephew 
and  godson.  Dr.  Nicholas  Hawkins,  Archdeacon  of  Ely, 
at  that  time  the  king's  ambassador  in  foreign  parts,  was 
designed  to  succeed  him ;  but  he  dying  before  his  conse- 
cration could  be  effected,  the  king  granted  his  licence  to 
to  the  prior  and  convent,  dated  March  6th,  1534,  to 
choose  themselves  a  bishop ;  who  immediately  elected  in 
their  chapter-house  the  17th  of  the  same  month,  Thomas 
Goodrich,  S.T.P.,  which  was  confirmed  by  the  archbishop, 
April  13th  following,  in  the  parish  church  of  Croydon. 

Being  a  zealous  promoter  of  the  reformation,  soon  after 
his  arrival  he  visited  the  prior  and  convent  of  Ely ;  and 
next  year  sent  a  mandate  to  all  the  clergy  of  his  diocese, 
dated  at  Somersham,  June  27th,  1535,  with  orders  to 
erase  the  name  of  the  pope  out  of  all  their  books,  and  to 
publish  in  their  churches  that  the  pope  had  no  further 
authority  in  this  kingdom.  This  mandate  is  printed  in 
Bentham's  "History  of  Ely  Cathedral,"  together  with 
his  injunctions,  dated  from  Ely,  Oct.  21st,  1541,  to  the 
clergy,"  to  see  that  all  images,  relics,  table-monuments 


of  miracles,  shrines,  &c.,  be  so  totally  demolished  and 
obliterated,  with  all  speed  and  diligence,  that  no  remains 
or  memory  might  be  found  of  them  for  the  future." 
These  injunctions  were  so  completely  executed  in  his 
cathedral,  and  other  churches  in  the  diocese  of  Ely,  that 
no  traces  remain  of  many  famous  shrines  and  altars, 
which  formerly  were  the  objects  of  frequent  resort,  nor 
any  signs  at  all  that  they  had  ever  existed. 

In  1540  he  was  appointed  by  the  convocation  to  be 
one  of  the  revisers  of  the  translation  of  the  New  Testa- 
ment, and  St.  John's  gospel  was  allotted  to  his  share. 
He  was  also  named  one  of  the  commissioners  for  reform- 
ing the  ecclesiastical  laws,  both  by  Henry  VIII.  and 
Edward  VI.,  as  well  as  by  the  university  of  Cambridge; 
and  had  a  hand  in  compiling  the  "  Common  Prayer 
Book"  of  the  Church  of  England,  1548;  and  likewise, 
•'  The  Institution  of  a  Christian  Man,"  which  was  called 
the  Bishop's  Book,  as  being  composed  by  Archbishop 
Cranmer,  and  the  Bishops  Stokesly,  Gardiner,  Sampson, 
Repps,  Goodrich,  Latimer,  Shaxton,  Fox,  Barlow,  &c. 
Besides  this,  he  was  of  the  privy  council  to  King  Henry 
VIII.  and  Edward  VI.,  and  employed  by  them  in  several 
embassies,  and  other  business  of  the  state. 

After  the  death  of  King  Henry,  he  was  sworn  of  the 
privy  council,  and  in  1551  was  made  lord  chancellor  of 
England.  Downes  observes,  that  on  this  occasion  he 
was  much  abused  by  Dr.  Burnet,  who,  not  content  with 
a  large  invective  against  him  for  accepting  a  post,  so  in- 
consistent with  the  function  and  duty  of  a  clergyman,  as 
he  pretends,  goes  on  to  load  his  memory  with  a  heavy 
accusation  of  inconstancy  in  religion,  turning  with  every 
tide,  and  resolving  not  to  suffer  for  the  reformation  in 
queen  Mary's  reign.  But  this  is  a  most  malicious  and 
groundless  charge,  a  base  and  unworthy  slander  on  a 
person  to  whom  our  reformed  Church  is  so  much  indebted. 
And  had  Dr.  Burnet  been  but  as  free  from  those  crimes 

GOODWIN.  339 

as  the  worthy  prelate,  whom  he  so  scurrilously  reflects 
on,  he  had  left  a  much  fairer  character  behind  him,  and 
been  in  greater  repute  with  impartial  posterity  than  he 
is  now  ever  likely  to  be. 

But  to  return  to  Bishop  Goodrich,  While  chancellor 
he  was  admired  by  all  for  his  impartial  distribution  of 
justice;  he  had  the  blessings  and  prayers  of  the  poor, 
and  the  favour  and  esteem  of  the  rich  :  his  greatest  ene- 
mies could  not  but  acknowledge  him  gentle,  just,  and 
gracious ;  and  his  most  intimate  friends,  when  they 
brought  a  bad  cause  before  him,  found  him  inflexible, 
severe,  and  unprejudiced.  Having  a  great  esteem  for 
Bishop  Day  s  learning,  he  laboured  earnestly  to  reduce 
him  from  his  prejudices,  and  dispose  him  to  a  favourable 
opinion  of  the  Reformation ;  but  could  do  no  good  on  a 
man  so  wilful  and  obstinate.  He  was  one  of  those,  who 
drew  up  that  excellent  book,  the  Reformation  of  Ecclesiasti- 
cal Laws.  At  the  request  of  King  Edward,  he  put  the 
great  seal  to  the  Instrument  for  the  succession  of  the  Lady 
Jane  Grey.  This  was  the  reason,  why  upon  the  fall  of 
that  lady,  the  great  seal  was  taken  from  him  within  two 
days  after  Queen  Mary  came  to  London.  And  though  it 
was  thought  fit,  for  the  present,  to  let  him  enjoy  the 
benefit  of  the  general  pardon  ;  yet  there  is  no  question  to 
be  made,  but  that  he  would,  amongst  the  rest  of  the  mar- 
tyrs, have  been  brought  to  the  stake  for  his  religion,  had 
it  not  pleased  God  to  prevent  it,  by  taking  him  to  himself, 
on  the  10th  of  May,  1554.  He  died  at  Somersham,  of  the 
stone,  and  lies  buried  in  the  middle  of  the  Presbytery. 
Dowries.   Strype. 


John  Goodwin,  a  sectary,  was  born  in  1593,  and  edu- 
cated at  Queen's  College,  Cambridge.    In  1633  he  became 


vicar  of  St.  Stephen's,  Coleman-street,  London,  from  which 
he  was  ejected  in  1 645,  for  refusing  to  administer  baptism 
and  the  Lord's  supper  promiscuously.  Though  a  zealous 
Arminian  he  justified  the  murder  of  Charles  I. ;  for 
which,  at  the  Restoration,  he  was  exempted  from  pardon ; 
but  no  measures  were  taken  against  him,  and  he  died  in 
1665.  The  principal  of  his  works  is  entitled,  "  Redemp- 
tion redeemed."  folio. — Gen.  Diet. 


Thomas  Goodwin,  a  nonconformist  of  the  independent 
persuasion,  was  brother  of  the  preceding,  and  born  at 
Rolesby,  in  Norfolk,  in  1600.  He  was  of  Christ  College, 
Cambridge,  and  afterwards  of  Catherine  Hall,  where  he 
obtained  a  fellowship ;  but,  in  1634,  he  went  to  Holland, 
and  became  master  of  the  independent  congregation  at 
Arnheim.  When  parliament  put  down  the  Church,  he 
returned,  was  made  a  member  of  the  Westminster  assem- 
bly, and  president  of  Magdalen  College,  Oxford.  He  was 
a  great  favourite  with  Cromwell,  whom  he  attended  in 
his  last  moments.  At  the  commencement  of  Cromwell's 
illness,  Goodwin  was  heard  to  express  himself  with  pre- 
sumptuous confidence  on  the  traitor's  recovery ;  and  when 
the  event  proved  him  mistaken,  he  did  not  think  it  blas- 
phemy to  exclaim,  in  a  prayer  to  God,  "  Thou  hast  de- 
ceived us,  and  we  are  deceived." 

At  the  Restoration  he  was  deprived  of  his  place  at 
Oxford,  on  which  he  removed  to  London,  and  died  in 
1675.  His  works,  which  are  rigidly  Calvinistic,  were 
printed  in  5  vols,  folio. — Gen.  Diet. 


GoTTESCHALCHus,   othcrwisc   named   Fulgentius,   was 


born  about  806,  in  that  part  of  Germany  which  had 
been  annexed  to  France,  by  the  arms  of  Charlemagne. 
He  went  at  an  early  age  to  Paris,  in  order  to  study; 
he  entered  a  Benedictine  convent  at  Arbais,  in  the  dio- 
cese of  Soissons.  Gifted  with  a  brilliant  imagination, 
a  strong  wall,  and  ambition  without  bound,  he  was 
soon  distinguished  in  the  cloister  for  his  paradoxes,  his 
love  of  novelty,  his  zeal  for  science,  his  bold  opinions, 
and  above  all,  for  the  warmth  with  which  he  supported 

At  this  period,  St.  Augustine  was  the  father  most  con- 
sulted; his  doctrine,  often  sublime,  and  sometimes  ob- 
scure, offered  the  most  subjects  of  admiration  to  the 
learned,  and  the  greatest  quantity  of  matter  for  contro- 
versy. His  works  were  the  favourite  study  of  all  eccle- 
siastics ;  the  learned  young  men  occupied  their  time  in 
copying  them  out,  the  professors  in  expounding,  and  the 
old  men  in  recommending  them.  Gotteschalchus  passed 
his  life  in  endeavouring  to  understand  them,  and  losing 
himself  in  the  mysterious  questions  which  are  too  often 
to  be  found  in  them.  He  wished  to  explain,  understand, 
and  penetrate  every  thing.  This  extreme  thirst  for  know- 
ledge argues  more  curiosity  than  sense,  and  is  as  contrary 
to  a  truly  scientific  mind,  as  to  the  humility  recommend- 
ed by  religion.  He  one  day  consulted  Loupus,  Abbot 
of  Ferriere,  on  the  question,  w^hether  "  after  the  resur- 
rection, the  blessed  wdll  behold  God  with  their  corporeal 
eyes  ?"  "  Wherefore  do  you  fatigue  your  mind  with  these 
idle  questions  ?"  said  the  abbot,  "  the  time  you  employ 
in  studying  them,  only  serves  to  increase  the  natural 
restlessness  of  your  spirit,  without  adding  to  your  instruc- 
tion." Gotteschalchus  did  not  profit  by  this  salutary 
advice,  he  did  not  fear  increasing  his  natural  restlessness 
by  plunging  deeper  and  deeper  into  the  mysteries  of  pre- 
destination, which  he  believed  to  be  the  doctrine  of  St. 
Augustine,  his  guide  and  model. 


When  he  was  satisfied  with  his  discoveries,  and  believed 
himself  sufficiently  learned  in  what  will  be  ever  hidden 
from  the  eyes  of  men,  he  set  out  on  a  journey :  he  visited 
Piome,  Cesarea,  Alexandria,  and  Constantinople,  every 
where  sowing  his  opinions,  and  only  reaping  disappoint- 
ment. On  his  return  to  Italy,  in  847,  he  had  several 
conferences  with  Nothingus,  Bishop  of  Verona,  on  the 
subject  of  his  doctrines ;  and  this  prelate,  unreasonably 
alarmed  at  the  novelty  of  the  principles  put  before  him, 
thought  it  his  duty  to  combat  them  with  the  arms  of 
religion,  and  after  having  vainly  endeavoured  to  convince 
him  of  his  danger,  he  referred  him  to  Raban,  Archbishop 
of  Mayence.  He  judged,  as  Nothingus  had  done,  that 
Gotteschalchus  taught  a  dangerous  and  fatal  predestin- 
arianism,  that  is  to  say,  the  doctrine  that  God  had,  from 
all  eternity,  predestinated  men  to  their  salvation  or  dam- 
nation ;  which  doctrine  takes  away  man's  liberty,  destroys 
all  idea  of  good  and  evil,  and  reduces  the  human  will  to 
a  kind  of  automaton.  Such  a  doctrine  would  have  been 
highly  dangerous,  but  it  is  doubtful  whether  Gotteschal- 
chus held  it.  It  is  probable,  on  the  contrary,  that  what 
he  wished  to  say  was  not  understood,  and  that  the 
danger  of  his  principles  was  exaggerated,  in  order  to 
sanction  his  punishment.  It  is  also  very  likely  that,  in 
the  heat  of  debate,  both  parties  overstated  their  system, 
and  at  length  grew  more  bitter  as  they  understood  each 
other  less.  It  was  the  same  when,  towards  the  end  of 
the  seventeenth  century,  similar  questions  were  revived, 
and  similar  animosities  and  controversies  presented  a 
spectacle  humiliating  to  the  human  mind,  of  a  deadly 
combat  between  two  bodies,  celebrated  for  their  learning, 
and  debased  by  their  passions. 

Gotteschalchus  hearing  that  Raban  had  declared  against 
him,  went  to  Mayence  in  order  to  see  him,  in  the  hope 
of  being  able  to  undeceive  or  convert  him ;  but  he  was 
unsuccessful.      After   several  useless   conferences,   they 


wrote  against  each  other;  and  in  one  of  his  writings, 
Gotteschalchus,  drawn  on  by  his  subject,  accuses  his 
adversary  of  Semi-pelagianism.  The  bishop,  offended  by 
this  recrimination,  assembled  a  council,  to  which  he  cited 
Gotteschalchus ;  and  forgetful  that,  as  a  party  concerned 
in  the  affair,  he  could  not  act  as  judge,  condemned  him 
as  a  heretic,  and  sent  him  for  justice  to  the  Archbishop 
of  Rheims,  Hincmar,  his  proper  judge,  and  to  whom  he 
w^rote  a  synodal  letter,  very  animated,  and  consequently 
not  very  charitable  tow-ards  the  accused.  The  letter  con- 
cluded with  these  words,  "  We  send  to  you  this  vagabond 
monk,  in  order  that  you  may  shut  him  up  in  his  convent, 
and  prevent  him  from  propagating  his  false,  heretical, 
and  scandalous  doctrine."  Hincmar  was  one  of  tlie  most 
learned  men  of  his  time,  but  he  w^as  also  the  vainest  of 
his  knowledge,  and  the  most  fiery.  He  was  delighted  to 
have  an  occasion  for  showing  his  talent  for  controversy, 
and  his  zeal  for  the  Church.  Having  ordered  Gottes- 
chalchus to  appear  before  him,  he  questioned  him,  and 
found  him  to  be  firm  to  his  principles ;  from  that  time 
he  became  his  irreconcilable  enemy.  He  assembled  a 
council  of  thirteen  bishops  at  the  Castle  of  Quiercy,  in 
Picardy,  to  which  he  invited  Charles-le-Chanoe,  and  had 
the  doctrine  of  Gotteschalchus  examined  before  that 
prince.  This  latter,  condemned  already  by  his  judges, 
who  were  all  prejudiced  against  him,  was  not  allowed  to 
defend  himself,  or  his  reasons  were  not  listened  to  ;  he 
w^as  condemned  as  a  heretic,  suspended  from  the  sacerdotal 
office,  declared  incapable  of  teaching,  and  unworthy  of 
liberty,  cruelly  flogged  before  the  king  and  bishops,  and 
shut  up  for  the  remainder  of  his  life  in  the  Abbey  of 
Hautvillers.  Such  barbarous  treatment,  far  from  restor- 
ing Gotteschalchus  to  the  Church,  only  revolted  his  proud 
and  independent  spirit,  and  confirmed  him  in  his  opin- 
ions, w^hether  good  or  bad.  He  would  not  listen  to  any 
agreement  with  such  prejudiced  men.     He  bore  his  sen- 


tence  with  courage,  and  preferred  death  to  a  huEQiliating 

He  died  in  prison  in  808.     When  he  was  at  the  point 
of  death,  the  monks  who  had  the  care  of  him,  gave  notice 
of  it  to  Hincmar,  and  asked  him  how  they  w^ere  to  treat 
him.     Hincmar  had  the  cruelty  to  send  to  Gotteschal- 
chus  a  formulary  of  faith,  with  an  order  to  sign  it,  on 
pain  of  being  deprived  of  the  last  sacraments,   and  of 
ecclesiastical  burial.     Gotteschalchus  rejected  it  with  in- 
dignation, and  Hincmar  s  order  was  executed  in  all  its 
rigour:    nevertheless  the  treatment  he  had  undergone 
was  censured  by  a  large  portion  of  the  clergy  of  France. 
Loupus,  Abbot  of  Ferriere,   St.   Fulgentius,   Bishop  of 
Troys,  St.  Remi,  Bishop  of  Lyons,  highly  disapproved  of 
it.      St.   Remi  among  others  said,  and  repeated  many 
times,  that  heretics  had  formerly  been  censured,  not  by 
blows,   but  by  reasoning.     Rabican,   a  monk  of  Corby, 
published  an  apology  for  Gotteschalchus,  and  proved,  as 
far  as  it  could  be  proved,  that  the  doctrine  he  had  pro- 
fessed was  that  of  St.  Augustine,  and  had  always  been 
that  of  the  Catholic  Church.     Hincmar,  on  his  i)art,  did 
not  fail  to  answer ;  he  justified  his  opinion  by  passages 
from  the  fathers,  susceptible  of  various  interpretations, 
and  his  conduct  by  his  devotion  to  the  holy  see.     In  one 
of  the  memorials  which  be  published  on  this  subject,  he 
accuses  Gotteschalchus  of  having  been  all  his  life  a  ms- 
tic,  a  restless  monk,  and  a  paradoxical  scholar,  and  he  as- 
serts that  this  was  his  character  in  his  cloister.    Yet  if  we 
may  believe  some  of  his  most  illustrious  contemporaries, 
this  unfortunate  heretic  had  much  wit  and  learning,  but 
these  qualities  were  spoiled  by  his  great  self-love,  and  his 
invincible  obstinacy.     Archbishop  Usher  published  a  life 
of  Gotteschalchus,  Dublin,  1631,  in  quarto,  and  this  has 
been  said  to  be  the  first  Latin  book  printed  in  Ireland. 
It  was  reprinted  at  Hanau,  in  1G62,  8vo. — Gallais.  Biog. 

GRABE.  345 


John  Ernest  Grabe  was  born  at  KoDigsberg  in 
Prussia,  in  the  university  of  which  place  his  father  was 
professor  of  divinity  and  history.  There  Grabe  received 
his  education.  After  graduating  in  arts  he  devoted  him- 
self with  great  zeal  to  theological  studies,  in  which,  after 
Scripture,  the  early  fathers  engaged  his  chief  attention. 
Hence  he  became  deeply  imbued  with  reverence  for  the 
primitive  government  of  the  Church,  and  saw  the  neces- 
sity of  the  Apostolical  succession.  The  Church  he  conceiv- 
ed to  be  the  mystical  body  of  Christ,  in  union  with  its 
divine  Head,  the  one  Mediator  between  God  and  man : 
union  with  the  Church  he  thought  to  be  effected  by  the 
due  reception  of  the  sacraments ;  the  sacraments  he  per- 
ceived could  only  be  duly  administered  by  those  who  had 
authority  from  the  Lord  Christ ;  and  it  is  only  by  the 
Apostolical  succession,  as  he  believed,  that  such  authority 
could  be  proved.  This  he  did  not  find  among  the  Luther- 
ans, and  the  want  of  it  he  regarded  as  a  fatal  imperfec- 
tion, and  one  which  forfeited  on  their  part  all  claim  to 
catholicity.  This  conviction  so  powerfully  pressed  upon 
his  mind  that  at  length  he  thought  himself  obliged,  in 
conscience,  to  quit  Lutheranism,  the  religion  in  which  he 
had  been  bred,  and  enter  the  Roman  Church,  where  that 
succession  was  preserved.  Accordingly  he  gave  in  to  the 
electoral  college  at  Sambia,  in  Prussia,  a  memorial,  con- 
taining the  reasons  for  his  change,  in  1695,  and  there- 
upon he  left  Konigsberg.  While  he  was  on  the  road  to 
Erfurt,  there  were  presented  to  him  three  treatises  in 
answer  to  his  memorial,  written  respectively  by  Philip 
James  Spener,  Bernard  van  Sanden,  and  John  William 
Baier,  three  Lutheran  divines,  whom  the  elector  of  Bran- 
denburg had  commanded  to  reply  to  Grabe's  memorial. 
Staggered  by  the  arguments  contained  in  these  treatises, 
Grabe  immediately  sought  a  personal  interview  with 
VOL.    v.  2  I 

346  GRABE. 

Spener,  who,  having  failed  in  his  attempts  to  remove  his 
scruples  respecting  the  Lutheran  communion,  sought  to 
prevail  upon  him  at  least  to  relinquish  his  design  of 
going  among  the  Papists.  "  In  England,"  saj's  this 
friend,  "you  will  meet  with  the  outward  and  uninter- 
rupted succession  which  you  require;  take  your  route 
thither :  this  step  will  give  much  less  dissatisfaction  to 
your  friends,  and  at  the  same  time  equally  satisfy  your 
conscience."  Moved  by  Spener  s  recommendation,  he 
came  to  England,  where  he  w^as  well  received  by  William 
III.,  who  settled  upon  him  a  pension  of  £100  a-year. 
In  1700  he  was  ordained  a  deacon,  and  was  presented  to 
a  chaplaincy  of  Christ  Church,  Oxford,  which  was  the 
only  ecclesiastical  appointment  he  ever  held.  Upon  the 
accession  of  Queen  Anne  his  pension  was  continued ; 
and  in  1706  the  university  of  Oxford  conferred  upon  him 
the  degree  of  D.D. 

Of  his  numerous  works  the  most  celebrated  is  his 
edition  of  the  Septuagint,  the  text  of  which  is  founded 
upon  the  Alexandrine  MS.  then  in  St.  James's  library, 
but  now  in  the  British  Museum.  The  first  volume, 
printed  at  Oxford  in  1707,  contains  the  Pentateuch  and 
the  three  following  books.  The  second  volume  was  to 
contain  all  the  historical  books  of  the  Old  Testament, 
whether  canonical  or  apocryphal ;  the  third,  all  the  pro- 
phetical books ;  and  the  fourth,  the  Psalms,  the  three 
books  of  Solomon,  &c.  But  after  Grabe  had  begun  to 
print  the  second  volume,  he  was  induced  to  postpone  the 
appearance  of  that,  and  also  of  the  third  volume,  by  the 
expectation  of  being  furnished  v/ith  important  MSS.  and 
other  materials,  which  would  enable  him  to  render  them 
more  complete.  That  no  time  might  be  lost,  however, 
in  expediting  the  whole  work,  he  published  in  1709,  the 
fourth  volume,  Continens  Psalmorum,  Jobi,  ac  tres  Sala- 
monis  Libros,  cum  Apocrypha  ejusdem,  necnon  Siracidae 
Sapientia,  in  fol.  and  8vo.  In  the  following  year  he 
published   a  Latin  dissertation,   giving  a  particular  ac- 

GRABE.  347 

count  of  the  reasons  why  he  had  departed  from  his 
original  order  of  publication,  and  of  the  materials  which 
he  expected  to  receive  in  order  to  perfect  his  plan.  These 
were,  a  Syriac  MS.  of  the  original  books  of  the  Old  Tes- 
tament, with  Origen's  remarks  upon  them ;  and  two 
MSS.,  one  belonging  to  Cardinal  Chigi,  and  the  other  to 
the  college  of  Louis  XIV.  Afterwards  he  received  these 
MSS.  and  made  collations  from  them ;  in  the  mean  while 
he  had  prepared  a  volume  of  annotations  upon  the  whole 
work,  and  also  collected  the  materials  for  the  Prolego- 
mena. It  required,  however,  so  much  time  to  digest  the 
whole  into  proper  method,  that  the  second  and  third 
volumes  were  not  published  until  after  his  death  ;  the 
former  in  1T19,  and  the  latter  in  1720. 

He  also  published  Spicilegium  SS.  Patrum  ;  Justini 
x\pologia  Prima ;  Irenaei  adversus  Hcereses  Libri  V. ; 
Epistola  ad  Millium ;  to  show  that  the  Alexandrian 
MS.  of  the  Septuagint  contains  the  best  version  of  the 
Book  of  Judges,  and  that  the  version  of  the  Vatican 
MS.  is  almost  a  new  one,  made  in  the  third  century ; 
An  Essay  upon  two  Arabic  MSS.  of  the  Bodleian  Library, 
and  the  Book  called  the  Doctrine  of  the  Apostles ;  De 
Forma  Consecrationis  Eucharistise,  hoc  est,  Defensio 
Ecclesiae  Grsecae  contra  Romanam.  He  had  also  pub- 
lished in  1705  a  beautiful  edition  of  Bishop  Bull's 
works,  in  folio,  with  notes,  for  which  he  received  the 
author's  thanks ;  and  he  was  likewise  concerned  in  pre- 
paring for  the  press  Archdeacon  Gregory's  edition  of  the 
New  Testament  in  Greek,  which  was  printed  at  Oxford. 

In  the  meantime  he  met  with  the  misfortune  of  having 
his  reputation  injured  by  the  brightness  of  his  own 
splendour.  The  notorious  William  Whiston  had  not 
only  in  private  discourses,  in  order  to  support  his  own 
cause  by  the  strength  of  Dr.  Grabe's  character,  but  also 
in  public  writings,  plainly  intimated,  "  that  the  doctor 
was  nearly  of  his  mind  about  the  Constitutions  of  the 
Apostles,  ascribed,  though  incorrectly,  to  Clemens  Roma- 

348  GRABE. 

nus,  "  and  that  he  owned  in  general  the  genuine  truth 
and  apostolical  antiquity  of  that  collection."  This 
calumny,  considering  Mr.  Whiston's  custom  of  treating 
others  in  the  same  manner,  which  only  injured  himself, 
was  neglected  by  Grabe  for  some  time,  until  he  understood 
that  the  story  gained  credit,  and  was  actually  believed  by 
several  persons  who  were  acquainted  with  him.  For  that 
reason  he  thought  it  necessary  to  let  the  world  know,  by 
a  public  writing  of  his  own,  that  his  opinion  of  the  Apos- 
tolical Constitutions  was  quite  different,  if  not  opposite, 
to  Mr.  Whiston's  sentiments  about  them,  as  he  did  in 
"  An  Essay  upon  two  Arabic  Manuscripts  in  the  Bodleian 
libraiy,  and  that  ancient  book  called  the  Doctrine  of  the 
Apostles,  which  is  said  to  be  extant  in  them,  wherein 
Mr.  Whiston's  mistakes  about  both  are  plainly  proved." 
This  piece  was  printed  at  Oxford,  171  J,  8vo.  In  the 
dedication,  he  observes,  that  it  was  the  first  piece  which  he 
had  published  in  the  English  tongue,  for  the  service  of  the 
Church,  and  it  proved  in  the  event  to  be  the  last,  being 
prevented  from  publishing  many  others  which  he  had 
designed,  by  his  death,  wdiich  happened  on  the  13th  of 
November  the  next  year,  in  the  vigour  of  his  age. 

He  was  interred  in  Westminster  Abbey,  where  a 
marble  monument,  with  his  effigy  at  full  length,  in  a 
sitting  posture,  and  a  suitable  inscription  underneath, 
w^as  erected  at  the  expence  of  the  lord  treasurer,  Harley, 
Earl  of  Oxford.  He  was  attended  in  his  last  illness  by 
Bishop  Smallridge,  and  gave  him  an  ample  testimony  of 
his  sincere  piety  and  religion.  He  desired,  upon  his 
death-bed,  that  something  might  be  made  public,  to 
declare  his  dying  in  the  faith  and  communion  of  the 
Church  of  England,  which  he  thought  a  pure  and  sound 
part  of  the  Catholic  Church,  notwithstanding  some  de- 
fects, as  he  apprehended,  in  the  Reformation ;  and  his 
most  hearty  wishes  for  the  union  of  all  Christians,  ac- 
cording to  the  primitive  and  perfect  model. 

He  declared  with  much  satisfaction,  that  ever  since 

GRABE.  849 

his  coming  into  England,  it  had  pleased  God  to  grant 
him  an  opportunity  of  receiving  the  holy  communion 
according  to  his  heart's  desire,  in  its  most  ancient  purity 
and  perfection ;  receiving  it  according  to  the  rites  of  the 
reformed  Church  of  England,  for  the  authority  of  whose 
bishops  and  priests  against  the  Church  of  Rome  he  con- 
tended to  the  very  last. 

Notwithstanding  his  indefatigable  application  to  his 
studies,  he  was  regular  in  his  attendance  daily  at  the 
public  prayers  of  the  Church. 

Grabe  had  so  great  a  zeal  for  promoting  the  ancient 
government  and  discipline  of  the  Church,  among  those 
who  had  separated  themselves  from  the  corruptions  and 
superstitions  of  the  Church  of  Rome,  that  he  formed  a 
plan,  and  made  some  advances  in  it,  for  restoring  the 
episcopal  order  and  office  in  the  territories  of  the  king  of 
Prussia,  his  sovereign;  and  he  proposed,  moreover,  to 
introduce  a  liturgy,  much  after  the  model  of  the  English 
service,  into  that  king's  dominions. 

Dr.  Grabe,  although  thus  sincerely  attached  to  the  re- 
formed Church  of  England,  nevertheless  agreed  with  the 
non-jurors,  in  a  wish  that  some  ceremonies  undoubtedly 
primitive  might  be  restored,  such  as  baptism  by  immer- 
sion, and  the  mixing  of  water  with  the  wine  in  the  Eu- 
charist. Neither  did  he  hesitate  to  express  his  opinion 
concerning  the  oblation  of  the  bread  and  wine,  and  the 
prayer  of  invocation  to  God  the  Father,  in  the  consecra- 
tion, for  the  illapse  of  the  Holy  Ghost  upon  them,  that 
they  might  be  unto  the  communicants,  in  the  mystical 
sense,  the  body  and  blood  of  His  Son  Jesus  Christ,  not 
in  substance,  but  in  grace  and  virtue,  as  in  the  ancient 
liturgies,  for  the  remission  of  their  sins  ;  for  their  con- 
firmation in  godliness,  for  the  benefit  of  their  souls  and 
bodies ;  for  the  communication  of  the  Holy  Ghost ;  for 
sure  trust  and  confidence  in  God ;  and  for  the  resurrec- 
tion unto  eternal  life.  For  the  same  reason  he  was  never 
afraid  to  declare  his  mind  freely  for  the  practice  of  church 

350  GEABE. 

confirmation  ;  for  anointing  the  sick  with  oil  ;  for  confes- 
sion and  sacerdotal  absolution,  as  judicial  ;  for  prayers 
for  the  souls  of  the  dead,  who  died  in  the  faith  and  fear 
of  God ;  for  the  ancient  commemoration  of  saints  in  the 
holy  Eucharist.  And  as  he  used  to  speak  of  the  want  of 
these  things,  as  defects  in  the  reformed  Churches,  so  it 
was  not  without  sorrow  and  some  indignation,  that  he 
used  to  lament  the  corruption  and  depravation  of  them 
in  the  Church  of  Kome. 

He  left  a  great  number  of  MSS.  behind  him,  which  he 
bequeathed  to  Dr.  Hickes  for  his  life,  and  after  his  de- 
cease, to  Dr.  George  Smallridge.  The  former  of  the 
divines,  carefully  performed  his  request  of  making  it 
known,  that  he  had  died  in  the  faith  and  communion  of 
the  Church  of  England,  in  an  account  of  his  life  which 
he  prefixed  to  a  tract  of  Dr.  Grabe's,  which  he  published 
with  the  following  title  :  "  Some  instances  of  the  Defect 
and  Omissions,  in  Mr.  Whiston's  Collections  of  Testimo- 
nies from  the  Scriptures  and  the  Fathers,  against  the 
true  Deity  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  and  of  misapplying  and 
misinterpreting  divers  of  them,"  by  Dr.  Grabe.  "  To 
which  is  premised,  a  Discourse,  wherein  some  account  is 
given  of  the  learned  Doctor,  and  his  MSS.  and  of  this 
short  Treatise  found  among  his  English  MSS."  by  George 
Hickes,  D.D.,  London,  1712,  8vo.  There  came  out  af- 
terwards, two  more  of  our  author's  posthumous  pieces. 
1. — "Liturgia  GrsBca  Johannis  Ernesti  Grabii,"  i.e. 
*'  The  Greek  Liturgy  of  John  Ernest  Grabe."  This 
liturgy  was  drawn  up  by  Dr.  Grabe  for  his  own  private 
use,  and  was  published  by  Christopher  Matthew  Pfaff, 
at  the  end  of  "  Irenaei  Fragmenta  Anecdota,"  printed  at 
the  Hague,  1715,  8vo.  2.  "  De  forma  Consecrationis 
Eucharistise,  hoc  est,  Defensio  Ecclesise  Grsecae,  &c." 
i.  e.  "A  Discourse  concerning  the  Form  of  Consecration 
of  the  Eucharist,  or  a  Defence  of  the  Greek  Church 
against  that  of  Kome,  in  the  Article  of  Consecrating  the 
Eucharistical  Elements,"  written  in  Latin,  by  John  Er- 

GKEEN.  351 

nest  Grabe,  and  now  first  published  with  an  English  ver- 
sion. To  which  is  added,  from  the  same  author's  MSS. 
some  notes  concerning  the  oblation  of  the  body  and  blood 
of  Christ,  with  the  form  and  effect  of  the  eucharistical 
consecration,  and  two  fragments  of  a  preface  designed  for  a 
new  edition  of  the  first  liturgy  of  king  Edward  VI.,  with 
a  preface  of  the  editor,  shewing  what  is  the  opinion  of 
the  Church  of  England,  concerning  the  use  of  the  fathers, 
and  of  its  principal  members,  in  regard  to  the  matter 
defended  by  Dr.  Grabe  in  this  treatise,  Lond.  1721,  8vo. 
— Hickes.     Biog.  Brit. 


John  Green  was  born  in  1706,  at  Beverley,  in  York- 
shire, and  admitted  a  sizar  of  St.  John's  College,  Cam- 
bridge, of  which  he  became  fellow.  In  1744  he  was  ap- 
pointed chaplain  to  the  Duke  of  Somerset,  who  gave  him 
the  living  of  Borough-green,  near  Newmarket.  In  174S  he 
was  appointed  regius  professor  of  divinity ;  and  two  years 
after,  master  of  Bene't  College.  In  1756  he  became  dean 
of  Lincoln,  and  afterwards  bishop  of  that  see.  In  1771 
he  obtained  the  deanery  of  St.  Paul's.  He  died  in  1779. 
He  was  one  of  the  writers  of  the  Athenian  letters ;  besides 
which  he  published  some  sermons,  and  a  tract  on  enthu- 
siasm.— Gent.  Man. 

green,    WILLIAM. 

William  Green  was  educated  at  Clare  Hall,  Cambridge, 
of  which  he  became  fellow.  He  was  afterwards  presented 
to  the  living  of  Hardingham,  in  Norfolk.  He  published 
the  song  of  Deborah,  reduced  to  metre,  with  a  translation 
and  commentary;  a  Translation  of  the  Prayer  of  Ha- 
bakkuk;  the  Prayer  of  Moses;  and  the   139th  Psalm, 


with  a  Commentary;  a  new  Translation  of  the  Psalms, 
with  Notes ;  a  new  Translation  of  Isaiah,  from  the  se- 
venth to  the  fifty-third  chapter,  with  Notes ;  and  Poetical 
Parts  of  the  Old  Testament,  translated  from  the  Hebrew, 
with  Notes.     He  died  in  1794. — Europ.  Mag. 


Thomas  Grei^ne  was  born  at  Norwich,  in  3  658,  and 
educated  in  the  free-school  of  that  city,  and  at  Bene't 
College,  Cambridge,  of  which  he  obtained  a  scholarship, 
and  in  1680  a  fellowship,  and  became  tutor.  In  1695 
he  was  presented  by  Archbishop  Tenison  to  the  vicarage 
of  Minster,  in  the  Isle  of  Thanet,  to  a  prebend  in  the 
cathedral  of  Canterbury,  to  the  rectory  of  Adisham-cum- 
Staple  in  Kent,  and  to  the  archdeaconry  of  Canterbury, 
into  which  he  was  installed  in  November,  1708,  having 
been  chosen  before  one  of  the  proctors  of  the  clergy  in 
convocation  for  that  diocese.  Upon  these  preferments 
he  quitted  the  vicarage  of  Minster,  as  he  did  the  rectory 
of  Adisham  upon  his  institution  (in  February,  1716)  to 
the  vicarage  of  St.  Martin's-in-the-Fields,  Westminster. 
This  he  held  in  commendam  with  the  Bishopric  of  Nor- 
wich, to  which  he  was  consecrated  October  8,  1721,  but 
was  thence  translated  to  Ely,  September  24,  1723.  He 
had  been  elected  May  26,  1698,  master  of  Bene't  College, 
upon  the  recommendation  of  Archbishop  Tenison,  In 
1699  and  in  1713  he  served  the  office  of  vice-chancellor. 
George  I.,  soon  after  his  accession,  appointed  him  one  of 
his  domestic  chaplains.  He  resigned  the  mastership  of 
his  college  in  1716.  He  died  in  1738.  He  wrote— 1. 
The  Sacrament  of  the  Lord's  Supper  explained  to  the 
meanest  capacities,  London,  1710,  12mo.  in  a  familiar 
dialogue  between  a  minister  and  parishioner.  2.  The 
Principles  of  Religion  explained  for  the  Instruction  of 
the  Weak,  ibid.  1726,  12mo.     3.  Four  Discourses  on  the 


Four  Last  Things,  viz.  Death,  Judgment,  Heaven,  and 
Hell,  ibid.  12mo;  and  several  Occasional  Sermons. — 


The  reader  is  requested  to  refer  to  the  Life  of  Basil 
the  Great,  whose  history  is  closely  connected  with  this 
great  and  amiable  father,  who,  on  account  of  his  profound 
knowledge  of  Scripture,  is  known  in  history  by  the  title 
of  The  Divine.  He  was  born  in  328,  at  Arianzum,  an 
obscure  village  near  Nazianzum,  in  Cappadocia.  His 
father,  who  was  a  man  of  rank  and  property,  originally 
belonged  to  a  sect  called  Hypsistarians,  whose  religion 
was  a  mixture  of  Judaism  and  Paganism;  but  having 
married  a  Christian,  named  Nonna,  he  was  by  his  wife's 
persuasion,  and  that  of  some  pious  clergy  to  whom  she 
introduced  him,  converted  to  the  Christian  faith,  and 
was  at  length  elected  Bishop  of  Nazianzum,  w^here  he 
had  officiated  as  pastor  for  forty-five  years. 

To  his  father,  Gregory  Nazianzen  pays  a  tribute  of 
filial  respect  in  a  narrative  of  his  own  life,  written  in 
Iambic  verse,  composed  in  his  old  age,  and  addressed  to 
the  people  of  his  church.  After  an  affectionate  exordium 
to  his  people,  he  says :  "I  had  a  father  singularly  ad- 
mirable for  his  probity :  an  old  man,  simple  in  his  man- 
ners,— he  was  a  second  Abraham.  Very  different  from 
the  hypocrites  of  our  days,  he  was  less  anxious  to  appear 
virtuous  than  to  be  really  so.  Involved  at  first  in  error, 
he  afterwards  became  a  faithful  and  zealous  Christian, 
and  subsequently  a  pastor,  and  an  example  to  pastors. 

"  My  mother,  to  sum  up  her  praises  in  few  words,  fell 
short  in  nothing  of  her  worthy  husband ;  born  of  pious 
parents,  and  still  more  pious  than  they,  she  was  feminine 
only  by  her  sex,  in  mind  she  was  superior  to  men.  She 
and  her  husband  shared  the  admiration  of  the  public. 


"  But  what  proofs  shall  I  give  of  the  facts  that  I  ad- 
vance ?  To  whom  shall  I  appeal  as  my  witnesses  ? — To 
my  mother?  Her  lips  were  those  of  truth  itself;  but 
she  would  rather  conceal  even  the  good  that  was  known 
of  her,  than  publish  that  which,  being  unknown,  might 
have  done  her  honour.  The  fear  of  the  Lord  was  her 
guide, — who  can  have  a  greater  Teacher  ? 

"  Longing  for  a  son, — a  longing  so  natural  to  a  mother, 
— she  entreated  the  Lord  for  one,  and  incessantly  be- 
sought Him  to  listen  to  her  prayer :  the  impatience  of 
her  desires  even  went  further, — she  devoted  to  God,  in 
anticipation,  the  infant  she  asked  of  him,  and  consecrated 
to  Him  the  precious  gift. 

"  Her  prayers  were  not  put  up  in  vain.  She  had  a 
happy  presage  of  it  in  her  sleep  :  she  saw  in  a  dream  the 
object  so  tenderly  wished  for;  she  distinguished  exactly 
its  features  ;  she  heard  my  name ;  and  this  vision  of  the 
night  proved  to  her  a  happ}^  reality. 

"I  came  into  existence,  and  my  birth  must  indeed  have 
been  a  blessing  from  heaven  to  my  parents,  if  I  have 
proved,  even  in  a  small  degree,  deserving  of  their  prayers : 
if,  on  the  contrary,  I  have  been  unv.'orthy,  the  fault  can 
only  rest  with  myself,  not  with  them." 

He  mentions  indeed  a  remarkable  dream  which  hap- 
pened to  himself  when  yet  a  child.  "  While  I  was 
asleep,"  he  says  in  one  of  his  poems,  which  runs  thus  in 
prose,  "  a  dream  came  to  me,  which  drew^  me  readily  to 
the  desire  of  incorruptness.  Two  virgin  forms,  in  white 
garments,  seemed  to  shine  close  to  me.  Both  were  fair 
and  of  one  age,  and  their  ornament  lay  in  their  want  of 
ornament,  which  is  a  woman's  beauty.  No  gold  adorned 
their  neck,  nor  hyacinth ;  nor  had  they  the  delicate  spin- 
ning of  the  silkworm.  Their  fair  robe  was  bound  wdth""a 
girdle,  and  it  reached  down  to  their  ankles.  Their  head 
and  face  were  concealed  by  a  veil,  and  their  eyes  were  fixed 
on  the  ground.  The  fair  glow  of  modesty  was  on  both  of 
them,  as  far  as  could  be  seen  under  their  thick  covering. 


Their  lips  were  closed  in  silence,  as  the  rose  in  its  dewy 
leaves.  When  I  saw  them,  I  rejoiced  much  ;  for  I  said 
that  they  were  far  more  than  mortals.  And  they  in  turn 
kept  kissing  me,  who  drew  delight  from  their  lips,  fond- 
ling me  as  a  dear  son.  And  when  I  asked  who  and 
whence  the  women  were,  the  one  answered,  '  Purity,' 
the  other,  'Continence';  '  We  stand  by  Christ,  the  King, 
and  delight  in  the  beauty  of  the  celestial  virgins.  Come, 
then,  child,  unite  thy  mind  to  our  mind,  thy  light  to  our 
light ;  so  shall  we  carry  thee  aloft  in  all  brightness 
through  the  air,  and  place  thee  by  the  radiance  of  the 
immortal  Trinity.' " 

Gregory  was  first  sent  for  his  education  to  Caesarea  in 
Cappadocia,  whence  he  afterwards  removed  to  Caesarea 
in  Palestine  ;  thence  to  Alexandria,  and  afterwards  to 
Athens.  "At  Athens"  he  says,  "there  is  a  passion  for 
the  sophists,  which  is  carried  to  a  pitch  of  delirium.  The 
greater  part  of  those  who  frequent  their  schools,  not  only 
young  men  of  the  lowest  condition,  but  also  those  of  the 
best  families,  become  infected  with  it.  All  are  mixed  up 
together  in  one  mass,  without  distinction  or  restraint. 
You  might  fancy  yourself  in  the  noise  and  uproar  of  the 
circus,  where  crowds  of  spectators  are  all  eagerness  for 
the  race.  Y^ou  see  them  waving  backwards  and  forwards, 
clouds  of  dust  rising  above  their  heads  ;  they  rend  the 
air  with  their  shouts,  they  follow  the  motion  of  the  riders 
with  straining  eyes,  tracing  their  course  with  their  fingers, 
which  they  agitate  as  if  they  were  spurring  the  flanks  of 
the  racers,  although  they  are  far  from  them ;  they  dis- 
mount one  after  another,  change  at  their  pleasure  the 
officers,  and  the  bounds,  and  the  heats,  and  the  stewards 
of  the  list;  and  who  are  they,  may  we  ask,  that  do  all 
this  ? — An  idle  rabble,  that  have  not  the  means  of  living 
from  one  day  to  another.  This  is  an  exact  picture  of  the 
students  of  Athens,  and  of  the  manner  in  which  they 
conduct  themselves  towards  their  masters,  and  those 
whom  they  imagine  to  be  their  rivals.     Eager,  whatever 


school  they  themseh^es  adopt,  to  aggrandise  the  renown 
of  that  one  above  all  others,  they  endeavour  to  swell  the 
number  of  its  disciples,  and  increase  the  income  of  its 
professors,  by  stratagems  opposed  to  all  order  and  decency. 
For  this  purpose,  they  lie  in  wait  at  gates  and  avenues, 
in  the  fields  and  solitary  places ;  in  distant  provinces, 
indeed,  in  all  parts  of  the  country,  to  intercept  every  one 
they  can  find,  and  enlist  them  in  their  own  factions  and 
cabals.  No  sooner  does  a  young  man  set  his  foot  in 
Attica,  than,  immediately,  whether  he  will  or  not,  he 
sees  himself  at  the  mercy  of  whoever  may  be  the  first  to 
lay  hands  upon  him.  The  scene  now  becomes  half 
serious,  half  ludicrous.  It  begins  by  his  being  taken 
to  some  one  of  the  party  who  want  to  make  him  their 
prey,  or  to  some  of  his  friends,  or  relations,  or  country- 
men ;  or,  perhaps,  to  the  house  of  the  sophist,  whose 
purveyors  they  may  be,  and  who  reckons  on  their  success 
for  his  remunerations.  Then  it  is  who  shall  throw  out 
the  most  taunts  at  the  new  comer,  with  the  design,  as  it 
should  seem,  of  lowering  his  pretensions,  if  he  have  any, 
or  to  make  him  feel  his  dependance  upon  them.  In  this 
attack,  each  displays,  more  or  less  happily,  the  resources 
of  his  mind  and  his  character,  according  to  the  education 
he  has  received.  Those  who  are  unacquainted  with  this 
custom  are  alarmed,  and  take  offence  at  it ;  those,  on  the 
contrary,  who  are  aware  of  it,  make  a  joke  of  it ;  for  in 
all  this  preamble  there  is  more  of  threat  than  of  any 
thing  serious.  After  that,  he  is  conducted  with  great 
pomp  to  the  bath,  through  the  market-place.  The  troop 
who  compose  the  escort  march,  two  and  two,  at  equal 
distances.  Arrived  within  sight  of  the  bath,  all  at  once, 
as  if  transported  with  a  sudden  fury,  they  set  up  a  great 
shout.  At  this  signal,  which  is  heard  far  and  near,  every 
body  stops;  then,  as  if  they  were  refused  admittance, 
they  knock  violently  at  the  gates,  to  intimidate  the 
novice ;  at  last,  when  they  are  opened,  he  is  permitted  to 
enter,  and  is  left  at  liberty :  when  he  comes  out,  he  is 


considered  as  one  of  the  initiated,  and  takes  liis  rank 
among  his  comrades." 

He  vrent  to  Athens  about  the  year  851.  Here  he 
became  acquainted  with  Juhan,  doomed  afterwards  to 
fame  as  The  x\postate,  but  at  that  time  professing  Chris- 
tianity, and  here  the  acquaintance  he  had  formerly  formed 
with  Basil,  at  Cappadocia,  ripened  into  friendship,  a 
friendship  of  the  most  enthusiastic  nature  on  the  part  of 
the  generous  and  impulsive  Gregory ; — (See  the  Life  of 
Basil.)  '•  That  Basil,"  says  Gregory,  when  recording  his 
virtues  in  his  funeral  oration,  "  who  has  rendered  such 
important  services  to  his  times.  I  shared  his  lodgings, 
his  studies,  his  meditations ;  and,  I  may  venture  to  say, 
we  afiorded  an  example  which  reflected  honour  upon 
Greece.  Everything  was  in  common  between  us.  It 
seemed  as  if  our  bodies  were  animated  but  v/ith  one 
soul ;  yet,  what  above  all  things  cemented  the  union 
between  us  was,  our  devotion  to  God,  and  our  love  of 
moral  excellence.  -  ^"  -  It  is  in  conformity  of  sen- 
timent that  the  true  association  of  hearts  consists. 

"  The  period,  however,  drew  near  when  we  were  to 
return  to  our  respective  homes,  and  decide  upon  our 
professions :  we  had  sacrificed  much  time  to  our  studies. 
I  was  then  nearly  in  my  thirtieth  year ;  I  was  aware  of 
the  attachment  of  our  fellow-students,  and  of  the  advanta- 
geous opinion  they  had  formed  of  us.  At  last  the  day 
fixed  for  our  departure  arrived ;  it  was  a  day  of  grief  and 
conflicting  sentiments.  Imagine  to  yourself  our  embraces, 
our  conversations  mingled  with  tears;  our  last  adieus, 
wherein  our  mutual  regard  seemed  to  increase  at  the 
moment  of  parting!  Our  companions  would  scarcely 
consent  to  Basil's  leaving  them;  but  when  it  came  to 
me,  I  cannot,  even  at  this  distance  of  time,  recal  that 
moment  without  tears.  I  saw  myself  surrounded  with 
friends,  comrades,  masters,  strangers,  who,  all  uniting 
their  entreaties  and  lamentations,  proceeded  even  to  lay 
hands  upon  me,  for  friendship  allows  itself  such  pi'ivi- 

V0I-.     v.  ^  K 


leges,  and  holding  me  fast  in  their  arms,  protested  that 
they  would  not  let  me  go  away.  *  *  '^  My  heart, 
however,  yearned  towards  my  native  country,  and  the 
hope  of  being  able  to  devote  myself  entirely  to  Christian 
philosophy.  I  thought,  also,  of  the  old  age  of  my  parents, 
bending  under  the  burden  of  their  long-continued  la- 
bours :  this  determined  me,  and  I  quitted  Athens  secretly, 
but  not  without  difficulty. 

"  Once  more  at  home,  the  first  object  of  my  philosophy 
was  to  make  a  sacrifice  to  God,  along  with  many  other 
tastes,  of  my  study  of  eloquence,  and  my  passionate 
attachment  to  its  fascinations.  In  the  same  cause,  how 
many  have  not  hesitated  to  abandon  their  flocks  in  the 
fields,  and  cast  their  gold  into  the  unfathomable  depths 
of  the  ocean  ! 

"  I  found  myself  in  a  terrible  perplexity  when  I  had 
to  decide  respecting  my  choice  of  a  profession.  ^'  -^  -- 
I  had  frequently  remarked,  that  those  who  delight  in 
active  life  are  useful  to  others,  but  useless  to  themselves ; 
that  they  involve  their  peace  in  a  thousand  troubles,  and 
that  the  calm  of  their  repose  is  disturbed  by  continual 
agitations.  1  saw,  also,  that  those  who  withdraw  them- 
selves entirely  from  society  are,  as  it  must  be  confessed, 
more  tranquil ;  and  that  their  minds,  unfettered  by 
worldly  cares,  are  in  a  fitter  state  for  contemplation  ;  but 
that,  at  the  same  time,  they  are  good  only  for  thelnselves, 
that  their  benevolence  is  narrowed,  and  that  their  lives 
are  equally  gloomy  and  austere.  T  took  the  middle 
course,  between  those  who  fly  the  world  altogether,  and 
those  who  devote  themselves  to  it  too  eagerly  ;  resolving  to 
share  the  meditations  of  the  one,  and  emulate  the  activity 
of  the  other.  I  was  determined  so  to  do  by  motives  yet 
more  pressing ;  piety  requires  that,  after  God,  our  first 
duty  should  be  paid  to  our  parents  ;  as  it  is  to  the  exist- 
ence we  derive  from  them  that  we  owe  the  happiness  of 
becoming  acquainted  with  Him.  Mjne  found  from  me, 
in  their  advancing  years,  all  the  succour  and  support  they 


had  a  right  to  expect  in  a  son.  Ta  taking  care  of  their  old 
age,  I  endeavoured  to  merit  that  my  own  also  should  have 
care  taken  of  it,  when  need  might  require  :  we  can  only 
expect  to  reap  what  we  may  have  sown.  I  exercised  my 
philosophy  principally  in  concealing  my  predilection  for  a 
solitary  life,  and  in  endeavouring  to  become  a  servant  of 
God,  rather  than  to  appear  such.  I  felt  the  greatest 
reverence  for  those  who,  having  embraced  the  public 
functions  of  the  Church,  invest  themselves  also  with  a 
holiness  of  character,  and  govern  the  people,  in  teaching 
the  sacred  mysteries  of  religion  :  yet,  though  I  lived 
among  men,  my  earnest  longings  after  solitude  seemed 
to  consume  my  heart.  I  respected  the  dignity  of  the 
episcopacy;  but,  whilst  I  gazed  on  it  with  veneration 
from  afar,  T  shrunk  from  the  thought  of  its  nearer  con- 
templation ;  as  weak  eyes  turn  away  from  the  rays 
of  the  sun.  Little  did  I  think,  then,  that  any  circum- 
stances could  ever  have  the  power  to  conduct  me  into  its 
inmost  sanctuary." 

To  render  him  the  more  publicly  useful,  his  father 
prevailed  with  him  by  earnest  solicitations,  though  con- 
trary to  his  own  inclination,  to  enter  into  holy  orders, 
and  constituted  him  a  presbyter,  to  which  he  the  more 
patiently  submitted  because  of  the  necessities  of  the 
Church,  it  being  then  much  infested  with  heretics,  as  he 
tells  St.  Basil  in  a  letter  to  him  on  that  occasion.  Of 
their  crafty  artifices  he  had  mournful  experience  in  the 
deception  of  his  own  father  by  them.  For  the  Arians,  in 
the  convention  at  Constantinople,  in  the  latter  end  of  the 
year  359,  had  with  all  possible  subtilty  refined  the  ex- 
pressions of  their  doctrine,  pretending,  in  reverence  to 
the  divine  oracles,  they  could  not  use  the  word  con  sub- 
stantial, as  being  an  unscriptural  term;  and  therefore, 
laying  that  word  aside,  they  expressed  the  article  thus  : 
That  the  Son  was  in  all  things  like  the  Father,  according 
to  the  Scripture.  By  this  specious  pretence  they  deluded 
several  of  the  Eastern  bishops,  and  among  the  rest,  Gre- 


gory  of  Nazianzum,  who  subscribed  their  confession,  and 
admitted  them  to  communion.  Upon  this  many  refused 
to  communicate  with  him,  and  a  great  breach  was  made 
in  his  Church,  which  had  become  wider,  had  not  this 
his  son  put  a  stop  thereunto.  He  first  made  his  father 
sensible  of  his  mistake,  which  he  readily  acknowledged, 
and  thereupon  the  oftended  party  was  soon  brought  to  a 
reconciliation,  for  confirming  which  our  Nazianzen  then 
made  his  first  oration  concerning  peace. 

Julian  being  now  advanced  to  the  imperial  seat,  was 
heartily  vexed  to  see  how  his  heathenish  party  was  every 
where  run  down,  and  that  particularly  Basil  and  Nazian- 
zen vanquished  them  with  their  own  weapons,  which 
therefore  he  resolved  to  wrest  out  of  their  hands,  by  es- 
tablishing a  law  which  not  only  forbad  Christians  to 
teach  school,  but  also  prohibited  their  being  taught  the 
learning  of  the  Gentiles.  But  herein  the  device  of  this 
crafty  enemy  was  disappointed,  for  God  hereupon  stirred 
up  such  as  abundantly  compensated  the  want  of  those 
profane  authors  by  their  excellent  writings.  The  most 
noted  writers  of  this  kind,  were  Apollinarius  and  his 
son.  The  former,  being  an  ingenious  poet  and  gram- 
marian, composed  the  Jewish  antiquities  to  the  time  of 
King  Saul,  in  heroic  verse,  in  imitation  of  Homer,  which 
he  divided  into  twenty-four  books,  and  he  denominated 
each  after  the  letters  of  the  Greek  alphabet.  He  also 
represented  the  rest  of  the  history  of  the  Old  Testa- 
ment in  other  kinds  of  verse,  in  imitation  of  Euripides, 
Sophocles,  and  Pindar ;  and  indeed  he  comprehend- 
ed the  whole  system  of  the  liberal  sciences  in  divers 
sorts  of  poetry,  taking  his  Argument  from  the  Scrip- 

About  the  same  time  the  younger  Apollinarius,  son 
of  the  former,  reduced  the  Gospels,  and  St.  Paul's 
Epistles,  into  the  form  of  dialogues,  like  those  of 
Plato,  and  in  his  style.  This  he  did  with  such  accura- 
cy, that  he  was  esteemed  not  to  come  behind  the  most 


celebrated  of  the  ancients  in  their  compositions.  He 
also  wrote  a  book  entitled,  Concerning  the  Truth,  which 
he  dedicated  to  the  emperor,  wherein  he  ably  main- 
tained the  cause  of  Christianity.  We  have  also  still  extant 
an  exact  and  noble  metrical  version  of  the  Psahns,  com- 
posed by  the  same  person.  By  these  means  the  Christian 
youth  were  sufficiently  supplied,  notwithstanding  their 
being  withheld  from  the  profane  learning  of  the  Grecians, 
This  excellent  writer  is  indeed  said  afterwards  to  have 
fallen  into  some  errors  concerning  the  mystery  of  the 
incarnation,  and  to  have  given  rise'  thereby  to  a  sect  of 
heretics  called  Apollinarians,  who  aiBBirmed  that  Christ 
had  a  human  body,  but  not  a  reasonable  soul  or  mind, 
His  divine   nature  being  instead  thereof. 

Julian  not  only  assaulted  the  Christians  by  such  crafty 
methods,  but  also  by  open  force  :  particularly  he  sent  a 
party  of  soldiers  with  an  officer  to  Nazianzum,  demand- 
ing the  church  lately  built  by  the  elder  Gregory,  to  be 
surrendered  to  him,  which  the  good  old  man  courage- 
ously refused  ;  and  the  people  were  so  affected  therewith, 
that  the  officer  was  forced  quietly  to  return.  Soon 
after  this  Julian  was  slain,  upon  which  Nazianzen  pub- 
lished his  Invective  Oration  against  him,  wherein  he 
severely  exposes  his  vanity,  in  endeavouring  to  hinder 
the  Christians  from  useful  learning,  severely  inveighs 
against  his  great  impiety,  and  discovers  how  the  ven- 
geance of  God  shone  forth  in  his  miserable  death.  And 
then  he  concludes  with  admiring  the  wisdom  of  the 
divine  providence,  which  hereby  relieved  the  Christian 
Churc;li,  and  confounded  the  designs  of  the  Pagans. 

Sometime  after  this  Nazianzen  retired  into  the  wilder- 
ness, having  been  earnestly  invited  by  his  dear  friend 
Basil  to  come  thither  to  him :  for  though  he  was  in  holy 
orders,  he  looked  upon  his  being  brought  thereinto  as  a 
kind  of  force  put  upon  him,  and  therefore  took  liberty  to 
dispense  with  the  obligation  laid  on  him  thereby.  In 
this  retirement  he  arrived  to  a  higher  degree  of  contemn- 
2  K  2 


ing  the  world,  correcting  the  exorbitances  of  nature, 
bridling  his  affections,  and  subduing  his  lo\Yer  appetites 
to  the  conduct  of  reason.  Here  the  earth  was  his  bed, 
the  most  ordinary  diet  his  fare,  and  the  coarsest  garments 
his  clothing.  He  spent  his  days  in  watching,  weeping, 
fasting,  and  labour,  and  a  great  part  of  his  nights  in 
hymns  and  meditations,  not  suffering  the  allurements  of 
pleasure  to  have  any  entertainment  in  his  mind.  He 
here  also  improved  his  knowledge  in  the  holy  Scriptures, 
with  which  the  more  he  conversed  the  better  he  liked 
them  ;  and  in  a  little  time  despised  those  profane  authors 
which  had  been  formerly  his  delight. 

But  here  he  was  not  to  remain  long;  his  father's  grow- 
ing weakness,  and  great  age,  together  with  the  Arians' 
vigorous  opposition  to  the  Church,  loudly  calling  for  his 
presence  at  home.  His  father  had  often  solicited  his 
return  to  assist  him  in  these  difficulties,  and  had  used 
his  friends'  intercession,  as  well  as  his  own  application 
to  attain  it,  which  at  length  effectually  prevailed  on  him. 
After  his  return  he  published  a  large  apology  for  his 
absence,  therein  shewing,  that  he  retired  not  through 
fear  of  danger,  nor  because  he  slighted  an  ecclesiastical 
function,  or  was  offended  that  no  higher  preferment  was 
offered  him,  but  that  it  proceeded  from  his  afi"ection  to  a 
solitary  life,  as  likewise  from  a  sense  of  the  importance 
of  the  ministerial  work,  and  of  his  unfitness  for  the  dis- 
charge of  it.  He  farther  declares,  that  he  was  induced 
to  return  in  compliance  with  the  desires  of  the  Church  at 
Nazianzum,  and  from  a  reverence  to  his  father's  com- 
mands, which  he  could  no  longer  withstand  in  refusing 
to  come  to  his  assistance. 

Thus  he  became  coadjutor  to  his  fath€r,  supporting 
his  age  by  unwearied  diligence,  in  preaching  the  truth, 
convincing  opposers,  and  helping  him  in  all  parts  of  his 
office ;  though  some  that  had  importuned  his  presence 
now  manifested  an  indifference  towards  his  ministry,  as 
he  complains  in  a  discourse  on  that   occasion.     J3efore 


he  had  been  long  thus  engaged,  the  family  was  greatly 
afflicted  by  the  loss  of  his  brother  Csesarius,  who  was  a 
person  for  parts,  learning,  and  virtue,  excelling  most 
of  his  time.  As  he  was  eminent  in  other  parts  of  learn- 
ing, so  he  w^as  most  peculiarly  eminent  in  the  knowledge 
of  medicine,  and  was  therefore  invited,  by  the  emperor's 
order,  and  upon  most  honourable  terms,  to  remain 
at  Constantinople,  which  he  then  refused.  But  at 
length,  to  the  great  trouble  of  his  friends,  he  return- 
ed thither,  and  was  chief  physician,  and  afterwards 
also  treasurer  to  Julian  the  emperor,  who  had  a  value 
for  any  man  of  learning,  and  bore  a  very  peculiar 
kindness  towards  him.  This  was  a  great  grief  to  his 
parents,  and  the  greater,  because  some  were  not  wanting 
to  reproach  them  with  it,  that  he,  the  son  of  a  Christian 
bishop,  should  dwell  in  the  family  of  an  apostate  em- 
peror, who  openly  defied  Christianity;  alleging,  that 
bishops  would  not  be  likely  to  prevent  others  from  being 
corrupted,  or  keep  themselves  from  infection,  if  they 
could  not  first  prevail  on  their  own  children. 

These  considerations  Nazianzen  had  laid  before  Ca^sa- 
rius  in  a  letter,  entreating  him  to  quit  his  offices,  and 
retire,  both  to  preserve  himself  from  pollution,  and  to  re- 
lieve the  minds  of  his  aged  parents,  being  unable  longer 
to  support  themselves  under  this  burden.  He  put  him 
in  mind,  that  if  his  arguments  prevailed  not,  he  must 
either  be  unequally  associated  with  the  impious,  while 
he  himself  remained  a  sincere  christian,  or  else,  which 
would  be  infinitely  worse,  be  vanquished  by  their  tempta- 
tions, and  become  like  tliem.  This  counsel  produced  its 
desired  effect,  and  Ciiesarius  resolved  to  part  with  all, 
rather  than  make  shipwreck  of  a  good  conscience.  Julian 
had  endeavoured  both  by  threats  and  allurements  to  bring 
him  over  to  Paganism,  as  likewise  to  convince  him  by  dint 
of  argument ;  but  Ciiesarius  was  conqueror  in  all,  and 
positively  told  him  he  w^as  a  Christian,  and  determined 
to  continue  so.     And  thereupon  ho  took  the  opportunity 


of  the  emperor's  going  into  Persia,  and  returned  home, 
to  the  great  satisfaction  of  his  relations. 

But  after  about  two  years  he  went  again  to  court,  when 
Valens,  who  was  not  yet  tainted  with  Arian  heresy,  gov- 
erned the  Eastern  part  of  the  empire,  who  advanced  him 
to  his  former  dignities,  and  designed  his  advancement 
to  greater.  He  was  in  Bithynia  in  the  discharge  of  his 
office,  when  that  dreadful  earthquake  happened  which 
made  great  desolations  in  several  places,  and  particularly 
ruined  the  famous  city  of  Nice ;  nor  was  Caesarius  himself 
preserved  without  a  very  peculiar  Providence.  This  Na- 
zianzen  soon  improved,  to  excite  him  to  greater  seriousness 
in  religion,  and  withal  signified  his  hearty  wishes  for  the 
enjoyment  of  his  company,  and  that  they  might  together 
praise  God  for  so  eminent  a  deliverance.  Caesarius 
apprehended  his  meaning,  and  in  compliance  with  his 
desires  returned  home,  but  soon  after  fell  sick  and  died, 
to  their  unspeakable  sorrow. 

Nazianzen  made  a  funeral  oration  at  his  interment, 
commending  him  for  his  ingenuous  temper,  his  sobriety, 
and  circumspect  life,  for  his  care  in  preserving  himself 
from  pollution  in  the  midst  of  temptations,  and  keeping 
himself  clear  from  the  vices  with  which  courtiers  are 
usually  infected.  He  also  declares  his  stedfastness  in 
religion,  and  his  incomparable  charity  to  the  indigent, 
whom  he  had  made  the  sole  heirs  of  his  plentiful  estate, 
comprising  all  in  these  few  remarkable  words.  My  will  is 
that  all  I  have  be  given  to  the  poor.  Yet  no  sooner  was 
he  dead,  but  some  greedy  officers  laid  hold  of  his  estate, 
pretending  a  right  to  it,  which  caused  much  trouble  to 
Nazianzen,  who  w^as  trusted  with  the  disposition?  of  it^  and 
created  a  contest  which  continued  long,  and  occasioned 
him  to  write  once  and  again  to  Sophronius,  the  governor, 
about  it. 

Nazianzen's  brother  being  thus  dead,  he  remained  with 
his  parents,  expressing  all  dutiful  respects  to  them,  until 
at  length  a  new  trouble  arose,  which  he  often  laments  as 


the  greatest  that  ever  befel  him.  The  emperor  Yalens 
had  hxtely  divided  Cappadocia  into  two  proyinces,  making 
Tyana  the  metropoUs  of  that  which  was  hereupon  called 
the  second  Cappadocia;  by  which  means,  Anthimus, 
bishop  of  that  place,  claimed  the  government  of  the 
Churches  within  that  province,  ^vhich  had  been  formerly 
subject  to  Basil,  as  Archbishop  of  Csesarea.  Basil  here- 
upon erected  new  bishoprics,  and  among  the  rest  he 
juade  Sasima  one,  a  town  situate  on  the  borders  of  that 
new-made  province ;  and  that  he  might  have  a  trusty 
friend  in  it,  he  desired  our  St.  Gregory  to  accept  thereof 
as  his  charge.  But  Nazianzen  rejected  it  with  contempt, 
as  contrary  to  his  beloved  retirement,  and  also  resented 
it  as  a  great  affront  that  he  should  offer  him  so  mean  a 
place,  and  in  all  respects  so  inconvenient  for  him.  Basil 
being  vexed  at  such  a  refusal,  treated  him  ^ith  an  over- 
great  sharpness,  charging  him  with  clownishness,  and 
not  understanding  his  interest,  or  how  to  oblige  his 
friends.  The  other  replied  with  no  less  acrimony,  telling 
him,  he  could  not  imagine  how  he  had  deserved  such 
usage,  that  it  was  unreasonable  for  a  man  to  be  affronted, 
and  then  blamed  for  complaining  of  it;  that  abating  his 
episcopal  dignity,  he  knew  not  wherein  he  was  inferior 
to  him,  as  he  himself  had  been  ready  to  acknowledge  at 
other  times.  He  told  him,  that  people  generally  cried 
out  against  him  for  this  attempt,  and  that  their  most 
gentle  reflections  were,  that  it  agreed  not  with  the  rules 
of  true  friendship,  as  being  an  instance  of  disrespect 
towards  him,  who  had  been  serviceable  to  him  upon  so 
many  occasions.  He  added,  that  he  had  been  made  use 
of  by  him  only  as  a  scaffold,  which,  when  the  building  is 
erected,  men  take  down  and  throw  aside  as  no  further 
useful ;  and  therefore  begged  him  no  longer  to  hinder 
his  repose,  concluding  that  he  had  no  mind  to  a  bishop- 
ric, though  others  were  eager  in  the  pursuit  of  that 
dignity.  Into  such  heats  and  unbecoming  reflections, 
these  two  so  intimate  friends  brake  forth  on  this  occasion. 


Notwithstanding  all  this,  Basil  would  not  relinquish 
his  attempt,  but  applied  himself  to  Nazianzen's  father, 
by  whose  influence  and  paternal  commands  he  was  at 
length  prevailed  with  to  consent,  and  so  submitted  him- 
self to  be  ordained  bishop  of  that  province.  At  the  same 
time  he  made  an  apologetic  oration,  and  therein  especially 
directed  his  discourse  to  his  father  and  St.  Basil,  signify- 
ing the  reasons  why  he  was  so  averse  from  accepting  that 
charge,  and  also  telling  them,  that  since  he  was  now  in 
it,  he  expected  their  guidance  and  direction  in  performing 
the  duties  thereof.  But  he  could  not  forbear  still  reflect- 
ing on  the  unkindness  of  his  friend  Basil,  in  putting 
such  difficulties  upon  him,  though  he  now  did  it  with 
much  more  modesty  and  gentleness  than  before.  The 
next  day  being  a  festival  for  commemorating  the  martyrs, 
came  Gregory  Nyssen,  Basil's  brother,  whom  Nazianzen 
entertained  with  an  oration,  wherein  he  pressed  to  an  imi- 
tation of  the  piety,  jDurity,  zeal,  and  constancy,  of  those 
who  had  by  martyrdom  borne  a  testimony  for  religion; 
and  further  shewed,  that  we  in  conformity  to  them 
should  offer  up  ourselves  as  a  living  and  reasonable 
sacrifice  to  God ;  and  that  this  was  the  only  way  to  hon- 
our the  martyrs,  and  be  accepted  with  Christ,  and  not  by 
meeting  to  eat  and  drink,  and  to  indulge  our  appetites, 
which  is  more  suitable  to  an  heathen  festival  than  a 
Christian  solemnity,  Anthimus,  of  Tyana,  soon  endea- 
voured to  bring  Nazianzen  over  to  his  party,  and  to  own 
him  for  his  metropolitan,  but  he  continued  stedfast  to 
the  interest  of  Basil ;  whereupon  Sasina  was  seized,  and 
to  his  great  satisfaction  he  was  hindered  from  entering 
upon  the  government  of  it,  nor  indeed  was  there  any 
thing  to  invite  him  thereto,  it  being  a  very  mean,  dirty, 
and  unwholesome  place. 

Upon  this  Nazianzen  retired  to  a  solitary  hospital, 
and  there  past  his  time  in  the  exercises  of  devotion  and 
a  mortified  life,  but  was  soon  disturbed  in  his  retirement 
by  his  father's  commands  and  intreaties,  to  take  on  him 


the  charge  of  Nazianzura  :  his  own  great  age  and  infir- 
mities having  disabled  him  from  bearing  the  burden 
thereof  himself.  He  knew  his  son's  averseness  to  it, 
and  therefore  applied  himself  with  all  endearing  insinu- 
ations. "  Son,"  said  he,  "  your  aged  father  is  become  a 
petitioner  to  you  his  youthful  son.  I  ask  not  riches  nor 
honour  from  you,  but  only  that,  like  Aaron  and  Samuel, 
you  would  minister  before  the  Lord.  Reject  not  his 
desires  who  w^as  the  instrument  of  your  being ;  and, 
though  the  request  were  not  so  reasonable  as  it  is,  re- 
member that  it  is  your  father  that  makes  it.  Comply 
with  me  in  this,  or  else  I  protest  some  other  shall  close 
my  eyes,  and  take  care  of  my  funeral ;  this  T  will  inflict 
as  a  punishment  upon  you.  Assist  me  the  little  time  I 
have  to  live,  and  then  I  shall  leave  you  to  follow  the 
counsels  of  your  own  mind."  To  this  melting  address, 
Nazianzen  replied  :  "  Sir,  how  grievous  soever  your  com- 
mands are,  yet  for  your  sake  I  submit;  but  upon  this 
condition,  that  when  it  shall  please  God  to  remove  you 
to  heaven,  I  may  be  wholly  free  from  any  further  care  of 
this  province."  Upon  these  terms  they  agreed,  and  so  he 
became  his  father's  substitute,  and  thereupon  made  an 
oration  to  his  people,  signifying  wdth  what  difficulty  he 
was  brought  thereto,  and  that  his  compliance  was  mefely 
}n  reverence  to  his  father,  and  from  a  desire  of  promoting 
the  public  good,  and  therefore  desired  the  utmost  assist- 
ance which  they  were  able  to  render  him  therein. 
He  further  told  them,  that  when  he  could  be  no  longer 
assistant  to  his  father  in  his  office,  none  should  compel 
him  to  continue  in  it,  contrary  to  his  inclination ;  seeing 
all  that  undertake  the  episcopal  work  should  do  it  with 
a  freedom  of  mind,  and  not  have  any  force  put  upon 
them  therein. 

It  was  soon  after  his  coming  into  this  station,  as  is 
probable,  that  we  find  him  employed  in  appeasing  the 
governor,  who  was  offended  with  the  people  of  Nazianzum, 
for  tumults  lately  made,  either  upon  the  account  of  their 


burdensome  taxes,  or  upon  some  other  occasion.  It  is 
thought  by  some  of  the  ancients  that  this  governor,  ^Yho 
now  threatened  them  with  severitv,  was  one  Juhan, 
formerly  Nazianzen  s  schoolfellov>^  and  intimate  acquaint- 
ance. To  appease  him,  Xazianzen  got  up  into  the  pul- 
pit, and  made  an  oration,  first  applying  himself  to  the 
people,  to  encourage  them  against  despondency  under 
their  apprehended  danger;  and  also  to  caution  them 
against  insolency,  reminding  them  of  the  obedience  that 
is  due  to  magistrates,  according  to  the  rules  of  Christian- 
ity. Then  he  addressed  himself  to  the  governor,  admon- 
ishing him  of  his  religious  education,  his  baptism  and 
profession  of  Christianity,  exciting  him  by  several  pow- 
erful arguments  to  exercise  his  authority  with  merc}^  and 
gentleness,  and  to  improve  the  same  for  Christ,  from 
whom  he  had  received  it. 

Shortly  after  he  was  the  mournful  orator  who  preached 
at  the  funeral  of  his  sister  Gorgonia,  v\^ho  had  been  wife 
to  Vitalian,  a  gentleman  of  those  parts,  by  whom  she 
had  several  children.  In  his  oration  he  gives  this  char- 
acter of  her,  That  she  was  a  woman  of  great  virtue,  piety, 
and  charity,  her  doors  being  open  to  all  that  were  in 
want  and  necessity,  and  of  singular  prudence  in  her 
relative  capacities.  That  she  vvas  of  a  grave  and  even 
demeanour,  between  merriment  and  moroseness,  a  great 
enemy  to  all  artificial  beautifyings,  very  modest  in  her 
dress,  and  temperate  in  her  diet,  and  frecpaently  spent 
whole  nights  in  reading  the  Scriptures,  and  divine  medi- 
tations, in  praising  God  or  praying  to  him,  through  her 
frequency  in  which  her  knees  were  grown  hard  like  those 
of  camels.  She  would  not,  through  bashfulness,  as  he 
further  tells  us,  suffer  any  physician  to  come  near  her  in 
her  greatest  sickness,  and  being  once  seized  with  a  malig- 
nant fever,  which  was  deemed  mortal,  she  ventured  on 
the  following  strange  method  of  cure.  Finding  Some 
intervals  between  her  fits,  she  got  up  in  a  stormy  night, 
and  went  to  the  church,  and  kneeling  at  the  commuuion- 


table,  earnestly  requested  her  recovery,  resolving  she 
would  not  go  thence  until  she  was  restored  to  her  health, 
which  she  at  length  obtained.  But  still  she  retained 
her  desires  of  departing,  and  of  being  with  Christ,  the 
particular  day  of  which  was  represented  to  her  in  a  vision, 
as  he  further  relates.  In  her  last  sickness,  she  called 
her  husband,  children,  and  friends  about  her,  and  after 
suitable  discourses  with  them,  she  was  heard  with  a  very 
low  voice  to  repeat  those  words  of  the  psalmist,  "I  will 
lay  me  down  in  peace  and  rest,"  and  so  expired. 

Not  long  after  her  death  followed  that  of  her  father, 
when  he  had  been  Bishop  of  Nazianzum  forty-five  3^ears, 
and  was  one  hundred  years  of  age.  His  eminent  virtues 
were  well  known  before  he  became  a  Christian,  as  he  was 
afterwards  a  serious  professor,  and  a  most  excellent 
bishop,  making  up  his  want  of  those  advantages  of  edu- 
cation, which  some'possessed,  by  his  unwearied  industry, 
through  which  he  attained  to  a  great  understanding  in 
the  Scriptures,  and  the  doctrines  of  religion.  He  was  a 
zealous  defender  of  the  Catholic  faith,  and  recovered  his 
see  from  great  corruptions,  both  in  principles  and  prac- 
tice, with  which  he  found  it  overspread.  He  observed  a 
due  medium  both  in  his  food  and  raiment,  between  sor- 
didness  and  curiosity.  He  was  courteous  and  affable  in 
his  conversation,  and  though  naturally  passionate,  he  never 
gave  way  to  it,  unless  where  zeal  for  religion  required 
the  exercise  of  a  just  anger.  He  was  eminently  charita- 
ble to  the  poor,  and  in  a  word,  a  true  Nathaniel  in  whom 
there  was  no  guile.  This  is  a  breviate  of  the  character 
that  Nazianzen,  his  son,  gives  of  him  in  his  funeral 
oration,  at  the  conclusion  of  which,  he  addressed  himself 
to  his  mother,  Nonna,  to  comfort  her  under  so  great  a  loss, 
saying,  "We  ought  not  to  envy  the  happiness  of  our 
godly  friends,  for  our  own  convenience  ;*'  and  supported 
her  with  the  consideration,  that  she  must  quickly  follow 
him  to  the  same  felicity. 

VOL.     v.  '2  L 

;{70  (JUJ'UiOUY  NAZiAN/EN. 

These  consolulions  were  vei'y  seasonable,  lor  slie  being 
unich  about  tlio  same  age  with  her  liusbantl,  and  being 
now  deprived  of  him  wlio  was  tlio  chief  prop  of  her  life, 
(lied,  as  it  is  very  probable;,  about  the  same  time.  Na- 
/ianzen  dcscrib(3S  her  in  the  following  manner:  "She  was 
a  woman  of  extraordinary  ])iety,  which  she  received  as  it 
were  by  inlieritarujc  from  her  ancestors,  and  imparted 
the  same  to  her  husbiuid  and  children,  Using  a  faithful 
wife,  and  an  excellent  nioth<3r.  She;  slighled  the  bravery 
which  other  women  admired,  accounting  the  divine  imago 
the  truest  beauty,  and  virtue  the  greatest  nobility.  She 
reverenced  tlu;  ministers  of  Christianity  as  the  ambassa- 
dors of  heaven,  and  spent  her  time  in  fastings,  watchings, 
prayers,  and  singing  of  i)salms,  djiy  and  night.  She. 
slumned  conversing  with  her  nearest  relations,  if  hea- 
thens;  nor  would  she  eat  or  luive  nny  familiarity  with 
such  as  defiled  themselves  by  pagan  worship.  She  was 
of  an  even  temper  under  all  troubles,  and  praised  God 
under  all  calamities,  though  at  the  same  time  none  was 
more  compassionate  to  others  in  their  distress." 

Sorrows  thus  following  one  anolluM-,  suflicienliy  weaned 
Na/ianzen  from  home, ;  and  now,  looking  on  himself  as 
fully  released  from  his  cliarge,  he  rcsolvc^l  to  retire,  having 
lirst  endeavoured,  though  in  vain,  to  jM'ocure  one  fit  to 
svu^ceed  his  father  at  May,ian/um.  Yet  he  continued 
not  long  in  his  solitude,  but  returned  from  it  about  the 
time  of  St.  Basils  death,  whom,  to  Ins  great  trouble, 
he  could  not  attend  in  his  last  hours,  being  hindered  by 
liis  own  sickness  :  yet  he  shewed  a  due  respect  to  his 
friend  s  nu^mory,  by  an  eloepient  encomium  upon  him. 
About  this  time  his  presence  was  desired  in  a  synod  held 
at  Antioch,  to  heal  the  divisions  that  had  been  long,  in 
the  Eastern  Chunjhes,  caused  by  the  Arian  party.  He 
was  here  selected,  in  consideration  of  his  great  learning 
and  abilities,  to  go  to  Constantinople,  the  chief  refuge  of 
those  heretics,  and  there  assist  the  orthodox  in  defending 
the  Catholic  faith. 

( )  PJ^^.G  ( )  la'  N  A Z 1 A  N /  i^:n  ;n  1 

It  was  now  about  forty  ycary  since  tin;  (Jliunli  of  (j<»n- 
stantinoplo  enjoyod  the  blessing  of  orthodox  t.oacliing 
Jind  vvorsliij).  Tanl,  who  had  been  ch'ctod  bislioj)  at  tho 
bcj^nnning  of  this  poriod,  liad  boon  visitod  witli  lour 
successive  banishments  from  the  7\rian  ]»arty,  iiiid  at 
h^ngth  with  martyrdom.  Jle  liad  bc^en  sup(!rseded,  lirsl, 
by  Kusebius,  tlie  leader  of  the  Arians;  then  by  Macc- 
donins,  the  head  of  the  sect  which  denied  the  divinity  of 
the  Holy  Si)irit;  and  then  by  J'judoxius,  the  Arianizer  of 
the  Gothic  tribes.  On  the  death  of  tho  last  mentioned, 
A.  n.  'AH),  the  remnant  of  tlu;  orthoilox  elected  for  th(!ir 
bishop,  Evagrius,  who  was  immediately  banished  by  tlni 
(nnperor  Valens ;  and,  when  they  petitioned  him  to 
reverse  his  decision,  eighty  of  their  (icchisiastics,  who  wen; 
the  bearers  of  tlKiir  compl.-iints,  were  Hul)j(!elod  to  a 
srmtonco  severer  even  than  our  colobratctd  jmrniidiirr, 
being  burned  jit  sea  in  the  ship  in  which  they  weie  em- 
bari<(!d.  In  tho  year  379,  the  orthodox  Theodosius 
succeeded  to  the  empire  of  the  East;  but  this  event  did 
not  at  once  alter  the  fortunes  of  tho  Church  in  his  metro- 
polis.  The  body  of  the  people,  nay,  th(5  populace  itself, 
and,  what  is  sti'anger,  numbers  of  the  female  ])o])ul;ition, 
were  eagerly  attached  to  Aiianism,  and  menaced  violence 
to  au}'^  who  was  bold  (iuougb  tx)  preach  the  true  doeti'ine. 
Such  was  the  calamitous  state  of  the  Church  itself;  in 
addition  to  which,  must  bo  added  the  attitude  of  its 
external  enemies: — the  Novatians,  who,  orthodox  them- 
selves in  doctrine,  yet  possessed  a  schismatical  episcopacy, 
and  a  number  of  places  of  worship  in  the  city; — the 
Eunomians,  prof(^ssors  of  tho  Arian  Imrcsy  in  its  most 
Miidisguis(!d  blasphemy,  who  also  had  est;iblished  a  bishop 
th<;ro  ; — and  the  Semi-Arians  and  Apollinarists,  to  whose 
lieretical  sentiments  we  need  not  here  allude.  This  was 
i]]c  condition  of  Constantinople  when  the  orthodox  mem- 
b(!rs  of  its  Church,  under  the  sanction  and  with  the 
co-operation  of  the  neighbouring  bishops,  invited  (ire- 
gory,   whose   gifts,  niligious   and    intellectual,    were   well 


known  to  them,  to  preside  over  it,  instead  of  the  here- 
tical Demophilus,  whom  Valens,  three  years  before,  had 
placed  there. 

Gregory  consented.  A  place  of  w^orship  was  prepared 
for  him  by  the  kindness  of  a  relative,  and  Gregory  soon 
became  the  object  of  the  public  admiration ;  his  thorough 
acquaintance  wdth  the  sacred  writings,  his  close  and  strong 
reasoning,  his  lively  and  fruitful  imagination,  the  clear- 
ness of  his  expressions,  and  the  beauty  of  his  style, 
charmed  all  that  attended  his  sermons.  The  Catholics 
flocked  to  him  with  eagerness  and  joy,  to  hear  the  doc- 
trine of  the  blessed  Trinity,  of  which  they  had  been  so 
long  deprived.  The  heretics,  and  even  the  very  pagans, 
crowded  to  his  sermons,  and  were  pleased  with  the  elo- 
quence of  this  great  doctor.  He  was  frequently  inter- 
rupted in  the  pulpit,  and  obliged  to  be  silent,  while  his 
audience  expressed  their  approbation  by  clapping  hands, 
or  loud  acclamations.  Several  thought  their  time  well 
spent  in  writing  down  his  sermons  ;  and  those,  who  had 
good  memories,  were  fond  of  shewing  them  by  repeating 
his  discourses. 

One  of  the  greatest  abuses  Gregory  found  in  the  Church 
of  Constantinople,  and  which  called  aloud  for  redress, 
was  an  unhappy  itch  for  disputing  about  religion.  The 
Catholics  were  not  entirely  free  from  this  restless  humour; 
but  the  heretics  were  quite  mad  with  it.  Gregory  could 
not  bear  to  see  Divinity  handled  so  familiarly  by  all  sorts 
of  people,  and  degenerate  into  mere  sophistry,  and  the 
art  of  wrangling,  In  opposition  to  this  abuse,  he  made 
five  discourses  ;  in  w^hich  he  shews  that  treating  on 
religious  subjects  is  not  every  man's  business,  but  reserved 
to  those  who  have  a  pure  heart,  or  are  serious  in  their 
endeavours  to  cleanse  it,  and  have  made  some  progress 
in  meditating  on  holy  things  :  that  those  sacred  questions 
are  to  be  handled  only  when  we  are  calm  and  free  from 
such  passions  as  cloud  and  disturb  our  reason ;  and 
never  to  be  discussed  before  such  as  are  so  entirely  ad- 


dieted  to  their  pleasures  that  they  have  no  sense  of 
religion.  This  is  the  subject  of  the  first  discourse,  and 
is  followed  by  four  more,  which  treat  of  the  being,  and 
attributes  of  God,  and  the  doctrine  of  the  holy  Trinity. 
Gregory  is  generally  supposed  to  have  taken  the  appella- 
tion of  The  Divine  from  those  pieces ;  a  title  which  is 
given  him  by  the  ancients ;  the  Greeks  especially  made 
use  of  it  to  distinguish  him  from  other  fathers  of  the 
same  name;  and  it  was  never  allow^ed  to  any  but  him 
since  St.  John  the  Evangelist. 

The  first  news  of  the  wonderful  success  of  Gregory's 
endeavours  for  the  reformation  and  instruction  of  the 
people  of  Constantinople  was  so  agreeable  to  the  orthodox 
prelates,  that  they  began  to  look  on  him  as  the  pastor  of 
that  great  and  populous  city.  Peter,  who  had  succeeded 
the  famous  Athanasius  in  the  government  of  the  Church 
of  Alexandria,  wrote  to  him  in  the  most  respectful  and 
handsome  terms,  and  such  as  seemed  to  own  him  Bishop 
of  Constantinople,  and  confirm  him  in  that  dignity ;  and 
he  declared  to  his  colleagues  that  he  received  him  in  that 
quality.  Gregory's  great  reputation  drew  several  persons 
to  Constantinople,  distinguished  by  their  ^drtue  and 
erudition,  who  resorted  thither  to  enjoy  the  advantage 
of  such  a  master.  St.  Jerome  was  one  of  that  number, 
w^io  studied  the  holy  Scriptures  under  him.  But  Gre- 
gory was  not  so  happy  in  all  his  scholars ;  at  least  Max- 
imus,  the  cynic,  proved  an  exception.  He  was  a  native 
of  Alexandria,  and,  although  a  Christian,  made  public 
profession  of  the  philosophy  from  which  he  received 
his  surname.  He  wore  the  habit  peculiar  to  that  sect, 
had  long  hair,  carried  a  staft',  and  was  endowed  with  all 
the  impudence,  and  snarling  humours,  of  those  pre- 
tended philosophers.  After  he  had  run  through  several 
provinces,  and  given  proofs  of  a  vicious  and  disorderly 
inclination  wherever  he  came,  at  last  he  settled  at  Con- 
stantinople. He  was  so  great  a  master  of  the  art  of 
Q  L  2 


hypocrisy,  that  he  imposed  on  Gregory,  and  passed  for  a 
confessor,  and  one  who  had  suffered  for  rehgion  all  those 
punishments  his  extravagancies  had  met  with  in  his 
travels.  This  impostor  recommended  himself  further  to 
the  consideration  of  Gregory,  and  the  good  opinion  of 
the  people,  hy  applauding  his  sermons,  declaiming  stren- 
uously against  the  heretics,  and  wearing  the  appearance 
of  strict  piety  and  extraordinary  zeal.  Gregory  was  so 
far  deceived  in  him,  that  he  took  him  into  his  house, 
admitted  him  to  his  table,  unbosomed  himself  to  him 
with  the  utmost  ingenuousness  and  confidence ;  and,  as 
if  he  could  never  appear  too  sensible  of  his  supposed 
merit,  made  a  set  discourse  to  the  people  in  commenda- 
tion of  him.  This  is  what  we  now  have  under  the  title 
of  the  Eulogium  of  the  Philosopher  Hero ;  for  St.  Jerome 
assures  us  that  piece  was  designed  for  a  commendation 
of  Maximus. 

The  cynic,  having  thus  insinuated  himself  into  the 
favour  of  Gregory,  formed  a  design  of  supplanting  him, 
and  placing  himself  in  the  see  of  Constantinople.  The 
first  person  to  whom  he  communicated  his  intentions, 
and  brought  into  his  measures,  was  a  priest  of  that 
Church,  who  from  a  jealousy  of  Gregory's  eloquence,  had 
contracted  an  aversion  to  his  person.  Their  united  en- 
deavours prevailed  with  Peter  of  Alexandria,  to  favour 
the  ambitious  philosophers  pretensions,  the  very  man 
who  had  been  so  warm  the  year  before  for  Gregory. 
That  patriarch  in  every  other  particular  was  a  person  of 
a  spotless  character ;  and  it  was  never  known  what  could 
make  so  surprising  a  change  in  his  sentiments  and  con- 
duct ;  but  it  is  most  certain  that  he  espoused  his  cause 
so  heartily,  that  he  sent  seven  bishops  of  his  province  to 
Constantinople,  to  consecrate  Maximus ;  who  found 
means  to  borrow  a  considerable  sum  of  money,  which 
was  employed  in  purchasing  the  good  will  of  some,  who 
had  expressed  a  particular  affection  for  Gregory.  Having 
thus  formed  a  strong  party,  who  were  ready  to  declare 


for  tlieir  benefactor  upon  the  first  motion,  the  conspira- 
tors, who  were  all  Egyptians  but  one,  took  their  advantage 
of  Gregory's  being  confined  to  his  bed  by  sickness,  entered 
the  church  in  the  night,  and  began  the  ceremony  of 
Maximus's  consecration ;  but  the  day  came  upon  them 
too  fast,  and  would  not  give  them  leave  to  finish  their 
stolen  solemnity.  Such  of  the  clergy  as  lived  near  the 
church,  and  could  not  but  perceive  what  they  were  at, 
alarmed  the  town  immediately ;  upon  which  the  Egypt- 
ians were  forced  to  quit  the  place,  and  take  shelter  in  a 
private  house,  where  they  made  an  end  of  their  schisma- 
tical  consecration. 

The  whole  body  of  the  clergy,  and  all  the  faithful  of 
Constantinople,  resented  this  unwarrantable  enterprize ; 
Maximus's  true  character  was  published,  and  that  infa- 
mous person  driven  from  the  city  disgracefully.  Gregory 
was  most  sensibly  afflicted  at  this  tumultuous  proceeding, 
and  resolved  to  retire  to  avoid  being  the  least  instrumen- 
tal in  disturbing  the  peace  of  a  Church  he  had  so  happily 
recovered.  Full  of  this  resolution,  he  went  up  into  the 
pulpit  to  take  his  leave  of  his  flock.  As  soon  as  they 
heard  him  express  himself  on  that  subject,  the  whole 
congregation  rose  up,  declared  him  their  bishop,  and 
conjured  him  to  take  that  title,  and  not  abandon  them  in 
their  distress.  But  he  made  a  vigorous  resistance,  and 
seemed  resolved  not  to  continue  in  possession  of  the 
episcopal  see,  without  being  placed  in  it  canonically  by 
an  assembly  of  bishops.  They  grew  so  clamorous  in 
their  demands,  that  for  some  time  he  remained  silent, 
being  neither  able  to  make  them  give  over  their  pressing 
instances,  nor  prevail  with  himself  to  comply  with  them. 
This  contest  lasted  thus  until  the  evening,  and  then  they 
protested  he  should  never  quit  the  church  until  he  had 
granted  their  request.  Finding  them  thus  resolute,  he 
promised  to  stay  with  them  until  the  arrival  of  some 
prelates,  who  were  expected  there  shortly;  but  would 
not  give  them  this  assurance  upon  oath,  as  they  seemed 


to  require.  Thus  Maximus's  attempt  only  enhanced  the 
affections  of  the  people  for  Gregory,  and  the  heretics 
were  disappointed  of  their  hopes  of  dividing  the  Catholics 
by  this  dispute. 

That  unhappy  person,  though  loaded  with  the  curses 
of  the  people,  and  driven  out  of  the  city,  had  the  as- 
surance to  make  a  journey  to  Thessalonica,  in  company 
with  the  Egyptian  bishops,  who  had  ordained  him,  where 
his  business  was  to  beg  the  emperor's  protection,  and  en- 
gage him  to  support  him  in  the  see  of  Constantinople. 
Theodosius  repulsed  him,  upon  which  he  was  obliged  to 
retire  to  Egypt.  Gregory  had  now  no  disturbance,  and 
therefore  pursued  his  apostolical  employments  with  his 
usual  fervour  and  assiduity  until  Theodosius  came  to 
Constantinople,  which  was  on  the  24th  of  November,  380. 
That  prince  had  not  been  three  days  in  the  city,  when 
he  drove  the  Arians  out  of  all  the  churches  there,  and 
restored  them  to  the  Catholics,  after  they  had  been  alien- 
ated forty  years.  Gregory  desired  to  retire,  for  he  was 
humble  enough  to  believe  his  absence  might  contribute 
to  the  peace  of  the  Church.  But  the  emperor,  who  from 
the  first  moment  of  his  arrival  had  treated  him  with  great 
respect,  and  spoken  very  advantageously  of  his  conduct,  not 
only  pressed  his  stay,  but  would  have  the  satisfaction  of 
putting  him  in  possession  of  the  great  church,  which  he 
performed  with  much  solemnity.  The  Catholics  desired 
Theodosius  to  make  their  joy  complete,  by  obliging  the 
Saint  to  accept  of  the  title  of  Bishop  of  Constantinople. 
Gregory  refused  the  profferred  dignity  the  first  day,  but 
was  obliged  to  submit  the  next,  and  was  placed  in  the 
episcopal  chair  by  force.  He  could  scarce  pardon  his 
friends  this  act  of  violence,  and  looked  on  his  instalment 
as  irregular.  For,  though  he  was  possessed  of  no  other 
bishopric,  and  the  see  of  Constantinople  was  vacant,  he 
knew  a  canon  of  the  council  of  Antioch,  forbidding  the 
making  such  a  step  without  the  authority  of  a  lawful 


Theodosius,  having  restored  the  churches  to  the  Catho- 
lics, under  the  direction  of  Gregory,  put  him  in  posses- 
sion of  the  episcopal  palace  too,  and  the  whole  revenues 
of  the  diocese,  which  were  grown  very  considerable.     As 
they  had  suffered  much  from  the  irregular  conduct  and 
extravagance  of  the  Arian  prelates ;  some  of  his  friends 
would  have  had  him  inquire  into  and  punish  the  mal- ad- 
ministration of  such  as  had  wasted  or  destroyed  what  the 
liberality  of  princes  and  the  nobility  had  granted  to  the 
Church  of  Constantinople ;  but  he  would  not  listen  to  the 
proposal ;  being  assured  that  he  was  accountable  to  God 
only  for  what  he  had  received.     Gregory  was  so  great  a 
stranger  to   contention,    that   he   treated    his   professed 
enemies  with  an  engaging  sweetness ;  and,  although  the 
emperor  was  always  ready  to  employ  his  authority  for 
reducing  the  heretics,  Gregory  never  had  recourse  to  his 
assistance,  but  chose  to  overcome  them  by  acts  of  charity 
and  generosity.     But  they  w-ere  not  to  be  gained,   nor 
prevailed  with  to  pardon  him  the  disgrace  of  their  party. 
After   several   repeated   insults,    which  he  bore  with  a 
patience  truly  Christian,  they  made  an  attempt  on  his 
life,  as  the  only  expedient  left  for  delivering  themselves 
from  so  formidable  an  adversary.    When  he  was  installed 
by   the   emperor,   the   crowd   and   fatigue   of  that  cere- 
mony obliged  him  to  retire  into  his  chamber,  to  repose 
himself.       Several    persons    came   to   make   him    their 
compliments  on  that  occasion,  and  after  a  short  stay  left 
him.      Gregory  perceived    one  of  the    company  remain 
behind ;  he  was  pale,  wore  long  hair,  and  had  in  every 
particular  the  appearance  of  a  person  in  distress.    Alarm- 
ed   at    his    figure,   he   was    going   to    arise,    when    the 
young  man  threw  himself  at  his   feet;    and  fear   and 
grief  seemed  to  have  deprived  him  of  the  use  of  speech. 
Gregory  asked   him  who  he  was,  whence  he  came,  and 
what  was  his   business   there;    but   could  get  no  other 
answer  from   him  than  tears,  sighs,  and  such  postures 
as  were  expressive  of  a  deep  sorrow.     Several  endeavours 


were  used  to  oblige  him  to  quit  the  house,  which 
nothing  but  downright  force  could  do.  One  of  those 
that  helped  to  carry  him  off,  told  the  bishop  that  the 
afflicted  person  was  an  assassin,  who  would  have  mur- 
dered him,  had  not  a  singular  providence  interposed ; 
but  that,  touched  with  remorse  for  the  villanous  design, 
he  was  come  to  accuse  himself,  Gregory,  moved  at  this 
account,  and  the  countenance  of  the  criminal,  dismissed 
him  with  the  following  words :  "  Go  in  peace,"  said  he, 
"  God  preserve  you,  since  my  life  is  secure.  It  is  but 
reasonable  I  should  treat  you  with  the  same  tenderness 
providence  has  shown  in  my  favour.  As  your  fault  has 
made  you  mine,  take  care  to  become  worthy  of  God  and 
me."  This  action  made  a  great  noise  in  the  town,  and 
gained  the  bishop  the  affections  of  several,  who  until 
then  had  looked  on  him  with  contempt  or  coldness. 

Gregory  continued  the  same  zeal  and  simplicity  in  the 
government  of  the  faithful  of  Constantinople  ;  for  neither 
his  present  situation,  nor  the  protection  and  presence  of 
the  emperor  made  any  alteration  in  his  heart  or  actions. 
While  other  prelates  appeared  frequently  at  court,  and 
solicited  the  favour  of  such  as  were  in  power,  Gregory 
led  a  most  retired  and  private  life  from  all  that  was 
great  and  considerable  in  the  world.  Nothing  but  charity 
and  a  desire  of  relieving  the  miserable  could  prevail  with 
him  to  make  visits  to  great  men  ;  and,  although  he  was 
sometimes  obliged  to  dine  with  the  emperor,  he  never 
did  it  without  committing  violence  on  his  inclinations. 

Gregory,  who  still  considered  himself  only  as  a  person 
lent  to  the  Church  of  Constantinople,  was  always  desir- 
ous of  returning  to  bis  solitude.  He  flattered  him- 
self with  the  prospect  of  being  master  of  his  wish  in  the 
general  council  held  at  Constantinople  in  381,  but  was 
disappointed.  The  ordination  of  Maximus  was  declared 
null  by  a  canon  made  on  purpose,  which  is  the  fourth  of 
that  council.  This  decision  was  followed  by  a  speech 
made  by  Theodosius  in  commendation  of  Gregory's  great 


virtue  and  capacity,  which  ended  in  a  desire  of  having 
him  regularly  established  in  the  see  of  Constantinople. 
Gregory  opposed  the  motion,  and  employed  both  prayers 
and  tears  upon  this  occasion ;  but  the  authority  of  that 
venerable  assembly,  seconding  the  prince's  good  disposi- 
tions in  favour  of  the  Church,  overcame  all  the  resistance 
he  could  make ;  and  what  induced  him  to  yield  with  less 
difficulty  was,  as  he  assures  us,  because  he  hoped  his 
situation  in  that  see  would  promote  his  desire  of  uniting 
the  Eastern  and  Western  Churches,  which  had  been  long 
divided  by  the  schism  of  Antioch.  He  was  solemnly 
received  and  established  bishop  of  Constantinople  by  the 
prelates  there  present,  and  placed  on  the  episcopal  throne 
by  Meletius,  who  presided  in  that  council. 

That  prelate  died  soon  after  this  ceremony  ;  and  those 
who  had  been  sensibly  afflicted  at  the  division  at  Antioch, 
hoped  the  breach  would  now  be  closed  by  Paulinus  re- 
maining in  sole  possession  of  that  see,  according  to  an 
agreement  which  had  been  made.  But  that  was  super- 
seded, and  the  council  debated  about  a  successor  in  the 
Church  of  Antioch.  Gregory,  perceiving  that  this  proceed- 
ing broke  all  the  measures  that  had  been  taken  for  bring- 
ing affairs  to  a  happy  conclusion,  and  defeated  those  com- 
fortable hopes  which  had  been  so  effectual  in  engaging 
him  to  accept  the  bishopric,  opposed  the  election  with 
a  becoming  resolution.  Since  the  decease  of  Meletius, 
Gregory  was  at.the  head  of  the  council  of  Constantinople, 
and  used  all  the  authority  of  his  situation  to  dissuade 
the  prelates  from  an  act  that  might  perpetuate  the  un- 
happy schism.  He  observed  to  them,  that,  even  if 
both  the  contending  parties  were  angels,  it  would  not  be 
reasonable  that  their  disputes  should  be  allowed  to  dis- 
turb the  peace  of  the  Church ;  and,  to  convince  them 
that  what  he  said  proceeded  from  a  sincere  desire  of 
seeing  union  restored,  and  that  self-interest  had  no  share 
in  his  present  opposition,  he  begged  they  would  allow 
him  to  resign  his  bishopric,  and  spend  the  rcmaindoi'  of 


his  days  at  a  distance,  both  from  the  honour  and  danger 
that  attended  his  post  in  the  Church.  The  younger 
part  of  the  bishops  urged  the  choosing  a  Bishop  of  An- 
tioch,  brought  over  the  others,  and  chose  Flavian.  Gre- 
gory was  not  disposed  to  change  his  opinion  on  the  affair 
in  question ;  and  although  he  had  no  objection  against 
the  personal  character  of  Flavian,  could  not  be  prevailed 
on  to  approve  of  the  election,  although  the  importunities 
of  his  friends  were  added  to  the  authority  of  the  council ; 
and  from  that  moment  he  was  more  and  more  confirmed 
in  his  resolution  of  quitting  his  bishopric.  Seeing  the 
emperor's  intentions  for  restoring  the  peace  of  the  Church 
by  convening  this  council  likely  to  be  defeated  by  this 
act,  and  the  meetings  of  the  bishops  full  of  confusion 
and  disorder,  he  appeared  now  but  seldom  among  them, 
and  his  want  of  health  passed  for  the  reason  of  his  ab- 
sence ;  he  changed  his  habitation,  to  be  at  a  distance 
from  the  council,  that  his  appearance  there  might  not  be 
insisted  on.  The  most  considerable  persons  in  the  town, 
perceiving  by  his  conduct  that  he  was  in  earnest  in  his 
design  of  leaving  his  see,  went  to  him  with  tears  in  their 
eyes,  and  conjured  him  not  to  abandon  the  good  work, 
he  had  so  happily  begun.  Such  solemn  and  pressing 
invitations  could  not  but  affect  him,  although  they  were 
not  strong  enough  to  engage  his  promise  of  devoting  the 
remainder  of  his  days  to  the  Church  of  Constantinople. 

In  the  meantime  the  bishops  of  Egypt  came  to  the 
council,  with  Timothy  of  Alexandria  at  their  head.  That 
prelate  was  brother  and  successor  to  Peter,  already  men- 
tioned. They  were  joined  by  the  Macedonian  bishops; 
and  were  all  alike  in  the  interest  of  Paulinus,  the  sur- 
viving Bishop  of  Antioch.  One  would  imagine  a  simili- 
tude of  sentiments  in  that  important  affair  must  have 
united  them  to  Gregory,  who  was  so  much  displeased 
at  the  election  of  Flavian,  On  the  contrary,  however, 
those  prelates  complained  that  Gregory's  election  to  the 
see  of  Constantinople  was  uncanonica],  because  he  had 


before  been  placed  in  another :  but  they  either  did  not 
know,  or  were  not  disposed  to  take  notice  that  Gregory 
never  was  actually  possessed  of  the  Bishopric  of  Sasima, 
nor  ever  took  the  title  of  Bishop  of  Nazianzum.  But  the 
truth  was,  this  complaint  proceeded  more  from  a  resolu- 
tion of  opposing  the  Eastern  bishops,  who  had  inthroni- 
zed  him,  than  from  any  aversion  to  Gregory,  as  they 
made  no  scruple  of  telUng  him  in  private.  Gregory 
was  glad  of  this  favourable  opportunity  of  recovering 
his  liberty,  which  had  so  long  been  his  only  wish. 
Soon  after  this  debate  arose  he  went  to  the  council,  and 
declared  he  desired  nothing  so  much  as  peace  and  union 
in  the  Church,  to  which  he  was  ready  to  contribute  his 
best  endeavours :  assured  them  that,  if  his  holding  the 
see  of  Constantinople  gave  any  disturbance,  he  was  wil- 
ling to  be  thrown  over  board,  like  Jonas,  to  appease  the 
storm,  although  he  had  not  raised  it:  observed  that  if 
others  would  follow  his  example,  the  Church  would  soon 
be  blest  with  repose:  added,  that  indeed  it  was  high 
time  for  him  to  retire  from  a  charge  to  which  his  infir- 
mities made  him  unequal ;  and  wished  his  place  might 
be  supplied  by  one  of  such  zeal  and  capacity  as  the  pre- 
sent state  of  the  Church  required. 

The  fathers  of  the  council  seemed  at  first  amazed  at 
his  speech,  but  were  weak  enough  to  accept  of  this  act 
of  resignation  with  a  facility  that  was  blamed  by  all  that 
wished  the  good  of  the  Church.  When  Gregory  had 
thus  delivered  his  mind,  he  went  to  the  emperoi  -^^^d  in 
the  presence  of  several  persons  told  him,  "  He  was  come 
to  court  on  the  same  errand  which  usually  brought  his 
majesty's  subjects  thither,  which  was  to  beg  a  favour. 
But,"  says  he,  "I  am  not  undertaking  to  petition  for 
ornaments  for  the  church,  or  places  for  my  relations; 
all  I  ask  is,  your  royal  leave  to  remove  an  object  of  envy. 
I  am  become  odious  to  several,  some  of  whom  are  other- 
wise my  friends,  only  because  I  prefer  pleasing  God  to 
all  other  considerations.  Your  majesty  must  remember 
VOL.    V.  2  m 


how  unwilling  I  was  to  accept  of  this  charge  even  when 
pressed  by  your  hand,  and  it  is  in  your  power  to  make 
my  flock  consent  to  my  leaving  them."  Theodosius  was 
charmed  with  Gregory's  speech  and  behaviour,  which 
gained  the  applause  of  all  present ;  and  the  prince,  out 
of  affection  for  the  holy  prelate,  granted  his  request. 

The  reasons  the  bishops  gave  for  consenting  so  easily 
to  his  quitting  his  see,  were  the  disturbance  his  presence 
caused  in  that  Church,  and  his  bodily  infirmities ;  but 
there  were  some  grounds  for  suspecting  they  were  not 
entirely  free  from  jealousy  at  his  reputation,  and  looked 
on  the  sobriety  and  gravity  of  our  prelate  as  a  tacit  re- 
flection on  their  pride  and  luxury.  The  corruption, 
however,  was  not  universal,  for  several  could  not  bear  to 
see  him  thus  abandoned ;  but  as  soon  as  they  perceived 
the  greatest  part  of  their  colleagues  sit  down  contented 
under  the  loss  of  so  valuable  a  person,  they  left  the  as- 
sembly, and  were  resolved  not  to  be  witnesses  of  the 
promotion  of  another  to  the  see  of  Constantinople,  while 
Gregory  was  alive.  For  their  comfort,  and  that  of  his 
clergy  and  people,  he  made  a  farewell  discourse  to  them 
in  the  great  church ;  in  which  he  gives  them  an  account 
of  his  own  conduct,  describes  the  deplorable  condition 
in  which  he  found  the  Church  of  Constantinople,  and 
the  flourishing  state  in  which  he  left  it :  repeats  the 
doctrine  he  had  taught  among  them;  protests  he  has 
been  candid,  impartial,  and  disinterested  in  the  govern- 
ment of  his  flock ;  complains  of  his  misfortune  in  not 
pleasing  them,  and  then  takes  a  formal  and  pathetical 
leave  of  his  Church,  the  clergy,  the  people,  the  emperor, 
and  the  whole  world,  which  he  renounced  most  heartily, 
and  started  for  Cappadocia.  While  he  was  there  he 
made  his  will,  or  at  least  renewed  one  drawn  up  at  Con- 
stantinople, before^ Jie  came  to  the  resolution  of  leaving 
that  city.  It  is  dated  on  the  thirty-first  of  December, 
381,  and  signed  by  seven  bishops.  This  piece  is  drawn 
up  in  all  the  forms  of  Roman  law  ;  but  is  not  of  the 
same  consequence  to  the  devout  or   learned    reader,  a^ 


his  other  works;  because  it  contains  onlj^  the  disposal 
of  his  fortune,  and  the  regulation  of  his  domestic  affairs. 

Upon  the  retreat  of  Gregory,  Timothy,  Patriarch  of 
Alexandria,  presided  in  the  council  of  Constantinople, 
and  Nectarius,  recommended  by  the  emperor,  was  raised 
to  the  vacant  see.  One  of  the  first  employments  Gregory 
engaged  in  after  his  return  to  Nazianzum,  was  to  wipe 
off  the  aspersions  his  enemies  had  cast  on  his  character. 
As  the  best  way  of  performing  this  was  to  write  an  exact 
and  impartial  history  of  his  own  conduct,  he  has  given 
us  the  particulars  of  his  life  from  his  birth  to  his  leaving 
Constantinople  in  a  poem.  He  was  in  his  retreat  at  Ari- 
anzum,  the  j)lace  of  his  birth,  which  descended  to  him  from 
his  father,  when  Theodosius  solicited  him  to  appear  at  a 
second  council  to  be  held  at  Constantinople,  in  382,  or 
rather  the  same  continued;  for  it  is  to  this  assembly 
that  we  owe  the  famous  creed,  which  is  always  said  to 
be  made  in  the  first  council  of  Constantinople ;  but  he 
could  not  be  dragged  from  the  repose  he  then  enjoyed 
and  forced  into  disputes,  to  which  he  ever  had  an  utter 
aversion.  Instead  of  that,  he  went  to  Cesarea  in  Cappa- 
docia,  and  there  expressed  his  veneration  for  the  memory 
of  his  worthy  friend  St.  Basil,  by  a  panegyric  he  spoke 
before  the  whole  Church  of  that  city.  When  he  had 
discharged  that  debt,  he  returned  to  Arianzum,  where 
he  led  a  very  penitential  life,  although  his  infirmities 
would  scarce  allow  him  that  satisfaction.  He  spent  a 
whole  Lent  here  without  speaking,  and  during  that  time 
wrote  a  poem  by  way  of  apology  for  his  long  silence, 
which  was  followed  by  another  at  Easter,  in  which  he 
professes  he  enters  again^upon  the  use  of  his  speech  only 
to  give  praise  to  Jesus  Christ  at  that  great  festival. 

Nothing  but  the  miserable  condition  in  which  he  found 
the  Church  of  Nazianzum  at  his  return,  could  disturb 
the  pleasure  he  enjoyed  in  his  lovely  retreat.  It  had 
been  wretchedly  neglected  ever  since  he  left  it,  and  was 
now  overrun  with  the  errors  of  Apollinarius.     At  first  he 


thought  it  best  to  attempt  the  cure  by  soft  and  gentle 
means;  but,  finding  those  heretics,  not  only  active  in 
propagating  their  false  doctrine,  but  taking  advantage 
of  his  patience  and  forbearance  to  boast  of  his  being  of 
the  same  sentiments,  he  thought  he  was  now  obliged  to 
declare  himself,  and  undeceive  the  world  in  that  point. 
He  wrote  to  Cledonius,  to  whom  he  had  left  the  chief 
care  of  that  Church  in  his  absence,  and  wiped  off  the 
aspersion,  by  confuting  the  tenets  of  those  heretics  at  large. 

About  the  year  383,  Gregory,  most  sensibly  afflicted 
to  see  the  Church  of  Nazianzum  suffer  so  many  inconve- 
niences for  want  of  a  chief  pastor,  after  repeated  importu- 
nities, prevailed  with  the  prelates  of  that  province  to 
grant  the  much-wanted  blessing ;  and  Eulalius  was  made 

The  remainder  of  St.  Gregory's  life  was  passed  in  the 
retirement  of  his  country  house,  where  he  solaced  himself 
by  the  pursuits  of  poetry  and  literature,  and  by  the  cul- 
tivation of  his  garden.  Here  he  received  visits,  not  only 
from  his  friends  but  from  strangers  also,  whose  merit 
claimed  his  consideration.     He  died  in  390. 

Gregoi7  Nazianzen  appears  before  us  in  an  amiable 
character.  Although,  according  to  the  religious  practice 
of  the  age,  he  was  in  some  respects  an  ascetic,  yet,  in 
his  love  of  literary  ease  he  was  self-indulgent :  declining 
or  retreating  from  posts  of  duty  to  enjoy  the  delights  of 
literary  retirement.  His  writings  have  been  highly 
praised ;  but  they  appear  to  the  present  writer  to  be  rather 
the  efforts  of  a  man  of  literature,  than  the  gushings  out 
of  a  soul  fervent  with  devotion.  He  is  too  rhetorical, 
and  is  one  of  the  fathers  whose  rhetorical  expressions 
have  sometimes  been  quoted  by  Romanists  to  justify 
their  peculiarities.  Gregory  is  said  to  have  written  no 
fewer  than  30,000  lines  of  poetiy.  Part  of  his  poems 
were  published  in  the  edition  of  his  works  by  the  Abbe 
de  Billy,  Paris,  1609-11,  which  contains  also  his  orations 
and   epistles ;    twenty  more  poems,    under  the  title  of 


Carmina  Cygnea,  were  afterwards  published  by  J.  Tollius, 
in  his  Insignia  Itinerarii  Italici,  4to,  Utrecht,  1696  ;  and 
Muratori  discovered,  and  published  in  his  Anecdota 
GrEEca,  Padua,  1709,  a  number  of  Gregory's  epigrams. 

His  works  consist  of  fifty-five  discourses, — poems  and 
epistles.  Several  parts  of  his  works  have  been  edited 
both  in  England  and  on  the  Continent.  The  following 
are  the  complete  editions  of  his  works  : — 

Gregorii  Nazianzeni  Opera,  a  Wolfgango  Musula,  Gr. 
fol.     Basil,  1550. 

Second  edition.    Jacob  Bilii,  a  Fred.  Mor- 

ellio,  Gr.  et  Lat.,  fol.    Paris,  1609-11.    2  vols. 

Third  edition.      Billii  et  Morellii,  Gr.  et 

Lat.,  fol.  Paris,  1680.  2  vols.  Edit.  O^t— Gregorii  Opera. 
Cave.    Church  of  the  Fathers.    Book  of  the  Fathers.  Fleury. 


Geegory  of  Nyssa,  one  of  the  fathers  of  the  Church, 
was  born  in  Cappadocia  about  333.  He  was  a  younger 
brother  of  St.  Basil,  and  enjoyed  the  advantages  of  a 
liberal  education  under  able  masters,  and  distinguished 
himself  by  his  proficiency  in  literature  and  science.  He 
excelled  in  rhetoric,  and  preached  as  a  professor  and 
pleader  with  great  success.  He  married  a  woman  of 
virtue  and  piety,  named  Theosebia,  of  whom  Gregory 
Nazianzen  has  spoken  in  the  highest  terms  of  com- 
mendation. He  appears  to  have  officiated  as  a  reader 
in  a  church,  and  to  have  been  originally  intended 
for  the  ecclesiastical  life,  but  his  passion  for  rhetoric, 
to  the  study  of  which  he  had  devoted  his  youth, 
haunted  him  so  incessantly,  that,  unable  to  withstand 
its  continual  allurements,  he,  for  a  time,  forsook  his 
clerical  duties,  and  gave  lessons  to  youth  in  this  his 
favourite  art. 

St.  Gregory  Nazianzen  heard  with  grief  of  this  dere- 
liction in  the  brother  of  his  friend.  His  own  passion 
S  m2 


for  rhetoric  was  not  less  ardent,  yet  he  had  had  the  reso- 
lution, when  at  Athens,  to  refuse  a  professorship  in  that 
dazzling  branch  of  human  learning,  offered  to  him  in  the 
hope  of  retaining  him  in  that  city,  and  of  withdrawing 
his  attention  from  sacred  studies  :  he  therefore  conceived 
himself  every  way  authorised,  both  by  experience  and 
friendship,  to  address  him  on  the  subject,  which  he  ac- 
cordingly did  with  equal  sincerity  and  affection.  "  Na- 
ture," says  he,  in  his  letter  to  him,  *'  has  gifted  me  with 
good  common  sense :  will  you  pardon  me  for  speaking 
with  so  much  confidence  of  myself?  This  disposition  of 
mind  makes  me  spare  neither  my  friends  nor  myself, 
the  moment  that  I  see  any  thing  amiss,  either  in  the 
one  or  the  other.  There  exists  between  all  those  who 
live  under  the  law  of  God,  and  march  under  the 
banner  of  the  same  Gospel,  a  holy  association,  which 
unites  them  closely  to  each  other.  Thus,  when  an  inju- 
rious report  concerning  yourself  is  circulating  in  the  dark, 
can  you  be  displeased  if  I  have  the  frankness  to  apprize 
you  of  it  V  It  is  said,  then,  and  not  to  your  credit,  that 
the  daemon  of  ambition,  as  the  Greek  poet  expresses  it, 
is  leading  you,  without  any  attempt  at  oj^position  on  your 
part,  into  an  evil  path.  What  change  has  been  wrought 
in  you  ?  In  what  do  you  find  yourself  less  perfect,  that 
you  now  abandon  our  sacred  volumes,  which  you  have 
been  in  the  habit  of  reading  to  the  people,  for  profane 
authors,  and  determine  upon  embracing  the  profession 
of  a  rhetorician,  rather  than  that  of  a  Christian  ?  As  for 
myself,  I  have  done  exactly  the  reverse,  and  I  thank 
God  for  it.  Do  not  persist,  I  conjure  you,  in  your  de- 
sign :  return  to  what  you  were  before, — the  most  excel- 
lent of  men.  Do  not  say  to  me,  '  Does  it  then  follow 
that  I  have  renounced  the  Christian  life  ?'  God  forbid ! 
Not  entirely,  perhaps,  have  you  renounced  it,  but  in  part, 
at  any  rate,  you  have ; — even  if  there  were  no  objection 
but  the  ground  or  pretext  for  scandal  that  you  give,  that 
motive  alone  ought  to  turn  you  from  your  undertaking. 
What  good  can  result  from    giving  rise  to   malignant 


remarks?  We  are  not  placed  in  the  world  solely  for 
ourselves,  but  for  others,  and  it  is  not  enough  to  retain 
our  own  esteem :  we  ought  to  endeavour  to  merit  that  of 
others  also.  I  have  given  you  my  advice ;  you  will  ex- 
cuse my  frankness,  for  the  sake  of  the  friendship  I  bear 
you,  the  grief  I  feel,  and  the  zeal  by  w4iich  I  am  animated 
towards  yourself,  the  sacerdotal  office,  and  Christians  in 
general.  Must  I  pray  with  you,  or  for  you  ?  I  implore 
in  your  behalf  the  aid  of  that  God  who  can  call  even  the 
dead  to  life." 

This  letter  recalled  Gregory  to  a  sense  of  the  all- abso- 
lute claims  his  clerical  duties  had  upon  his  time  and 
talents,  and  he  accordingly  resumed  them  with  a  humility 
which  showed  his  sincerity.  His  good  resolutions  were, 
no  doubt,  strengthened  by  a  visit  he  paid,  immediately 
after  his  return  to  the  altar,  to  Macrina,  that  affectionate 
and  zealous  sister,  who,  after  devoting  the  bloom  of  her 
youth  to  the  care  of  her  brothers,  had  employed  her  ad- 
vancing years  in  the  guiding  a  small  company  of  holy 
women  in  the  paths  of  heavenly  life,  on  the  banks  of  the 
Irus,  amid  the  seclusion  of  the  forests  of  Pontus,  already 
consecrated  to  devotion  by  the  labours  of  her  brother  Basil. 

No  sooner  was  St.  Basil  elevated  to  the  episcopal  chair 
of  Cesarea,  in  370,  than  he  summoned  his  brother  Gre- 
gory to  assist  him  in  the  duties  of  his  new  diocese ;  but 
the  Bishopric  of  Nyssa,  a  city  of  Cappadocia,  near  Les- 
ser Armenia,  becoming  vacant  the  following  year,  Basil 
gave  up  the  pleasure  of  his  brother's  aid  and  society,  and 
consecrated  him  to  it,  in  372,  anxious  rather  to  place 
him  in  a  situation  where  he  could  be  still  more  exten- 
sively useful,  than  to  retain  him  near  himself. 

In  this  see  he  signalized  his  zeal  in  defence  of  the  Ca- 
tholic faith,  and  in  opposition  to  the  Arians ;  in  conse- 
quence of  which  he  drew  upon  himself  the  vengeance  of 
that  party,  and  was  banished  from  his  see  by  the  emperor 
Valens  about  374.  On  the  death  of  Valens  in  378,  he 
was  recalled  by  Gratian,  and  restored  to  the  possession 
of  his  episcopal  see. 


A  council,  probably  that  of  Aritioch,  had  ordered  St. 
Gregory  of  Nyssa  to  reform  the  Church  of  Arabia  ;  and, 
Palestine  bordering  upon  it,  he  visited  Jerusalem  and  the 
holy  places,  as  well  to  perform  a  vow,  as  to  settle  peace 
and  tranquility  among  them  who  governed  the  Church  of 
Jerusalem.  For  his  greater  convenience  in  this  journey 
the  emperor  allowed  him  the  use  of  the  public  carriages  ; 
so  that  having  a  waggon  at  his  own  disposal,  it  served 
him  and  those  who  accompanied  him  both  as  a  church 
and  a  monastery ;  they  sang  psalms,  and  observed  their 
fasts  therein  as  they  travelled.  He  visited  Bethlehem, 
Mount  Calvary,  the  holy  Sepulchre,  and  the  Mount  of 
Olives  ;  however,  he  was  not  much  edified  by  the  inhabi- 
tants of  the  country,  who,  he  says,  were  very  corrupt 
in  their  manners,  and  notoriously  guilty  of  all  sorts  of 
crimes,  especially  murder.  Therefore,  being  afterwards 
consulted  by  a  Monk  of  Cappadocia,  concerning  the  pil- 
grimage to  Jerusalem,  he  declares  "  that  he  does  not  think 
it  proper  for  such  as  have  renounced  the  world,  and  have 
resolved  to  arrive  at  Christian  perfection,  to  undertake 
these  journeys  ;  first,  because  they  are  no  way  obliged  to 
it,  our  Lord  having  ordained  nothing  concerning  them 
in  the  gospel.  In  the  next  place,  because  it  is  dangerous 
to  those  who  propose  to  lead  a  perfect  life ;  solitude  and 
retirement  from  the  world  being  necessary  for  such,  that 
they  may  not  fall  into  impurity,  and  that  they  may  avoid 
meeting  with  persons  of  a  contrary  sex.  And  these  things 
cannot  be  observed  in  travelling.  A  woman,  says  he, 
cannot  go  a  journey  without  a  man  to  attend  her,  to  help 
her  to  get  upon,  and  light  off  her  horse,  and  hold  her  up 
where  the  way  is  bad  ;  whether  he  be  a  friend,  or  one 
hired  for  this  purpose,  it  is  still  inconvenient.  Besides, 
in  the  inns  and  cities  of  the  East,  people  have  great 
liberty  to  commit  sin  ;  and  they  meet  with  such  objects 
as  may  pollute  the  eyes  and  the  ears,  and  consequently 
the  heart.  If  purity  of  manners  is  a  sign  that  God  is 
present,  we  ought  to  believe  that  he  resides  in  Cappado- 


cia,  rather  than  any  other  place  :  and  I  know  not  whether 
we  can  find,  in  the  whole  world  besides,  so  many  altars 
erected  to  his  honour.  Advise  your  brethren,  therefore, 
rather  to  leave  the  body  to  go  to  the  Lord,  than  to  leave 
Cappadocia  to  go  to  Palestine."  This  was  the  opinion  of 
St.  Gregory  of  Nyssa  concerning  pilgrimages. 

In  381  and  the  subsequent  years,  Gregory  assisted  at 
the  council  of  Constantinople,  and  was  one  of  the  bishops 
chosen  to  form  a  centre  of  Catholic  communion  in  the 
East.  In  this  city  he  pronounced  the  funeral  oration  of 
his  sister  Macrina,  whose  last  moments  he  had  the  com- 
fort of  attending,  warned  of  her  illness  in  a  dream,  after 
a  separation  of  eight  years,  and  whose  remains  he  carried 
himself  to  the  grave,  assisted  by  the  most  eminent  of 
the  clergy  in  the  place. 

Three  years  afterwards,  Gregory  was  deprived,  by  death, 
of  his  wife,  a  woman  of  many  virtues,  who,  in  her  later 
years,  devoted  herself  to  religious  duties,  and  has  been 
supposed  by  some  to  have  become  a  deaconess.  His  own 
death  took  place  in  the  beginning  of  the  year  400. 

The  editions  of  his  works  are  as  follows  : — 

Gregorii  Xysseni  Opera  cura  Frontonis  Duccei.  Paris, 
1605,  2  vols.*^ 

Studio  Fred.  Morelli.     Paris,  1615, 

2  vols,  cum  Not.  Duccei. 

Cura  Jac.  Gretseri,  fol.    Paris,  1618. 

Opera  Integra  cum  Not.  Johan.  Leun- 

clavii,  Johan.  Gulonii,  Front.  Duccei.  3  vols,  fol.  Paris, 
1638,  ^gid.  Morell. — Gregorii  Opera.  Bupin.  Cave. 
Book  of  the  Fathers. 


Theodohus  Gregory,  surnamed  Thaumaturgus,  was 
born,  in  the  third  century,  of  rich  and  noble  parents,  at 
Neo-Cesarea,  in  Pontus.  He  w^as  educated  very  care- 
fully in  the  learning  and  religion  of  Paganism  by  his 
father,  who  was  a  warm  zealot ;  but  losing  this  parent  at 


fourteen  years  of  age,  his  inclinations  led  him  to  Christi- 
anity. Having  studied  the  law  for  some  time,  he  went  first 
to  Alexandria,  then  become  famous  by  the  Platonic  school 
lately  erected  there.  Returning  home,  he  staid  for  a 
short  time  at  Athens,  and  then  applied  himself  once 
more  to  the  study  of  the  law,  but  growing  weary  of  it,  he 
turned  to  philosophy.  The  fame  of  Origen,  who  at  that 
time  had  opened  a  school  at  Cesarea  in  Palestine,  soon 
reached  his  ears.  To  that  city  therefore  he  betook  him- 
self, and  placed  himself  under  that  celebrated  master, 
who  endeavoured  to  settle  him  in  the  full  belief  of  Chris- 
tianity. About  239  he  took  leave  of  Origen,  after  deliv- 
ering before  a  numerous  audience  a  noble  oration  in  his 
praise,  and  returned  to  Neo-Cesarea,  and  was  ordained. 

His  ordination  was  very  remarkable,  if  not  singular. 
Phedimus,  Bishop  of  Amasea,  knowing  the  worth  of  this 
young  man,  and  being  grieved  that  a  person  of  such  ac- 
complishments should  live  useless  in  the  world,  was 
desirous  to  consecrate  him  to  God  and  his  church.  On 
the  other  hand,  Gregory  was  afraid  of  such  a  charge,  and 
industriously  concealed  himself  from  the  Bishop  of  Ama- 
sea, whose  design  he  was  aware  of.  At  length  Phedimus, 
tired  of  his  fruitless  attempts  to  meet  Gregory,  looking 
up  to  God,  to  whom  they  were  both  present,  instead  of 
laying  his  hands  upon  Gregory,  addressed  a  discourse  to 
him,  and  consecrated  him  to  God,  though  bodily  absent; 
assigning  him  also  a  city,  which  till  that  time  was  so 
addicted  to  idolatry,  that  in  it,  and  in  all  the  country 
round  about,  there  were  not  above  seventeen  believers. 

Gregory  was  then  at  the  distance  of  three  days'  jour- 
ney. Nyssen  does  not  inform  us  how  Gregory  came  to 
the  knowledge  of  what  had  been  done  :  however,  he  says, 
that  now  Gregory  thought  himself  obliged  to  acquiesce ; 
and  that  afterwards  he  was  consecrated  with  the  usual 

Here  he  continued  till  sbout  350,  when  he  fled  from  the 
Decian  persecution  ;  but,  as  soon  as  the  storm  was  over, 
he  returned  to  his  charge,  and  in  a  general  visitation  of 


his  diocese  established  in  every  place  anniversary  festivals 
and  solemnities  in  honour  of  the  martyrs  who  had  suffered 
in  the  late  persecution.  Not  long  aftenvards  (264)  he 
attended  at  the  synod  at  Antioch,  where  Paul  of  Samo- 
sata,  bishop  of  the  place,  made  a  feigned  recantation  of 
his  heretical  opinions.  He  died  most  probably  in  the 
following  year.  With  respect  to  the  miracles  ascribed  to 
him,  they  do  not  rest  upon  the  authority  of  his  con- 
temporaries, and  are  more  numerous  and  extraordinary 
than  will  now  be  readily  credited.  We  are  chiefly  in- 
debted for  an  account  of  them  to  Gregory  of  Nyssa,  who 
flourished  about  a  hundred  years  after  Thaumaturgus, 
who  wrote  a  panegyric  of  him,  rather  than  a  life,  and  who 
evidently  recorded  every  wonder  of  which  he  received  a 
report  without  examination.  Lardner,  however,  says, 
that  he  will  not  assert  that  Gregory  worked  no  miracles. 
The  age  of  miracles  was  not  entirely  concluded,  and  had 
there  been  no  foundation  in  truth,  the  wonderful  stories 
relating  to  Gregory  would  not  have  been  believed.  Doubt, 
however,  must  rest  upon  every  story  of  this  sort,  and 
therefore,  we  have  not  occupied  our  space  by  narrating 

The  creed  of  Gregory  is  very  important,  as  shewing  us 
how  clearly  defined  was  at  this  time  the  faith  of  the  or- 
thodox :  its  authenticity  has  been  disputed,  but  it  is 
received  as  genuine  by  Bishop  Bull  and  Dr.  Waterland  : 
it  is  as  follows  : — 

"There  is  one  God,  Father  of  the  living  Word,  the 
substantial  Wisdom  and  Power  and  eternal  express  image : 
perfect  Parent  of  One  perfect,  Father  of  the  only  begotten 
Son.  There  is  One  Lord,  One  of  One,  God  of  God,  the 
express  character  and  image  of  the  Godhead,  the  effective 
Word,  the  Wisdom  that  grasps  the  system  of  the  universe, 
and  the  Power  that  made  every  creature,  true  Son  of 
the  true  Father,  invisible  of  invisible,  incorruptible  of 
incorruptible,  immortal  of  immortal,  and  eternal  of  eter- 
nal. And  there  is  one  Holy  Ghost,  having  His  subsist- 
ence from  God,  and  shining  forth  by  the   Son   [viz.  to 

39-^       GREGORY,  THEODORUS. 

mankind,]  perfect  image  of  the  perfect  Son,  life  causal  of 
all  living,  the  holy  fountain,  essential  sanctity,  author  of 
all  sanctification  :  in  Whom  God  the  Father  is  manifest- 
ed, Who  is  above  all  and  in  all,  and  God  the  Son  Who  is 
through  all.  A  perfect  Trinity  undivided,  unseparated 
in  glory,  eternity  and  dominion.  There  is  therefore 
nothing  created  or  servile  in  this  Trinity,  nothing  adven- 
titious that  once  was  not,  and  came  in  after :  for  the 
Father  was  never  without  the  Son,  nor  the  Son  without 
the  Spirit,  but  this  Trinity  abides  the  same  unchangeable 
and  invariable  for  ever."  This,  says  Dr.  Waterland,  is 
the  much  celebrated  creed  of  which  some  stories  have 
been  told  more  than  we  are  bound  to  believe,  by  Gregory 
Nyssen ;  but  misreport  in  circumstances  does  not  inva- 
lidate the  main  thing. 

Gregory's  works,  so  far  as  we  know  anything  of  them, 
are  these  : — 

1.  A  Panegyrical  Oration,  in  praise  of  Origen,  pro- 
nounced in  239,  still  extant,  and  unquestionably  his. 
Dupin  says  of  it,  "  that  it  is  very  eloquent,  and  that  it 
may  be  reckoned  one  of  the  finest  pieces  of  rhetoric  in  all 
antiquity."  It  is  the  more  admirable,  because  perhaps 
it  is  the  first  thing  of  the  kind  among  Christians, 

2.  A  Paraphrase  of  the  Book  of  Ecclesiastes,  mentioned 
by  Jerome  in  his  catalogue,  and  quoted  by  him  in  his 
Commentary  upon  that  book,  and  still  extant. 

3.  Jerome  afterwards  adds  in  his  catalogue,  that  Gre- 
gory v/rote  several  epistles ;  of  which,  however,  we  have 
now  only  one  remaining,  called  a  Canonical  Epistle  to 
an  anonymous  bishop,  written  in  258  or  262 ;  consist- 
ing, as  we  now  have  it,  of  eleven  canons,  all  allowed  to 
be  genuine,  except  the  last,  which  is  doubted  of,  or 
plainly  rejected,  as  no  part  of  the  original  epistle,  but 
since  added  to  it. 

His  works  were  printed  in  Greek  and  Latin,  1626, 
foL,  and  in  the  library  of  the  fathers.  Gerard  Vossius 
also  printed  an  edition  at  Mentz,  in  1604,  4to. — Gregory 
Nyssen.    B,asU.    Eusebius.    Dupin.    Cave.    Lardner. 

GREGORY,   THE    GREAT.  393 


Gregory,  commonly  called  Gregory  the  Great,  Bishop 
of  Rome,  was  born  at  Rome,  of  a  noble  family,  about 
544 ;  and  having  received  an  education  suitable  to  his 
rank,  he  became  a  member  of  the  senate,  and  filled  other 
employm.ents  in  the  state.  Italy  was  then  subject  to  the 
emperors  of  the  East,  and  Justin  11.  appointed  him  to 
the  important  post  of  prefect  or  governor  of  Rome. 
This  otFice  he  quitted  soon  after  the  death  of  his  father, 
when  he  came  into  the  possession  of  immense  wealth,  the 
greater  part  of  which  he  devoted  to  the  establishment  of 
monasteries,  six  of  which  he  founded  in  Sicily,  and  one  at 
Rome,  dedicated  to  St.  Andrew,  into  which  he  retired  him- 
self, and  was  soon  after  ordained  a  deacon.  It  was  about 
this  time  that,  seeing  one  day  in  the  slave-market  some 
Anglo-Saxon  children  exposed  for  sale,  and  struck  with 
their  comely  appearance,  he  is  said  to  have  exclaimed, 
"  They  would  be  indeed  not  amjli,  but  cuujeli  (angels),  if 
they  were  Christians."  And  from  that  moment  he  resolved 
to  use  his  iufluence  in  causing  missionaries  to  be  sent 
to  England.  On  the  elevation  of  Pelagius  II.  to  the 
see  of  Rome,  Gregory  was  sent  in  579  by  that  prelate, 
on  a  mission  to  Constantinople.  He  could  not  have 
chosen  a  man  better  qualified  than  Gregory,  for  so  deli- 
cate a  negociation ;  the  particulars  of  it,  however,  are  not 
known.  In  the  meantime,  he  was  not  wanting  in  exert* 
ing  his  zeal  for  religion.  While  he  was  in  this  metropolis 
he  opposed  Eutychius  the  patriarch,  who  had  advanced 
an  opinion  bordering  on  Origenism,  and  maintaining 
that,  after  the  resurrection,  the  body  is  not  palpable,  but 
more  subtile  than  air.  In  executing  the  business  of  his 
embassy,  he  contracted  a  friendship  with  some  great  men, 
and  gained  the  esteem  of  the  whole  court,  by  the  sweet- 
ness of  his  behaviour,  insomuch,  that  the  emperor  Mau- 
ritius chose  him  for  a  godfather  to  a  son  of  his,  born  in 

VOL.    V.  2  N 

394  GREGORY,   THE    GREAT. 

the  year  583.  Soon  after  this  he  was  recalled  to  Rome, 
and  was  made  secretary  to  Pelagius ;  but  after  some  time 
obtained  leave  to  retire  again  into  his  monastery,  of  which 
he  had  been  chosen  abbot. 

Pelagius  died  590,  and  Gregory,  contrary  to  his  own 
earnest  wishes  and  remonstrances,  was  chosen  his  suc- 
cessor by  the  joint  suffrages  of  the  senate,  clergy,  and 
people  of  Rome.  His  first  step  on  entering  upon  the 
duties  of  the  episcopate,  was  to  satisfy  the  bishops  of  the 
chief  sees  as  to  the  orthodoxy  of  his  faith.  For  this 
purpose  he  wrote  to  the  patriarchs  of  Constantinople, 
Alexandria,  Antioch,  and  Jerusalem,  declaring  that  he 
received  the  first  four  councils ;  that  he  reverenced  the 
fifth;  and  that  he  condemned  the  three  chapters.  On 
his  accession  to  the  papal  chair,  a  general  relaxation  of 
discipline,  as  well  as  of  piety  and  morals,  prevailed  in 
the  clerical  orders.  He  therefore  set  about  the  correction 
of  these  evils  with  the  utmost  diligence  and  persever- 

He  was  particularly  careful  to  regulate  his  house  and 
person  according  to  St.  Paul's  direction  to  Timothy, 
(1  Tim.  iii.  5.)  Even  in  performing  divine  worship,  he 
used  ornaments  of  but  a  moderate  price,  and  his  common 
garments  were  still  more  simple.  Nothing  was  more 
decent  than  the  furniture  of  his  house,  and  he  retained 
none  but  clerks  and  religious  persons  in  his  service. 
By  this  means  his  palace  became  a  kind  of  monastery, 
in  which  there  were  no  useless  people,  every  thing  in  his 
house  had  the  appearance  of  an  angelic  life,  and  his 
charity  surpassed  all  description.  He  employed  the 
revenues  of  the  church  entirely  for  the  relief  of  the  poor  ; 
he  was  a  constant  and  indefatigable  preacher,  and  devoted 
all  his  talents  for  the  instruction  of  his  flock. 

In  the  meantime,  he  extended  his  care  to  the  other 
Churches  under  his  jurisdiction,  and  especially  those  of 
Sicily,  for  whom  he  had  a  particular  respect ;  he  put  an 
end  to  the  schism  in  the  Church  of  Iberia  the  same  year  : 


this  was  effected  by  the  gentle  methods  of  persuasion,  to 
which,  however,  he  had  not  recourse,  until  after  he  had 
been  hindered  from  using  violence.  Upon  this  account 
he  is  censured  as  intolerant,  and  it  is  certain,  his  max- 
ims on  that  head  were  a  little  inconsistent.  He  did 
not,  for  instance,  approve  of  forcing  the  Jews  to  receive 
baptism,  and  yet  he  approved  of  compelling  heretics  to 
return  to  the  Church.  In  some  of  his  letters  too,  he 
exclaims  against  violence  in  the  method  of  making  con- 
verts by  compulsion  and  necessity,  and  at  the  same  time 
he  was  for  laying  heavier  taxes  on  such  as  would  not  be 
converted  by  persuasive  means ;  and  in  593,  he  sent  a 
nuncio  to  Constantinople,  and  wrote  a  letter  the  same 
year  to  the  emperor  Mauritius,  declaring  his  humility 
and  submission  to  that  sovereign;  he  also  shewed  the 
same  respect  to  the  kings  of  Italy,  even  though  they 
were  heretics. 

In  594,  he  assisted  Theudelinda,  queen  of  the  Lom- 
bards, in  converting  that  people  to  the  Catholic  faith,  and 
about  the  same  time  he  was  engaged  in  a  controversy 
with  the  Patriarch  of  Constantinople,  which  is  of  such 
deep  interest  to  us,  as  members  of  the  reformed  Church, 
that  it  shall  be  given  at  some  length.  The  Bishop  of 
Constantinople  was  at  this  time  distinguished  in  the  East 
by  the  title  of  oecumenical  or  universal  patriarch ;  and 
Gregory  found  that  he  had  so  styled  himself  over  and 
over  again,  in  a  judgment  which  he  had  lately  given 
against  a  presbyter  arraigned  of  heresy,  and  which,  at 
the  request  of  Gregory,  he  had  transmitted  to  Rome. 
At  this  Gregory  took  the  alarm,  and  forgetting  all  other 
cares,  as  if  the  Church,  the  faith,  the  christian  religion, 
were  in  imminent  danger,  he  dispatched,  in  great  haste, 
a  messenger,  with  letters  to  Sabinianus,  his  nuncio  at 
Constantinople,  charging  him,  as  he  tendered  the  liberty 
wherewith  Christ  has  made  us  free,  to  use  his  utmost 
endeavours  with  the  emperor,  with  the  empress,  and 
above  all  with  the  bishop  himself,  his  beloved  brother,  to 


divert  him  from  ever  more  using  the  proud,  the  profane, 
the  antichristian  title  of  universal  bishop,  which  lie  had 
assumed,  in  the  pride  of  his  heart,  to  the  great  debase- 
ment of  the  whole  episcopal  order.  The  nuncio,  in 
compliance  with  his  orders,  left  nothing  unattempted, 
which  he  thought  could  make  any  impression  on  the 
patriarch,  assuring  him  that,  unless  he  relinquished  the 
odious  title,  which  had  given  so  great  offence  to  Gregory, 
he  would  find  in  him  a  formidable  antagonist,  not  to  say 
an  irreconcilable  enemy.  But  the  patriarch  was  not  a 
man  to  be  easily  frightened ;  and  therefore  told  the  nuncio, 
that  indeed  he  was  sorry  his  most  holy  brother  of  Rome 
should  have  taken  any  umbrage  at  so  inoffensive  a  title, 
since  he  could  have  no  just  reason  to  take  any ;  but  as  it 
had  been  bestowed,  and  bestowed  by  so  great  a  council, 
not  on  him  alone,  but  on  him  and  his  successors,  it  was 
not  in  his  power  to  resign  it,  nor  would  his  successors 
stand  to  his  resignation,  if  he  should.  As  for  the  emperor 
and  the  empress,  they  declared,  that  they  would  be  in  no 
way  concerned  in  that  affair.  However  the  emperor  wrote, 
on  this  occasion,  to  Gregoiy ;  but  it  was  only  to  exhort 
him  to  live  in  peace  with  the  bishop  of  the  imperial  city, 
lest  a  misunderstanding  between  them  in  particular 
should  be  attended  with  a  general  misunderstanding 
between  the  East  and  the  West. 

Gregory  received,  at  the  same  time,  the  emperor's 
letter,  and  an  answer  from  his  nuncio,  informing  him, 
that  he  had  by  no  means  been  able  to  prevail  on  the 
patriarch  to  quit  his  new  title,  and  that  he  seemed 
disposed  to  maintain  it  at  all  events.  Gregory  was 
greatly  concerned  at  the  obstinacy  of  the  patriarch,  as 
he  styled  it ;  but  more  to  find,  that  the  emperor  had  at 
all  interfered  in  the  quarrel.  He  therefore  wrote  again, 
without  loss  of  time,  to  his  nuncio,  ordering  him  to  renew 
his  remonstrances  with  the  patriarch,  and,  if  he  still 
found  him  inflexible,  to  separate  himself  from  his  com- 
munion, that  the  see  of  St.  Peter  might  not  seem  to  con- 

GREGORY,   THE    GREAT.  397 

nive  at  his  pride  and  ambition.  As  to  his  living  in  peace 
with  his  most  holy  brother  and  colleague,  agreeable  to  the 
desire  of  the  emperor,  he  declares,  that  he  has  nothing 
more  at  heart ;  and  that  would  his  most  serene  lord  only 
oblige  his  beloved  brother,  as  in  justice  he  ought,  to 
renounce  his  new  title,  he  would  have  thereby  the  merit 
of  establishing  a  lasting  peace  between  the  two  sees,  and 
preventing  the  evils  which  he  seemed  to  apprehend  from 
their  disagreement.  He  closes  his  letter  with  the  follow- 
ing remarkable  words :  "  It  is  very  hard,  that,  after  we 
have  parted  with  our  silver,  our  gold,  our  slaves,  and  even 
our  garments,  for  the  public  welfare,  we  should  be  obliged 
to  part  with  our  faith  too  ;  for  to  agree  to  that  impious 
title  is  parting  with  our  faith ;"  so  that  the  title  of  univer- 
sal bishop  was,  according  to  Gregory,  heretical  in  itself ; 
and,  in  his  opinion,  none  could  either  assume  it,  or 
acknowledge  it  in  another,  without  apostatizing  from  the 
faith.  Sabinianus,  the  pope's  nuncio,  communicated  to  the 
patriarch  the  contents  of  this  letter,  as  soon  as  he  received 
it.  But  the  patriarch  was  so  far  from  yielding,  that  on 
the  contrary,  he  loudly  complained  of  Gregory  for  thus 
opposing,  with  so  much  warmth,  a  title  which  none  but 
himself  thought,  or  could  think,  in  the  least  derogatory  to 
the  authority  of  any  other  bishop  or  patriarch.  Here- 
upon the  nuncio,  pursuant  to  the  express  order  of  Gre- 
gory, renounced  his  communion. 

Gregory,  finding  that  all  the  endeavours  of  his  nuncio 
proved  unsuccessful,  resolved  to  write  no  more  to  him,  but 
immediately  to  the  patriarch  himself;  which,  he  said,  he 
had  hitherto  declined,  lest  he  should  be  obliged  to  find 
fault  with  a  man,  of  whose  sanctity  and  virtue  he  had 
ever  entertained  the  highest  opinion.  He  wrote  to  him 
accordingly,  a  long  letter,  loading  the  title  of  universal 
patriarch  or  bishop  with  all  the  names  of  reproach  and 
ignominy  he  could  think  of ;  calling  it  vain,  ambitious, 
profane,  impious,  execrable,  antichristian,  blasphemous, 
infernal,  diabolical  ;  and  applying  to  him  that  assumed  it, 
2  n2 


what  was  said  by  the  prophet  Isaiah  of  Lucifer,  "Whom 
do  you  imitate,"  says  he,  "in  assuming  that  arrogant 
title  ?  Whom  but  him,  who,  swelled  with  pride,  exalted 
himself  above  so  many  legions  of  angels,  his  equals,  that 
he  might  be  subject  to  none,  and  all  might  be  subject  to 
him  ?"  It  was  then,  in  the  opinion  of  Gregory,  imitating 
Lucifer,  for  any  bishop  to  exalt  himself  above  his  brethren, 
and  to  pretend  that  all  other  bishops  were  subject  to  him, 
himself  being  subject  to  none.  And  has  not  this  been,  for 
many  ages,  the  avowed  pretension  and  claim  of  the  popes? 
"We  declare,  say,  define,  and  pronounce  it  to  be  of  neces- 
sity to  salvation,  for  every  human  creature  to  be  subject 
to  the  Roman  pontift',"  is  a  decree  issued  by  Boniface 
VIII.,  four  hundred  and  fifty  years  ago.  "  The  apostle 
Peter,"  continues  Gregory,  "was  the  first  member  of  the 
universal  Church.  As  for  Paul,  Andrew,  and  John,  they 
were  only  the  heads  of  particular  congregations  ;  but  all 
were  members  of  the  Church  unde^'  one  head,  and  none 
would  ever  be  called  universal."  The  meaning  of  Gregory 
is  obvious ;  viz.  That  the  apostles  themselves,  though 
heads  of  particular  congregations  or  churches,  were  never- 
theless members  of  the  Church  universal,  and  none  of 
them  ever  pretended  to  be  the  head  of  the  whole  Church, 
or  to  have  power  and  authority  over  the  whole  Church, 
that  being  peculiar  to  Christ  alone.  This  agrees  with 
what  he  had  said  before,  addressing  himself  to  the  patri- 
arch ;  viz.  "  If  none  of  the  apostles  would  be  called 
universal,  what  wdll  you  answer  on  the  last  day  to  Christ, 
the  head  of  the  Church  universal?  You,  who,  by 
arrogating  that  name,  strive  to  subject  all  his  members 
to  yourself?"  For  it  was  not  the  bare  title  of  universal 
bishop,  that  thus  alarmed  Gregory,  but  the  universal 
power  and  authority,  which  he  apprehended  his  rival 
aimed  at  in  assuming  that  title.  Gregoiy  adds:  "But 
this  is  the  time  which  Christ  Himself  foretold  ;  the  earth 
is  now  laid  waste  and  destroyed  with  the  plague,  and 
the  sword  :  all  things  that  have  been  predicted,  are  now 

GREGORY,    THE    GREAT.  399 

accomplished  ;  the  king  of  pride,  that  is  antichrist,  is  at 
hand  ;  and  what  I  dread  to  say,  an  army  of  priests  is 
ready  to  receive  him  ;  for  they  who  were  chosen  to  point 
out  to  others  the  way  of  humility  and  meekness,  are 
themselves  now  become  the  slaves  of  pride  and  ambition." 
Here  Gregory  treats  the  Bishop  of  Constantinople,  as 
the  fore-runner  of  antichrist,  for  taking  upon  him  the 
title  of  universal  bishop,  which  he  pretends  to  have  been 
rejected  by  one  of  his  predecessors,  though  offered  to  him, 
and  in  him  to  all  the  bishops  of  the  apostolic  see,  by  no 
less  a  council  than  that  of  Chalcedon.  But  he  was  there- 
in certainly  mistaken. 

Gregory  wrote,  at  the  same  time,  to  the  emperor,  and 
the  empress  Constantina,  inveighing,  throughout  both 
letters,  against  his  most  holy  brother  (for  so  he  styled 
him,)  as  one  who  strove,  by  a  most  wicked  attempt,  to 
enthral  the  whole  Church,  as  one  equal  in  pride  to 
Lucifer  himself,  as  the  forerunner  of  antichrist,  &c.  repeat- 
ing here  what  he  had  written  to  the  patriarch  himself. 
He  begs  the  emperor,  in  the  name  of  St.  Peter,  to  control 
by  his  authority,  the  unbounded  ambition  of  a  man,  who, 
not  satisfied  with  being  bishop,  affected  to  be  called  the 
sole  bishop  of  the  Catholic  Church.  It  was  therefore,  ac- 
cording to  Gregory  s  way  of  reasoning,  the  same  thing  to 
be  called  universal  bishop,  and  sole  bishop.  He  alleges 
several  reasons  to  convince  the  emperor,  that,  in  the 
Church,  there  can  be  no  universal  bishop  ;  and  the  fol 
lowing  among  the  rest :  "  If  there  were  an  universal  bishop, 
and  he  should  err,  the  universal  Church  would  err  with 
him  :"  which  was  evidently  supposing  every  bishop,  even 
an  universal  bishop,  to  be  capable  of  erring.  From  his 
letter  to  the  empress,  it  appears  but  too  plainly,  that,  in 
thus  opposing,  with  so  much  warmth,  the  title  of  univer- 
sal bishop,  in  his  brother  of  Constantinople,  and  inveigh- 
ing against  that  prelate,  in  the  manner  we  have  seen, 
for  assuming  it,  he  was  actuated  by  jealousy  as  well  as  by 
zeal.     For,  in  that  letter,  after  declaiming,  in  the  sharp- 

400  GREGORY,   THE    GREAT. 

est  and  most  poignant  terms,  against  the  title,  as  quite 
antichristian,  against  the  patriarch,  as  a  disturber  of  the 
peace,  and  the  good  order  established  by  Christ  in  the 
Church,  against  all  who  in  any  way  countenanced,  encour- 
aged, or  upheld  him,  in  so  impious  and  detestable  an 
attempt,  he  addresses  the  empress  thus  :  *•  Though  Gre- 
gory is  guilty  of  many  great  sins,  for  which  he  well 
desers''es  thus  to  be  punished,  Peter  is  himself  guilty  of 
no  sins,  nor  ought  he  to  suffer  for  mine.  I  therefore, 
over  and  over  again,  beg,  intreat,  and  conjure  you,  by 
the  Almighty,  not  to  forsake  the  virtuous  steps  of  your 
ancestors,  but,  treading  in  them,  to  court  and  secure  to 
yourself  the  protection  and  favour  of  that  apostle,  who  is 
not  to  be  robbed  of  the  honour  that  is  due  to  his  merit, 
for  the  sins  of  one  who  has  no  merit,  and  who  so  unwor- 
thily serves  him."  Here  Gregory  plainly  shews,  that, 
after  all,  the  honour  and  dignity  of  St.  Peter,  and  his 
see,  were  at  the  bottom  of  the  whole  opposition. 

The  remonstrances  of  Gregory  made  no  more  impres- 
sion on  the  emperor,  or  the  empress,  than  they  had  made 
on  the  patriarch  himself;  nay,  Mauritius  rather  favoure'^  • 
the  patriarch,  though  he  declined  openly  espousing,,    i 
cause,  thinking  the  title  of  universal  bishop  well  sui,.  -i 
to  the  rank  and  dignity  of  the  bishop  of  the  imperii ^ 
city.     Of  this,  Gregory  was  well  apprised ;  but  yet,  no 
despairing  of  success,  and  determined  to  leave  nothing" 
unattempted,  which  he  thought  could  be  attended  with 
any,  he  wrote  to  the  two  other  patriarchs,  Eulogius  of 
Alexandria,  and  Anastasius  of  Antioch,  striving  to  alarm 
them,  and  persuade  them  to  join,  as  in  a  common  cause, 
against  the  Bishop  of   Constantinople,    who,    he   said, 
giving  the  reins  to  his  unbounded  ambition,  had  nothing 
less  in  his  view  than  to  degrade  them,   and  engross  to 
himself  all  ecclesiastical  power  and  authority.     But  the 
two  patriarchs  were  not  alarmed  ;  the  Bishop  of  Constan- 
tinople was  already  raised  above  them ;  and  they  were 
not  so  jealous  of  the  power  that  was  left  them,  as  to  be 


under  any  apprehension  of  its  being  usurped  or  invaded 
by  their  brother  of  Constantinople,  at  least  in  virtue  of 
his  new  title.  Besides,  both  patriarchs  had  signed  and 
approved  the  decree,  entailing  the  disputed  title  on  John 
and  his  successors ;  and  that  they  are  not  improbably 
supposed  to  have  done,  that  the  Bishop  of  Constantinople 
might  be  thereby  encouraged  to  protect  them,  as  well  as 
his  other  brethren  in  the  East,  against  the  growing  power 
and  daily  encroachments  of  the  Bishop  of  Rome,  backed 
and  supported  by  his  brethren  in  the  West.  Anastasius 
of  Antioch,  even  took  the  liberty  to  express  no  small 
sui^prise  at  Gregory's  being  alarmed,  to  such  an  extraor- 
dinary degree,  at  a  thing  which,  as  it  appeared  to  him, 
was  of  very  little  m.oment,  and  not  at  all  worthy  of  the 
trouble  which  the  Bishop  of  Rome  gave  himself  about  it. 
In  596,  Gregory  turned  his  attention  once  more  to  the 
conversion  of  the  Anglo-Saxons,  for  an  account  of  which, 
the  reader  is  referred  to  the  life  of  Augustine.  Several 
circumstances  concurred  at  this  time  to  favour  his  design. 
Ethelbert,  king  of  Kent,  and  the  most  considerable  of 
the  Anglo-Saxon  monarchs  in  Britain,  had  married  Ber- 
tha, daughter  of  Cherebert,  king  of  Paris,  who  embraced 
Christianity,  and  was  allowed  the  free  exercise  of  her  re- 
ligion This  princess,  partly  by  her  own  influence,  and 
partly  by  the  efforts  of  the  clergy  who  had  followed  her 
into  Britain,  gradually  formed  in  the  mind  of  Ethelbert 
an  inclination  to  the  Christian  religion.  While  the  king 
was  in  this  disposition,  Gregory  sent  Augustine,  prior  of 
the  monastery  of  St.  Andrew,  accompanied  by  forty 
monks,  into  this  island,  in  order  to  bring  to  perfection 
what  the  queen  had  begun.  In  the  meantime,  John, 
patriarch  of  Constantinople,  who  first  assumed  the  title 
of  universal  patriarch,  had  died,  and  was  succeeded  by 
Cyriacus,  who  soon  after  manifested  his  determination  to 
defend  his  right  to  the  same  title  which  had  produced 
the  variance  between  his  predecessor  and  Gregory.  He 
desired,  however,   to  pacify  Gregory,  and  despatched  a 


nuncio  or  apocrisarius  to  Rome  to  try  to  reconcile  Gre- 
gory to  his  retention  of  the  offensive  title.  Gregory 
received  the  apocrisarius  in  a  most  obliging  manner,  and 
even  admitted  him  to  his  communion ;  but,  at  the  same 
time,  let  him  know,  that  he  could  not,  and  never  would, 
approve  of,  or  connive  at,  so  scandalous,  so  profane,  so 
blasphemous  a  title;  that  there  could  be  no  peace  (for 
Cyriacus  had,  in  his  letter,  exhorted  him  to  peace  and 
concord)  between  him  and  his  beloved  brother,  till  the 
cause  of  their  discord  was  removed ;  and  that  if  he  could 
only  prevail  upon  himself  to  part  with  the  badge  of  pride, 
typwm  superhicB,  which  his  predecessor  had  wickedly  as- 
sumed, he  would  thereby  establish  an  everlasting  har- 
mony between  the  two  sees.  What  he  said  to  the  apo- 
crisarius he  repeated  in  a  letter  which  he  wrote  soon  after 
to  the  patriarch  himself,  and  sent  by  the  deacon  Ana- 
tolius,  appointed,  at  this  time,  to  succeed  Sabinianus  in 
the  office  of  nuncio,  at  the  imperial  court.  In  that  let- 
ter he  positively  affirms  that,  "  Whoever  calls  himself 
universal  bishop,  or  desires  to  be  so  called,  in  the  pride 
of  his  heart,  is  the  forerunner  of  Antichrist ;  Ego  fidenter 
dico,  quod  quisquis  se  universalem  sacerdotem  vocat,  vel 
vocari  desiderat,  et  elatione  sua  Anticliristum  prcBcurrit,'' 
are  Gregory's  own  words ;  though  Baronius  has  not 
thought  fit  to  quote  them,  being  well  apprised,  that  they 
utterly  overturn  the  system  of  the  present  controversy, 
as  stated  by  him. 

Gregory  answered,  by  the  same  deacon  Anatolius,  a 
letter  he  had  received  from  Eulogius  of  Alexandria, 
which  had  given  him  great  satisfaction.  It  has  not 
reached  our  times  ;  but,  from  the  pope's  answer,  it  ap- 
pears to  have  been  filled  with  the  most  fulsome  flattery. 
Gregory,  however,  was  pleased  with  it  so  far  as  it  extolled 
and  magnified  the  dignity  and  prerogatives  of  the  see  of 
Rome.  For  he  tells  the  patriarch,  that  the  praises 
which  he  has  been  pleased  to  bestow  on  the  see  of  St. 
Peter,  have  been  the  more  acceptable,  as  they  came  from 

GREGORY,    THE    GREAT.  403 

one  who  held  the  same  see,  and  who  consequently  could 
not  pay  the  honour  that  was  due  to  the  see  of  Rome, 
without  paying,  at  the  same  time,  the  honour  that  was 
due  to  his  own.  Ought  not  his  praises  on  that  score  to 
have  been  rather  suspected?  "Who  does  not  know,"  con- 
tinues Gregory,  "that  the  Church  was  built  and  establish- 
ed on  the  firmness  of  the  prince  of  the  apostles,  by  whose 
very  name  is  imported  a  rock,  Petriis  a  Petra  vocatur  ? 
Who  does  not  know,  that  to  him  it  was  said,  '  I  will  give 
unto  thee  the  keys,'  &c.,  '  Feed  my  sheep,'  &c.  Hence, 
though  there  were  several  apostles,  yet  there  is  but  one 
apostolic  see,  the  see  of  the  prince  of  the  apostles,  that 
has  acquired  great  authority ;  and  that  see  is  in  three 
places  :  in  Rome,  where  he  died ;  in  Alexandria,  where 
it  was  founded  by  his  disciple  St.  Mark ;  and  in  Antioch, 
where  he  resided  himself  seven  years.  These  three 
therefore  are  but  one  see,  and  on  that  one  see  sit  three 
bishops,  who  are  but  one  in  Him,  Who  said,  '  I  am  in 
my  Father,  and  you  in  me,  and  I  in  you.'  "  Here 
Gregory  manifestly  equalized  the  sees  of  Alexandria 
and  Antioch  with  that  of  Rome.  But  of  them  he  enter- 
tained no  jealousy,  and  the  point  he  had  in  view  was  to 
humble  his  great  rival  the  Bishop  of  Constantinople ; 
which  he  was  sensible  he  could  do  by  no  other  means 
more  effectually,  than  by  engaging  the  two  other  patri- 
archs in  a  quarrel.  He  therefore  very  artfully  made 
their  sees  and  his  but  one  see,  them  and  himself  but  one 
bishop  ;  that,  looking  upon  the  injury  done  by  the  Bishop 
of  Constantinople  to  him  and  his  see,  as  done  to  them 
and  their  sees,  they  might  join  him  as  in  a  common 
cause  against  a  common  rival. 

Eulogius  wrote,  about  this  time,  another  no  less  flat- 
tering letter  to  Gregory,  wherein  he  even  styled  him 
universal  bishop ;  probably  with  a  design  to  try  whether 
he  might  not  put  an  end  to  the  quarrel  between  the  two 
bishops,  by  giving  to  both  the  title,  about  wbich  they 
quarrelled.     This  was  no  bad  expedient,  but  the  reasons 


alleged  by  Gregoiy  to  prove  it  was  wicked,  heretical, 
blasphemous,  antichristian,  diabolical,  in  the  Bishop  of 
Constantinople,  equally  proved  it  was  wicked,  heretical, 
and  the  like,  in  himself.  He  therefore  rejected  it  with 
great  indignation,  remonstrated  against  its  being  given 
to  him,  with  as  much  warmth  as  he  had  ever  remonstrated 
against  its  being  given  to  the  Bishop  of  Constantinople, 
nay,  and  thought  it  an  affront  that  it  had  ever  been  offered 
him.  "If  you  give  more  to  me,"  says  Gregory,  in  his 
answer  to  Eulogius,  "than  is  due  to  me,  you  rob  yourself 
of  what  is  due  to  you.  I  choose  to  be  distinguished  by 
my  manners,  and  not  by  titles.  Nothing  can  redound 
to  my  honour  that  redounds  to  the  dishonour  of  my 
brethren.  I  place  my  honour  in  maintaining  them  in 
theirs.  If  you  call  me  universal  bishop,  you  thereby  own 
yourself  to  be  no  pope.  Let  no  such  titles  therefore  be 
mentioned,  or  ever  heard  among  us.  Your  holiness  says, 
in  your  letter,  that  I  commanded  you.  I  commanded 
you !  I  know  who  you  are,  who  I  am.  In  rank  you  are 
my  brother,  by  your  manners  my  father.  I  therefore 
did  not  command;  and  beg  you  will  henceforth  ever 
forbear  that  word.  I  only  pointed  out  to  you  what  I 
thought  it  was  right  you  should  know."  The  whole 
drift  of  this  letter  was,  as  the  reader  must  have  observed, 
to  draw,  and  in  a  mxanner  to  soothe  the  patriarch  of 
Alexandria  into  the  present  dispute.  But  neither  he 
nor  any  other  bishop  joined  him,  at  least  in  the  East ; 
nay,  as  they  had  given  the  patriarch  of  Constantinople 
that  title,  they  all,  but  the  Bishop  of  Alexandria,  who 
would  not  concern  himself  in  the  quarrel,  thought  them- 
selves bound  to  maintain  and  defend  it. 

Gregory  therefore,  being  now  at  a  loss  whom  next  to 
recur  to,  for  the  emperor  and  the  empress  both  favoured 
the  patriarch,  bethought  himself  of  a  new  kind  of  oppo- 
sition, which  was  to  oppose  to  the  lofty  and  proud  title 
of  universal  bishop  the  meanest  he  could  think  of,  flat- 
tering himself  that  his  rival  might  be  thus  brought  to 

GREGORY,    THE    GREAT.  405 

quit  that  title,  or  at  least  be  ashamed  ever  to  use  it. 
With  this  view  he  took  to  himself  the  humble  title  of 
the  seiTant  of  the  servants  of  God,  which  his  successors 
have  all  retained,  and  use  to  this  day. 

In  599,  he  wrote  a  letter  to  Serenus,  Bishop  of  Mar- 
seilles, in  Gaul,  commending  his  zeal,  in  breaking  in 
pieces  some  images,  which  the  people  had  been  observed 
to  worship,  and  throwing  them  out  of  the  church  :  and 
the  same  year  he  wrote  a  circular  letter  to  the  principal 
bishops  of  Gaul,  condemning  simoniacal  ordinations, 
and  the  promotion  of  laymen  to  bishoprics  ;  he  likewise 
forbad  clerks  in  holy  orders,  to  live  with  women,  except 
such  as  are  allowed  by  the  canons ;  and  recommended 
the  frequent  holding  assemblies  to  regulate  the  affairs  of 
the  Church. 

He  had  already  this  year  reformed  the  offices  of  the 
Church,  which  is  one  of  his  most  remarkable  actions. 

Besides  other  less  important  ceremonies,  added  to  the 
public  forms  of  prayer,  he  made  it  his  chief  care  to  reform 
the  psalmody,  being  excessively  fond  of  sacred  music. 
Of  this  kind  he  composed  the  Antiphone,  and  such 
tunes  as  best  suited  the  psalms,  the  hymns,  the 
prayers,  the  verses,  the  canticles,  the  lessons,  the  epistles, 
the  gospels,  the  prefaces,  and  the  Lord's  prayer.  He 
likewise  instituted  an  academy  for  chanters,  for  all 
the  clerks,  as  far  as  the  deacons  exclusively ;  he  gave 
them  lessons  himself,  and  the  bed  in  which  he  continued 
to  chant  in  the  midst  of  his  last  illness,  was  preserved 
with  great  veneration  in  the  palace  of  St.  John  Lateran 
for  a  long  time,  together  with  the  whip,  with  which  he 
used  to  threaten  the  young  clerks  and  singing  boys,  when 
they  sang  out  of  tune. 

It  is  to  Gregory  that  we  owe  the  invention,  of  ex- 
pressing musical  sounds  by  the  seven  first  letters  of 
the  alphabet.  Indeed  the  Greeks  made  use  of  the  let- 
ters of  their  alphabet  to  the  like  purpose ;  but  in  their 
scale  they  wanted  more  signs,  or  marks,  than  there  were 

VOL.    V.  2  0 


letters,  which  were  supplied  out  of  the  same  alphabet, 
by  making  the  same  letter  express  different  notes,  as  it 
was  placed  upright,  or  reversed,  or  otherwise  put  out  of 
the  common  position,  also  making  them  imperfect  by 
cutting  off  something,  or  by  doubling  some  strokes.  They 
who  are  skilled  in  music,  need  not  be  told  what  a  task 
the  scholar  had  in  this  method  to  learn.  In  Boethius's 
time  the  Romans  eased  themselves  of  this  difficulty  as 
unnecessary,  by  making  use  only  of  the  first  fifteen  letters 
of  their  alphabet.  But  afterwards,  Gregory  the  Great, 
considering  that  the  octave  was  the  same  in  effect  with 
the  first  note,  and  that  the  order  of  degrees  was  the  same 
in  the  ujDper  and  lower  octave  of  the  diagram,  introduced 
the  use  of  seven  letters,  wdiich  were  repeated  in  a  differ- 
ent character.  Dr.  Burney  says  on  this  subject :  "  Eccle- 
siastical writers  seem  unanimous  in  allowing  that  it  was 
the  learned  and  active  pope  Gregory  the  Great,  who  col- 
lected the  musical  fragments  of  such  ancient  hymns  and 
psalms  as  the  first  fathers  of  the  Church  had  approved, 
and  recommended  to  the  primitive  Christians ;  and  that 
he  selected,  methodized,  and  arranged  them  in  the  order 
which  w^as  long  continued  at  Rome,  and  soon  adopted  by 
the  chief  part  of  the  Western  Church."  The  anonymous 
author  of  his  life,  published  by  Canisius,  speaks  of  this 
transaction  in  the  following  words  :  "  This  pontiff  com- 
posed, arranged,  and  constituted  the  Antiplionarium  and 
chants  used  in  the  morning  and  evening  service."  Fleury, 
in  his  Hist.  Eccl.  tom.  VII.  p.  150,  gives  a  circumstantial 
account  of  the  Scola  Cayitormn,  instituted  by  Gregory. 
It  existed  300  years  after  the  death  of  that  pontiff, 
which  happened  in  the  year  604,  as  we  ai'e  informed  by 
John  Diaconus,  author  of  his  life.  Two  colleges  were 
appropriated  to  these  studies  ;  one  near  the  church  of  St. 
Peter,  and  one  near  that  of  St.  John  Lateran ;  both  of 
which  were  endowed  with  lands. 

It  has  been    imagined    that    Gregory   was    rather    a 
compiler  than   a  composer  of  ecclesiastical   chants,    as 

GREGORY,    THE    GREAT.  407 

music  had  been  established  in  the  Church  long  before  his 
pontificate ;  and  John  Diaconus,  in  his  life,  calls  his 
collection  "  Antiphonarium  Centonem,"  the  ground  work 
of  which  was  the  ancient  Greek  chant,  upon  the  principles 
of  which  it  was  formed.  This  is  the  opinion  of  the  Abbe 
Lebceuf,  and  of  many  others.  The  derivation  is  respecta- 
ble ;  but  if  the  Romans  in  the  time  of  St.  Ambrose  had 
o.mj  music,  it  must  have  been  composed  upon  the  Greek 
system :  all  the  arts  at  Rome,  during  the  time  of  the 
emperors,  were  Greek,  and  chiefly  cultivated  by  Greek 
artists  ;  and  we  hear  of  no  musical  system  in  use  among 
the  Romans,  or  at  least  none  is  mentioned  by  their 
writers  on  the  art,  but  that  of  the  Greeks. 

It  is  not  to  be  denied,  that  some  superstitious  and 
even  false  doctrines  are  to  be  traced  to  Gregory,  and 
especially  the  introduction  in  the  offices  of  the  Roman 
Church  of  an  allusion  to  the  unscriptural  doctrine  of 
purgatory,  the  cause  of  so  much  that  is  still  evil  in  the 
Romish  Church. 

At  this  time,  as  well  as  the  next  year,  600,  he  was  con- 
fined to  his  bed  by  the  gout  in  his  feet,  which  lasted  for 
three  years,  yet  he  celebrated  divine  service  on  holydays, 
with  much  pain  all  the  time.  This  brought  on  a  painful 
burning  heat  all  over  his  body,  which  tormented  him  in 
601.  His  behaviour  in  this  sickness  was  very  exemplary. 
It  made  him  feel  for  others,  whom  he  compassionated, 
exhorting  them  to  make  the  right  use  of  their  infirmities, 
both  for  advancing  in  virtue  and  forsaking  vice.  He  was 
always  extremely  watchful  over  his  flock,  and  careful  to 
preserve  discipline,  and  while  he  allowed  that  the  mis- 
fortunes of  the  times  obliged  the  bishops  to  interfere  in 
worldly  matters,  as  he  himself  did,  he  constantly  exhorted 
them  not  to  be  too  intent  on  temporal  affairs.  This  year 
he  held  a  council  at  Rome,  which  made  the  monks  quite 
independent  by  the  dangerous  privileges  which  he  granted 
them.  Gregory  forbad  the  bishops  to  diminish  in  any 
shape  the  goods,  lands,  and  revenues,  or  titles  of  monas 


teries,  and  took  from  them  the  jurisdiction  they  ought 
naturally  to  have  over  the  converts  in  their  dioceses. 
But  many  of  his  letters  shew  that  though  he  favoured 
the  monks  in  some  reepects,  he  nevertheless  knew  how 
how  to  subject  them  to  all  the  severity  of  their  rules,  by 
w^hich  means  he  prevented  those  scandalous  disorders 
which  now  disgrace  the  monastic  state. 

In  601,  at  the  request  of  Augustine,  he  sent  other 
missionaries  to  England,  with  further  advice  to  that 
archbishop  who  sought  it,  for  an  account  of  which  the 
reader  is  referred  to  the  Life  of  Augustine. 

Gregory  died  in  March,  604.  His  works  are  numerous. 
His  letters  amount  to  840 ;  and  besides  them,  he  wrote 
a  Comment  on  the  Book  of  Job,  comprised  in  thirty-six 
books ;  a  Pastoral,  or  a  Treatise  on  the  Duties  of  a  Pastor, 
consisting  of  four  parts,  and,  as  it  were,  of  four  different 
treatises  ;  twenty-two  Homilies  on  the  prophet  Ezekiel ; 
forty  Homilies  on  the  Gospels ;  and  four  Books  of  Dia- 
logues. The  Comment  on  the  Book  of  Job  is  commonly 
styled  Gregory's  Morals  on  Job,  being  rather  a  collection 
of  moral  principles,  than  an  exposition  of  the  text.  That 
work,  and  the  Pastoral,  were  anciently,  and  still  are 
reckoned  among  the  best  writings  of  the  later  fathers. 
The  Pastoral,  in  particular,  was  held  in  such  esteem  by 
the  Galilean  church,  that  all  bishops  were  obliged,  by  the 
canons  of  that  church,  to  be  thoroughly  acquainted  with 
it,  and  punctually  to  observe  the  rules  it  contained; 
nay,  to  remind  them  of  that  obligation,  it  was  delivered 
into  their  hands  at  the  time  of  their  ordination.  As  for 
the  dialogues,  they  are  filled  with  alleged  miracles  and 
stories  so  grossly  absurd  and  fabulous,  that  it  would  be  a 
reflection  on  the  understanding  and  good  sense  of  this 
great  pope  to  think,  that  he  really  believed  them ;  the 
rather,  as  for  many  of  them  he  had  no  better  vouchers 
than  old,  doating,  and  ignorant  people.  He  was  the  first 
who  discovered  purgatory,  and  it  was  by  means  of  the 
apparitions  and  visions,  which  he  relates  in  his  dialogues. 

(JUl':(;()ltY,  .lolIN.  409 

tlial  ho  firHl,  discovered  it:  ho  lliat  tlio  (Jhurch  ol'  Home 
in  \)r()\>;i})\y  iridehted  to  some  old  man  or  old  woman  for 
one  of  the  most  lucrative  articles  of  her  whole  creed.  In 
this  woik  Oref,'ory  observes,  that  greatf^r  discoveries  were 
jiiarlc  in  iiis  time,  concerning  the  state  of  departed  souls, 
than  in  id  I  the  pnjceding  ages  together,  hecause  the  end 
of  this  world  was  at  hand,  and  the  nearer  we  came  to 
tiie  oi}ir;r,  ilie  more  wf;  discovered  it. 

'J'lie  best  edition  of  his  works  is  that  published  at 
Paris  in  1705,  in  A  vols,  fob,  by  Denis  de  St.  Martha 
and  William  liessiu,  of  thf;  congregation  of  St.  Maur. — 
Grefforii  I'Jjmlolai.      JJade.      Cave.      Jiower. 

oin.aohY  V\[.  —  fSf'-o  IHLdebrand.) 

OUIXiOIiV,    JOffN. 

.Tons  GrtEoonv  was  born  at  Amersliam,  in  Tiucking- 
liamsliire,  in  1007.  He  early  discovered  a  strong  incli- 
nation for  le;i.rning  ;  but  the  circumstances  of  his  parrmts 
were  too  narrow  to  enable  them  U)  give  him  a  liberal 
education.  They  were  so  much  respected,  however,  for 
t,heir  piety  and  lionesty,  that  some  of  their  wealthier 
neighbours  were  indiic,(,'d  to  intr;rest  thems<;lves  in  liis 
behalf,  anrl  to  Wi\\(\  him  in  the  capacity  of  servitor  to 
Christ  Church,  OxforrI,  in  I(i:.i4,  whr;re  he  was  placed 
under  the  tuition  oi"  \)\\  CtCdn^c.  Morl<;y,  afterwards 
Jiishop  of  Winchester.  Having  heen  adtnitterl  into  orders, 
}if;  was  ap[)ointed  one  of  the  chaplains  of  iiis  colb;ge  by 
the  dean,  iJr.  jirian  iJuppa.  In  Hj-'M  he  published  a 
second  (;dition,  in  quarto,  of  Sir  Thomas  ilidley's  View 
of  th<;  Civil  and  Ecclesiastical  fiaw,  witli  Notes;  by 
which  \ut  acquired  much  reputation,  on  Mccourjt  of  tlie 
(;ivil,  liistorical,  ecclesiastical,  and  riluul  learning,  and  the 
sUill  in  ancient  and  modern  lancfufjc^es,  Oriental  as  well 
as  European,  dinplayed  irj  it  Wh<;rj.  in  the  y(;ar  l(iU8, 
U  o  U 


Dr.  Duppa  was  promoted  to  the  see  of  Chichester,  he 
appointed  Gregoiy  his  domestic  chaplain,  collated  him 
to  a  prebend  in  that  church,  and,  upon  his  translation  to- 
the  bishopric  of  Salisbury,  in  1641,  appointed  him  a  pre- 
bendary of  his  new  see  :  but  he  did  not  long  enjoy  the 
benefit  of  these  preferments  ;  for  he  was  deprived  of  both 
by  the  tyranny  of  the  usurping  powers.  Through  the 
Presbyterians  and  Dissenters,  now  triumphant,  he  was 
reduced  to  the  greatest  misery.  In  these  circumstances 
he  was  taken  into  the  house  of  a  person  named  Seilter, 
to  whose  son  he  had  been  tutor  ;  this  was  an  obscure  ale- 
house on  Kidlington  Green,  near  Oxford,  where  he  lived 
in  great  privacy.  In  1646  he  published,  Notes  and 
Observations  on  some  Passages  of  Scripture,  4to,  which 
were  reprinted  at  different  periods,  and  afterwards  trans- 
lated into  Latin,  and  inserted  in  the  Critici  Sacri.  For 
many  years  he  had  been  the  victim  of  an  hereditary  gout, 
which,  in  the  year  last  mentioned,  attacked  him  in  the 
stomach,  and  proved  fatal  to  him,  in  the  thirty-ninth 
year  of  his  age.  His  posthumous  works  (Gregorii  Pos- 
thuma)  were  published  in  1650,  1664,  1671,  and  1683, 
4to.  This  volume  contains,  A  Discourse  of  the  LXX 
Interpreters.  The  Place  and  Manner  of  their  Interpreta- 
tion. A  Discourse  declaring  what  time  the  Nicene  Creed 
began  to  be  sung  in  the  Church.  A  Sermon  upon  the 
resurrection,  from  1  Cor.  xv.  verse  20.  Kaivav  Sewepos, 
or,  a  Disproof  of  him  in  the  third  of  St.  Luke,  verse  36. 
Episcopus  Puerorum  in  die  Innocentium.  De  ^Eris  et 
Epochis,  showing  the  several  accounts  of  time  in  all 
nations,  from  the  creation  to  the  present  age.  The 
Assyrian  Monarchy,  being  a  description  of  its  rise  and 
fall.  The  Description  and  Use  of  the  Terrestrial  Globe. 
Besides  these  he  wrote  a  tract  entitled,  Alkibla,  in  which 
he  endeavoured  to  vindicate  the  antiquity  of  worshipping 
towards  the  East.  There  is  a  manuscript  of  his  entitled, 
Observationes  in  Loca  quredam  excerpta  ex  Johannis 
Malclte  Chronographia,  in  the  public  library  at  Oxford  ; 


and  he  intended  to  publish  a  Latin  translation  of  that 
author,  with  annotations.  He  translated  likewise  from 
Greek  into  Latin,  L  Palladius  de  Gentibus  Indiae  et 
Brachrnanibus  ;  which  translations  came  after  his  death 
into  the  hands  of  Edmund  Chilmead,  chaplain  of  Christ 
Church,  Oxford,  and  then  into  those  of  Edward  Byshe, 
Avho  published  them  in  his  own  name,  London,  1665, 
4 to. — Life  prefiQ:ed  to  his  works.     Fuller. 


Richard  Grey,  was  born  at  Newcastle  upon  Tyne,  in 
1694,  and  educated  at  Lincoln  College,  Oxford,  where  he 
took  his  M.A.  degree  in  1718.  He  obtained  the  rectory 
of  Kilncote,  in  Leicestershire,  and  aftenvards  he  was 
appointed  to  the  rectory  of  Hinton,  in  Northamptonshire, 
and  to  a  prebend  in  the  cathedral  church  of  St.  Paul, 
In  1780  he  published  his  Memoria  Technica ;  and  A 
System  of  English  Ecclesiastical  Law,  extracted  from  the 
Codex  Juris  Ecclesiastic!  Anglican!  of  the  Right  Rev.  the 
Lord  Bishop  of  London,  for  the  Use  of  young  Students 
in  the  universities  who  are  designed  for  Holy  Orders,  8vo. 
For  this  work  the  university  of  Oxford  presented  him, 
in  1731,  with  the  degree  of  D.D.  by  diploma.  He  also 
published.  The  miserable  and  distracted  state  of  Religion 
in  England,  upon  the  Downfall  of  the  Church  establish- 
ed ;  A  new  and  easy  Method  of  learning  Hebrew  without 
Points ;  Liber  Job!  in  Versiculos  Metrice  divisus,  cum 
Versione  Latina  Albert!  Schultens,  Motisque  ex  ejus 
Commentario  excerptis,  accedit  Canticum  Moysis,  Deut. 
xxxii.  cum  Notis  variorum  ;  The  Last  Words  of  David, 
divided  according  to  the  Metre,  with  Notes  critical  and 
explanatory  ;  an  English  translation  of  Hawkins  Browne's 
poem,  De  Animse  Immortalitate ;  and  Sermons.  He 
died  in  1771. — Nichols.    Aiken. 

412  GRINDAL. 


Zachary  Grey,  was  born  of  a  Yorkshire  family  in 
1687,  and  educated  at  Jesus  College,  Cambridge.  He 
afterwards  removed  to  Trinity  Hall,  where  he  took  the 
degree  of  L.L.D.  in  1720.  He  was  rector  of  Houghton 
Conquest,  Bedfordshire,  and  vicar  of  St.  Giles's  and  St. 
Peter's  in  Cambridge,  and  died  in  ]766.  He  was  author 
of  nearly  30  publications,  the  best  known  of  which  is  his 
edition  of  Hudibras,  with  annotations,  and  a  preface, 
1744,  2  vols,  8vo  ;  to  this  he  published  a  supplement  in 
1752,  Svo.  And  "An  impartial  examination  of  Neal's 
History  of  the  Puritans,"  3  vols.  Svo.  This  is  a  really 
valuable  work,  and  should  always  be  referred  to  by  those 
who  consult  Neal.  He  contributed  likewise  to  Peck's 
Desiderata,  and  ably  assisted  Whalley  in  his  edition  of 
Shakspeare.  His  abilities  are  highly  spoken  of  by  Dr. 
Johnson. — Nichols. 


Edmund  Geindal  was  born  in  1519  at  Hinsinghara, 
in  the  parish  of  St.  Bees,  in  the  county  of  Cumberland. 
He  was  educated  at  Magdalen  College,  Cambridge,  and 
there  so  distinguished  himself,  that  in  1550  he  was 
selected  by  Bidley,  then  BishojD  of  London,  to  be  his 

In  1553  he  fled  from  the  Marian  persecution  and 
settled  at  Strasburg ;  and  in  the  unhappy  disputes  at 
Frankfort,  where,  under  Knox,  dissent  had  its  birth,  he 
acted  an  honourable  part ;  and  being  sent  from  Strasburg, 
vindicated  the  English  Prayer  Book.  He  was  a  man  of 
gentle  temper,  and  even  here  he  admitted  that  he  would 
not  insist  upon  all  the  ceremonies.     But  like  most  men 

GRINDAL.  413 

who  make  half  concessions,  he  was  met  with  rudeness,  if 
not  contempt,  by  Knox  and  Whittingham,  who  declared 
that  the  J  would  only  admit  what  they  could  "  prove  to 
stand  with  God's  Word."  While  he  was  abroad  he 
assisted  Fox  in  his  Martyrology,  and  perhaps  it  would 
have  been  well  for  Fox  if  he  had  always  possessed  so 
conscientious  an  adviser. 

On  the  death  of  Queen  Mary  he  returned  to  England, 
and  was  much  consulted  by  the  friends  of  the  Reformation. 
He  evinced  a  firm  and  undaunted  spirit,  and  was  pre- 
pared to  assert  the  independence  of  the  Church,  much 
more  strongly  than  most  of  the  divines  of  the  age  who 
sided  with  the  Reformation  When  Dr.  Edwin  Sandys 
presented  to  the  committee  appointed  to  consider  what 
things  required  reform  in  the  Church,  a  paper,  in  which 
it  was  suggested,  that  the  queen  should  be  petitioned  no 
longer  to  permit  private  baptism  to  be  administered  by 
women,  which  had  been  for  many  hundred  years  the 
practice  of  the  Church  of  England,  Grindal  wrote  his 
judgment  in  the  margin,  Potest  Jieri  in  synoda  :  it  may  be 
done  in  the  synods.  He  clearly  saw  the  Erastian  princi- 
ple in  the  proposition,  which  suggested,  that  that  should 
be  done  by  the  royal  authority,  which  pertained  only  to 
the  authority  of  the  Church.  He  desired  that  the  clergy 
should  be  distinguished  by  their  apparel  from  the  laity, 
but  judged  that  it  might  not  be  altogether  as  it  was  in 
the  popish  times. 

The  English  service  was  used  on  the  12th  of  May, 
1559,  in  the  Queen's  Chapel,  and  on  the  15th  in  St. 
Paul's  Cathedral,  when  Grindal  was  appointed  to  preach, 
the  chief  ministers  of  state  being  present,  and  all  dining 
afterwards  with  the  lord  mayor. 

Grindal  succeeded  Bonner,  who  was  deposed,  in  the 
Bishopric  of  London,  in  the  year  1559.  But  at  this 
time  the  mischief  resulting  from  his  intercourse  with 
foreign  Protestants  became  apparent.  He  was  not  a 
thoroughly  sound  churchman,  and  had  scruples  of  con- 

414  GRTNDAL. 

science  about  the  episcopal  dress,  and  certain  of  the 
ceremonies.  On  this  point  he  consulted  Peter  Martyr, 
at  that  time  professor  of  divinity  in  Zurich.  To  the 
habiliments  used  by  the  English  clergy  in  common  with 
all  catholics,  BuUinger  had  objected  because  they  carried 
an  appearance  of  the  Mass,  and  were  merely  the  remnants 
of  Popery.  The  question  was  not  as  to  the  preaching  in 
the  surplice,  but  as  to  the  use  of  the  catholic  dress  at  all. 
Peter  Martyr  was  equally  against  the  use  of  catholic 
ornaments  of  any  sort ;  but  advised  Grindal  to  comply 
rather  than  lose  his  preferment,  because  the  catholic 
ornaments  might  after  a  time  be  laid  aside,  and  because 
if  Grindal  did  not  conform,  some  one  else  might,  who 
would  conscientiously  defend  the  use  of  them.  This  is 
certainly  the  argument  rather  of  a  man  of  the  world  than 
a  christian.  Strype,  to  whom  we  are  indebted  for  the  ex- 
tract from  Peter  Martyr's  letter,  observes,  that  ''in  general 
he  advised  him  to  do  nothing  against  his  conscience  !  " 
Another  query  of  Grindal's,  related  to  the  queen's  con- 
duct in  taking  away  their  lands  from  the  bishops,  and 
giving  them  in  exchange  tithes  and  impropriations.  By 
this  conduct  the  Church  was  not  only  robbed  but  seriously 
injured,  for  the  tithes  could  not  be  restored  to  the  parishes 
without  ruin  to  the  bishops.  Peter  Martyr,  however, 
treated  this  very  properly  as  a  subject  not  worthy  of 
consideration.  In  another  letter  Grindal  enquired  whether 
the  sacramental  bread  should  be  unleavened,  i.  e.,  a  wafer, 
as  was  then  used  in  the  reformed  Church  of  England, 
and  Peter  Martyr  replied,  that  the  reformed  communi- 
ties abroad  had  no  contention  on  the  subject — nay,  that 
they  every  where  used  it.  In  another  letter  to  the  same 
foreigner,  Grindal,  referring  to  the  crucifix  which  the 
queen  retained  in  her  chapel,  enquired  whether  this  was 
a  thing  indifferent,  and  Peter  Martyr  replied,  that  he 
would  advise  him  not  to  distribute  the  holy  sacrament 
with  that  rite.  The  Lutherans  still  retained,  and  to  this 
day   retain   the  crucifix  :  not  so  the   Calvinists.     Peter 

GRIXDAL.  415 

Martyr  seems  to  have  feared  that  the  English  would 
adopt  the  Augsburg  confession  and  become  Lutherans. 

Grindal  was  consecrated  as  before  stated,  and  wore  the 
episcopal  dress.  In  1560  he  was  appointed  one  of  the 
committee  for  the  changing  of  the  lessons  and  the  making 
of  a  new  calendar  in  the  Prayer-book,  and  for  taking 
some  good  orders  for  the  keeping  clean  and  adorning 
of  the  chancels,  w^hich  were  in  those  times  very  much 
neglected  and  profaned ;  and  likewise  for  prescribing 
some  good  order  for  the  collegiate  churches  which  had 
permission  to  use  the  Common  Prayer  in  Latin,  that 
this  liberty  might  not  be  corrupted  and  abused. 

In  1561  St.  Paul's  was  almost  destroyed  by  fire  :  for 
the  rebuilding  of  it  the  clergy  of  London  were  required 
to  give  a  twentieth  part  of  their  promotions,  and  each  of 
the  unbeneficed  clergy  at  least  2s.  6d. 

Before  the  Reformation,  St.  Paul's  cathedral  was  the 
usual  resort  of  the  common  people,  for  walking,  talking, 
hearing  and  telling  of  news,  and  the  transaction  of 
business  ;  tumults  and  quarrels  often  ensued,  to  the 
profanation  of  the  place.  Grindal  desired  much  to 
remedy  this  abuse,  but  was  unable,  and  therefore  he  at 
length  obtained  a  proclamation  from  the  queen,  for  the 
reverend  uses  of  all  churches  and  churchyards,  which 
was  published  in  October. 

The  plague  having  appeared  in  England,  Bishop 
Grindal  drew  up  a  form  of  prayer  to  be  used  with  fast- 
ing on  Mondays  and  Wednesdays,  and  as  there  would 
thus  be  considerable  quantities  of  provision  spared,  he 
advised  that  a  large  portion  of  it  should  be  daily  distri- 
buted in  the  back  lanes  and  alleys  of  London.  Bishop 
Grindal  pressed  much  the  religious  exercise  of  fasting, 
for  the  neglect  of  which  he  severely  blamed  the  Protest- 
ants, observing  that  it  laid  them  open  to  the  just  re- 
proaches of  the  Papists.  He  said,  "Surely  my  opinion 
hath  been,  that  in  no  one  thing  hath  the  adversary  more 
advantage  over  us  than  in  the  matter  of  fast ;  which  we 
utterly  neglect ;  they  have  the  shadow." 

410  GRINDAL. 

From  this  time  the  life  of  Bishop  Grindal  was  one  of 
great  trouble.     He  had  taken  a  false  step,  and  was  thus 
led  into  perplexity  and   error.     He  had,  by  the  adrice 
given  by  the  foreign  reformers,  accepted  high  office  in  the 
Church  of  England,  not  because  he  was  a  devoted  mem- 
ber of  that  Church,  but  in  order  that  he  might  keep  out 
those  whose  notions  were  less  ultra-protestant  than  his 
own.      This  led  him  into  those   inconsistencies   which 
have  procured  for  him  the  character  of  a  weak  and  vacil- 
lating  prelate,   whereas    few  men   in    reality  possessed 
greater  firmness  of  character,  or  more  determination  in 
that  which  he  considered  to  be  the  public  duty ;  nor  for 
the  step  he  took  is  he  to  be  severely  judged.     The  prin- 
ciples, though  acted  upon  by  those  wicked  persons  who 
subscribe  to  the  society  for  promoting  christian  knowledge, 
and  take  part  in  its  proceedings,  for  the  express  purpose 
of  revolutionizing  the  society,  is  an  evil  principle ;  but 
in  Grindal's  case  it  is  to  be  remembered  that  the  Church 
of  England  was  in  a  transition  state  ;  for  several  hundred 
years  she  had  been  under  the  Roman  obedience,   and  if 
she  had  not  acknowledged,  had  certainly  submitted  to 
the  papal  supremacy.     She  had  only  of  late  asserted  her 
independence  and  reformed  her  formularies.      Grindal 
might,  therefore,  fairly  consider  that  the  Church  of  Eng 
land  had  only  commenced  the  movement  which  he  desired 
to  hurry  on  to  that  entire  and  ultra-protestantism  which 
he  had  learned  to  admire  so  much  when  he  was  on  the 
Continent.     He  acted  in  common  with  many  other  pre- 
lates, but  their  endeavours  were  providentially  overruled, 
and  the   Church,  instead  of  becoming  Puritan,  ejected 
the  conscientious  Puritans  from  her  bosom. 

When  there  is  a  great  struggle  going  on  between  two 
parties,  on  great  questions,  the  immediate  battle  is  often 
fought  on  points  apparently  the  most  trivial.  In  politics, 
the  great  question  of  parliamentary  reform  may  be  before 
the  country,  while  the  immediate  contest  in  any  district 
may  relate  to  the  election  of  one  of  two  persons,  each 

GRINDAL.  417 

admitted  to  be  a  fool,  but  from  the  circumstances  of 
wealth  or  family  influence,  considered  to  be  the  best 
persons  to  represent  the  several  principles.  The  great 
contest  throughout  Queen  Elizabeth's  reign,  was,  whether 
the  Church  of  England  should  remain  catholic,  or  whe- 
ther it  should  be  converted,  under  the  pretext  of  reform, 
into  a  mere  protestant  sect,  such  as  Calvin  had  established 
in  Geneva.  But  the  immediate' dispute  related  to  the 
habits,  or  ecclesiastical  dress  of  the  clergy,  together  with 
the  ceremonies.  The  Catholics  in  our  Church  desired,  as 
a  proof  of  their  Catholicism,  to  retain  all  the  old  habili- 
ments, as  well  as  the  old  rites,  although  they  had  thrown 
off  the  papal  usurpation,  translated  the  liturgy,  and  re- 
nounced the  superstitions  of  Romanism  :  against  all  these, 
the  ultra-protestants  on  the  same  grounds  stood  arrayed ; 
they  desired  to  abolish  eveiy  feature  of  Catholicism  in 
our  Church,  and  retaining  the  Church  property  as  a  gift 
of  the  state,  to  render  it  conformable  to  the  much  cher- 
ished model  of  Geneva.  If  the  reader  will  bear  in  mind 
in  the  study  of  this  portion  of  our  history,  what  has  here 
been  stated,  he  wall  find  the  contest  about  the  ecclesias- 
tical habits  and  ceremonies  more  important  than  it 
appears  to  be  to  superficial  minds. 

Bishop  Giindal,  like  most  men  in  a  false  position,  was 
led  unconsciously  into  acts  of  injustice  :  for  instance,  we 
find  him  excommunicating  a  minor  canon  of  St.  Paul's, 
for  not  attending  the  holy  communion ;  the  supposed 
reason  being,  that  he  was  in  heart  a  Romanist :  and  yet 
he  tolerated  those  in  his  diocese  who  neglected  to  conform 
to  the  orders  of  the  Church,  because  they  were  known  to 
be  ultra-protestants.  So  lax  had  the  bishop  become,  that 
he  received  a  reprimand  from  the  government,  which 
required  uniformity  in  the  habits  and  ceremonies.  Nor 
in  this  instance  did  the  state  exceed  its  powers  ;  for  the 
civil  authority  is  justified  in  marking  any  deviation  from 
duty  on  the  part  of  the  ecclesiastical  authorities,  and  in 
giving  warning  that  if  the  neglect  of  duty  continue,  a 

VOL.    V.  2  P 

418  GRIND  AL. 

prosecution  will  take  place  in  the  courts  spiritual.  From 
the  time  of  Constantino  this  kind  of  interference  on  the 
part  of  the  state  has  been  tolerated  by  the  Church. 

When  uniformity  was  pressed  upon  the  London  clergy, 
the  more  conscientious  of  the  ultra-protestants  refusing 
to  submit,  were  deprived ;  but  the  measure  was  a  just 
one  and  cut  both  wajs  ;  if  the  ultra-protestants  remained 
in  the  Church  and  neglected  the  ceremonies,  those  who 
were  papistically  inclined  had  a  right  to  act  on  a  similar 
principle,  and  they  remained,  observing  the  ceremonies 
which  our  Church  has  abolished  :  when  uniformity  was 
required  many  of  the  latter  left  the  Church  and  went 
beyond  sea. 

In  1564  we  find  the  Bishop  of  London  assisting  at  the